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ea e opyx ye ee epooc xapaep cece cyaoo pacpeee eeapx ao epoo aoec ac c yce oea oye oeo. p oaa, p e ocoaa a x eop e oy coe pae pyax .poyepa, H.B.Toeea-Peccocoo, .epa, . p.

14 N+0n14 C*+1H + 0,6MB (9610-15 ).

7 6 Pea : n+1H2D + 2MB (3,210-13 ).

0 1 poe oceoe ece opyx ye o p ece oa ae ee, oope oa peyae ooe ep ye, ca cceye oeya (e).

o oce ece oa ee oey pacope, ae poya paaooo paoe (paoa) o pacopex eec, a e epe ye, ooeo ca cceye oeya (pc. 5).

I poe } ec a ey II oceoe e H2O H + OH I II Puc. p oceo ec aoee cyecee poecc paoa o, coca 90% eeca eax.

p paoe o oeya opyec apeo ace, ep epo:

H O H O+ + e-.

2 opoaa oeya o peapye c pyo epao oeyo o, oe opayec coopaoa paa poca OH.

H O+ + H O H O+ + OH2 2 Bpa epo oe cpo aoecye c opya oeya o; oae co oyea oeya H2O*, oopa, co oepe, ccopye c opaoae yx paao: H0 OH.

H O+ + e- H O* H0 + OH2 cooe paa coepa ecapee epo ooy oac peao coo paaoo cocooc. Bpe x oe e oee 10-5c.

a o epo o o peopy py c pyo, o peapy c pacope cycpao. B pcyc copoa opayc pye poy paoa, oaae oce coca, poepoc paa HO2, epoc oopoa H2O2 aoap copo 2O.

, H0 + O HO2.

HO0 + HO0 H O + 2O 2 2 2 poe x ocex poyo, poecce paoa o (pc. 6) oae capoaa opa epoa papoae epo, oaae coo peaoo cocooc, o ye aece occaoe.

Cxea poecca paoa o h H2O H+ OH H3O+ OH H2 H2Oeaq ooe pea papoaoo epoa Puc. B ee opaa aaoo cya poecc poeae aeo coee, e p oye o, a a ooa eeco ec cya pye opaece oey, opeaee p ece paa o poya paoa o. Boae p o opaece paa ae oaa ecape epoa, a ceoaeo, pae peao.

B peyae ox poecco ep yo peeocoo ye ocaec o aoy = 0e- x, e oe ocae, oop coco e pex caaex:

= k , e cooecy oepeoy pacce, k eoepeoy, ooey.

e oe ocae ac o o oc eeca ( ~ ).

ae coyec oe accooo oea oc ae,.

= /, .e. ooee eoo oea oca e ooc ooe.

Peeoaoca coye a ocox eoa:

peeoco (poceae) peeopa (co).

aoc coy oo c epe opa 60-120 B (9610-16 19210-16 ).

p o ep (acco oe ocaem ) opeeec ocoo ooeo.

m =k Z3, e k oe poopoaoc.

Ec cceye opa opyae a oaoo oca peeocoe yee, o pec ceae opace eeca (cya ap p.).

B o cyae peeocoe yee coyec eex ee, apep, yoe oaecex opaoa.

Oa peeopaa oxaae oo yaco ea, pe pae opa ae py pya. oo oo ea, ec epoec coeco pooae epeea peeocy pyy ooey ooceo oea cceoa.

B peyae oyaec ocooe peeocoe opaee oopa (ocoa ac). coy o yo peeocoo ye, pa, coco oypooox eeopo opyeo ye, BM, oo opaoa p oopa eeoe peeocoe opaee.

Tao copee apa oopa ec cea oepa peeoca oopa.

B 1979 ..Xaycy Ma-apay a papaoy oepoo peeocoo oopaa a pcyea Hoeeca pe.

MP-oopa MP oepa apeaypa co ep a peoac. epo-aopeoaca oopa o eo ype, oe a pyeo ecy pay c 19801981 . paoe oe eo o cex yoyx e eoo coco aee ye, poceaeo oe, a eo, aee peeocx ye paooa opoooooo aaoa (1300).

a ocoeoc caa c yo ocpy exec ee aapaa MP-poco o cpae c peeoc ycaoa.

Oo paa p a cooa peeocoo ye ee.

Hapep, coaooy eoxo peeoc co yo ooc. C oo co ae oo opee eco epeoa oc, ae ae oax eo ype. o eo oceoa aaec pemeooueco uaocmuo.

Cpeee eyapooe aee yao o oye o peeooecx poeyp oeaec 0,/o, ooo 20% ececeoo oa p cceoax pax cpaax o 0,03 o 6,0 /o.

o eo pauouomonoo ucceoau. -a eo ee cpeeooa oa oye ceo ea cocae 5 , a cee o oye oo ee, peo 1000 .

cooae paa ee oaecex oyxoe aaec yeo mepanue. Oyee ee ae pe cocae peo 51,5% oe o oye, pye cyccee co oo 3%.

a paaoo oacoc uopae a puc. 7.

O ee opy paep, cooecye OCTy. oycaec epa opaca ypeeo pya, pex eeco oao peyoa, ec a yopeec a oeax. appo pacopx yaoox oeo a opaaec pac e e. o eeca papeaec oea ac -yee, co epoo p.

Puc. Peoeyea epaypa 1. Bepoa B.T., oec A.B., Heaoa .T., oo.M.

ypc paaoo eoacoc. M.: paa, 1995.

2. Peo A.H. Meca ooeca a. M.: Bca oa, 1987.

3. Mo B.A., .. o-exece oco peeoo. H Hoopo: HM, 1993.

4. poo .M., H.. epa a. M.: Haya, 1972.

5. Cyx .B. O ypc . Aoa epa a. . 2. epa a. M.: Haya, 1989.

6. oye .. oep aa o opyx ye. M.: epoaoa, 1986.

7. ec B.. Meo eepoa ye. M.: epoaoa, 1987.

8. poeo C.. Paooo eoea ox. M.: Bca oa, 1988.

e B PAOATBHOO PACAA.

OCHOBHO AOH PAOATBHOO PACAA.

BAMOECTBE OHPEO EH C BEECTBOM.

ETETOP OHPX EH.

COOBAHE PAOHOB B MEHE Aa-paca O coco caopooo pepae pa c cycae -ac. B oe e aa-paca pecaec a opao:

A XA-4 Y+, Z Z-2 e X Y co cooeceo aepcoo oepeo ep.

222 pep:

Rn218 Po+4 Po214 Pb+4.

86 84 2 84 82 ea-paca aaec o ypepo ao pepae epoa pooa.

Cxea ea-pacaa (epooo) A A, e aepo, a -0 epo.

XZ Y+-0e + e Z +1 1 pep: 3 3.

H2 He+-0e + 1 Cxea ea-pacaa (opooo):

A, e epo, a opo.

XZA Y++0e + e Z -1 1 +pep: 79.

Rb79 Kr++0e + 37 36 Cxea epooo axaa:

A.

X+-0eZA Y + Z 1 -puep: 7.

Be+-0e7 Li + 4 1 B acoc o oo, c ao ypee ooo axaaec epo, oa paa -axa, L-axa ..

Paoa paca ec caec ee.

Ocoeoc ec o, o pa ooo oo e eea pacaac oceeo. apaee eooo yaa epooc pacaa ooo pa a ey pee. a epooc xapaepyec oeo nocmo o pacnaa -.

-1 -1 -Paepoc:c, , ..

Bea, opaa ocoo pacaa, aaec = cpee pooeoc pa.

N N N t, c T Puc. ao pauoamuoo pacnaa ycmaauaem, mo a euuy peeu pacnaaemc cea oa u ma e o aux (m.e. e pacnauxc ) ep aoo eema:

. Ha pae eco ae coy pyy N = N0 e-t xapaepcy nepuo noypacnaa T.

T o pe, eee oopoo pacaaec ooa paoax ep.

C ey T: T=ln2/ 0,69/ (pc. 8).

o eo ooc oa i oa ooee ca dn oo ooo aa, opaoax apeo opye ace a eeapo y dl odn y y:. B oyxe p opao aocepo ai = dl e p=760 p.c. (1,01-3105 a). i 8)106 ap oo/.

= (o eo opoo cocooc eeca S oa ooee ep dE, epeo apeo opye ace p poxoe eeapoo y dl dE eece, e oo y:. ae eo S = dl opoo cocooc oyxa S ea epae (70 270) MB/ (11210-13 43210-13 /).

Cpe e poeo apeo opye ac R ec cpeee aee pacco ey aao oo apeo opye ac ao eece.

Cpe e poe -ac ac o ee ep. B oyxe o cocae ecoo c, ocx o opae (10-5 10-4) .

ETETOP OHPX EH Coco oapye eeapx ac ( -ac p.) ac o oo, e o ap.

apea aca p coe e opye ao cpe, epe oopy oa poeae. ocoy ep ac oo oe ep oa aoa, aca coae a coe y ooe oeco ap oo. o ae oooc oapy acy.

oeco coax ap oo a ey poea ac, a oaae eop, peo poopoao ooc cpe, apay apa ac, opao poopoao apay copoc ac e ac o acc ac.

oaoe pe (eeop) cpx apex ac oa cocooc oapye o oa.

B oaox aepax pocpace ey y epoa coaec epecoe oe. oaae aepy ac ye a oee ocee apa, acee oopx xapaepye ecoc opyeo ye.

B ceax eepa-Mepa oa, coaaea aa x aca, ae paopee pap. pap oo yc apecppoa.

aape R copoee R yce + Puc. B aepe Bcoa - -ac oca ce aoap oeca axoeoc oyxe epeaceoo ooo apa.

B eoopx eecax ac ye oya c oo cea. c oo pecppoa, aa x epe yeeoe ceo o apa x a ooao pecppy e epo c oo epooo yoe.

Tao co ce pecae coo aoee yce e pop pecpa ye.

COOBAHE PAOHOB B MEHE Meo eex aoo aaec o, o opa o paoy opee x ecoaxoee aoc opaax ax.

pep: aocpoa aoea oo 125 ee opa o , ac oopoo oI I 53 eppyec o eee. Ceo, pacooeo , cpyec aoee oa.

o copoc yee oepa paoaoo oa oo cea aocec o o coco oo ee.

oapye pacpeee paoyo opae coy aa-oopa (cpa).

aa-oopa pecae coo capy ce, oop oceeo poxo oe yac a eo ooo. aa-oopa ae cpaeo pyoe pacpeeee opyeo ye opaax.

oee eae cee oo oy emoo amopauopauu.

B o eoe a oa aocc co yceo ooyc. Coepaec a paoy oca ce, a oopapy ce. Oca aae eo aopaopa.

oye co aa pauoamopao amopauopao.

eeoe peee paoyo ocoo ca o c cooae -ye (aa-epa).

Tepaeecoe peee e -ac.

Xapaep pepo ec paooa epa: epae o, coepae eo oepe poyRn , coyc oec a oy (aa), opa eape (e), opa xa (a).

pyoe peee -ac cao c cooae ooa epoo.

B oyxo peapeo o ee, pa oopx o ece epoo a epy pea c opaoae -ac. Oya oo opa ooo epoo, a ceyy pea :

10 B+0n7Li+5 3 6 Li+0n3H+3 1 Moo ec paoa peapa a ocpe .

Cyecy pye pe eeoo oec.

OMETP OHPEO EH.

OOEHHA COOHHA OA. EH MEPEH. MOHOCT O. BBAEHTHA OA OHPEO EH Mpoa oeceoc caa po cepey oaoeoc o ooy oec opyx ye a eoea opyay cpey c 50-x oo XX coe.

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