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B aece pepa pae o paoyceoc oo pec aep, oapyee aae epoo peaopa. B x ycox aep e oo e oa, o paoac, oey aa Micrococcus radiodurens poo pao-pece.

Cee paoyceoc co appye peeax ooo a uuuyaa pauoycmumeocm, a opeeeoo yya ac ae o opaca oa. poe oo, ae oo opae pae e a aeo paac o paoyceoc, apy c yce (poeopa ccea, e cco ooo ea) ec ycoe a (ea, epa, oca), oope po aa pauopeucmemu. Bpoe, eee ae a paoycee paopecee eca ycoo, a a ac o paoo pep. aee ye oaao, o a, oocec paopece o eocpece ye pea, oaac eca paoyce o oae ocec.

poea paoyceoc aae epaoe eco paooo, o oae ppo ececeo paoyceoc exao ee pey ee e oo opooe eopeecoe aee oeooeco ae, o cy aoee ae paece peya (opepye a oooc cycceoo ypae ye pea ae x ocae cyae a opaa, yce p oye oaecex oyxoe, aa aep ..). ooy eppea caoo epa pauoycmumeocm oa peeo eo. coae, epaype aco cpeac poopee ooa oo o, o po epooeco yae ec po epao pao peyao cepeax cceoa.

Hapep, ooo pacpocpaea peoea paa o pauoycmumeocm pauonopaaeocm, opaae o pae ooece e.

Ceye o, o ececocae (o ocoeo ao oox cceoaee) oe cpec, acoo ooo, ypoa oae oo e ppo.

B oo epe o oocc aoy cooy epaoy o, a paoyceoc, oopy ceye ooao oa a cuou nopaaeocmu uyaex oemo. Aepao cy oe pauoycmouocmu, pauopeucmemocmu.

Oeo, o paoyceoc oo paccapa a pep oocex pea occe a oece pax ex aeo, ao cyae a yee. Oca oe oo xapaepoa paoyceoc o pecppyeo peae, e acoc o ee ae ecocooc oea. Ho oa cpaee pax oeo ceye poo o cee poe ao pea. Mey e oe yee pea cpoo ce opeeex oeo ( acoc, opeeex ae cce) ocycy y pyx.

Hapep, aa yepcaa pea eo a oyee, a aepa ee, eo ec ao poeppyx ax , o o pa, e oe oapyea ax, e eooe eee paeo cao ocycye.

B pao cee e oym cyum cpaumeu noaame u paoyceoc oocee yoae pea, ec poee cooepepoax coc opeeex ae, opao cce. x cy oocc aa poae ceecoo eaoa, poy opeeex epeo, opoo pyx ooecx eec.

a, p cpae paoyceoc eoxoo cooa aeae eo pep. Hecoee oo yco ee yoyo e epooeco yae.

Haoee po epaoepoc cooa ceecx pea aece pep oe cxoo ocoeo cpaeo paoyceoc oo poeocppoa a pepe epao epo cce (HC). B o cyae aco pecppy eee epoeaopa ycoo-peeopo eeoc o e oye, .e. oaaee, pcyx oo HC opaax pae ceece ep ee yoao eeoc. Mey e eo pexoe ee x eo aoaax oaaee, aaec ye p eca ax oax ye, ocyce opae opooecx cpyyp oa p oe cox oax c ocoae paccye o o, o oa a e ccea oe coopaoyceo o e pe oac ao opaaeoc.

eo e, o o cyae cea a o: pexoe yoae pea, xapaepye coy peaoc HC, coco, pcyee e apeeoe oe c c eoxooc peapoa a e ee ee cpe, , apo, y yceoc opaaey ec paa.

Heoxooc oppex oxoo cocoa oe paoyceoc oe pocppoaa a pepe cao eeapo ooeco e e. e, a o ye o oceyeo oe, oo eo apecppoa oeceo oxapaepoa cae pae eae eeae pea a oyee, ee oxec, opooec, oec cea paoooec eoa cceoa. Oao ae a o ypoe p cpae paoyceoc yx pax eox oy ceye cpoo coa p cooa aeax pepe oe, a a pa yceoc, apep, oex ca eooo a o pa oaae oy e oo e coaa o ee, o xapaepoac opa ooe. Ceoaeo, ooa peaa cya, oa acoc o pep oa a e ca (aa) a oe a aoee yceo, a aoee peceo.

Bopaac aoee oe eppea o paoyceoc c yeo paccopex pepo, pecaec oe pee aece ee epa cooa ey, opay ooe o opyeo ye, ax oeceo pae ceece e (ooo a) cpaaex cceax. oy ceye oa, o oae peoae coyeoy pep ec eo cpoa oecea acoc o o ye.

peeo acooy ocy paoooecx aa aece aoo epaoo pep paoyceoc oo coy o eocpeceo eee aeoc yaex oeo peyae oye opeeex oax, o ae oecee oaae opae, oope ao aaoe o ooao ca opeee coooee c aeoc. Haoee aco c o e coy a aaey ey 50 eay oy, oyee oopo ae 50%-y e ooeo. Be 50 ppoe paac ooo aeo ae peeax ooo a. He pecae ae pax aopo o paoyceoc pax oe o oa -ye, a 50%-y cepoc (a. 1).

Taa 1.

uoouecu u oa, p uoouecu u oa, p Oa 1,52,5 8,020,Oce 2,03,8 P 8,020,Coaa 2,53,0 po 9,010,eoe 2,5 3,5 Xo 9,010,Oe (pax o) 2,56,0 e 80,0200,Haceoe 10,0100,M pax 6,015,0 Pace 10,01500, pc pax 7,09,B e e pa aoo paoopa ao exa, opeee ececey paoyceoc ooecx oeo Ooao oe a o ae opoc paooo oa e yaoc, xo oe eo ace ye ocaoo cee.

PEHTEHOBCOE EHE:

XAPATEPCTECOE TOPMOHOE. OCHOBHE CBOCTBA XAPATEPCT EH Bey opay Peey o pe eo eoo op (1895 .) o 50 e. O pyoo ec cyo aepo Bpypcoo yepcea.

08.11.1895 . Pee ao co eepe cepe aopaop, oeaec ao e app. oac ce aopaop, Pee ae eoe eeoaoe ceee, cxoee pcao aocepocoo ap. Oaaoc, o o a pycoy pyy, oepyy epy yay, axoyc o co apee. Ceee eeeo pepaaoc, a oo oac o, oac e oao p eo e.

o eecoe yee Pee aa X-ya.

28.12.1895 . B.. Pee py peceae Bpypcoo o-ecoo oeca pyoc, coepay cpa ocox eco. Pycc epeo o aae Ho po ye ye eepype. 06.01.1896 .

ece o op B..Peeo cepoax ye o epeao ooc eepao o cey py, ce yypoe eoeeco ocpo y ec a eay ceca. 10.12.1901 . B..Peey a pcyea epa Hoeeca pe o e a ac a ayy.

Peeoc yee aaec epoaoe 10-12 10-8 yee c a o o 0,001 o 10 ( ).

y c a o, pea 0,2 (210-10 ), ycoo aa cooeceo o 0,2 (210-) ec peeoc yee.

Haoee pacpocpae coo peeocoo ye ec peeoca pya, pecaa coo yxepo ayy pop (pc.3).

Puc. Tpya pecae coo cey oy 1, yp oopo aee 10-6 10-7 p.c. c y epoa:

aoo 2 aoo 3, oop poeo cooe apee V. ao 3 ooe e cpa ec coo epoo. Ao 2 eaec cepe, a coeo ope oopoo eec aca 4 eaa c co ao oepo, aaea epae. 2 aa aco aaoo oaa xopoo eopooeo aepaa ooa eo, opayec p yape epoo. oa aao oxaa oo aco. Cyecy peeoce py c paac aoo.

Topooe peeocoe yee B peyae opoe epoa epocaec oe aooo pa aoapx epoo eeca aaoa oae opooe peeocoe yee. Mexa eo ec cey: c yc epec apo cao aoe oe, y oopoo ac o copoc epoa. p opoe yeaec aa y , o eop Macea, oec epoaa oa.

p opoe epoo ac ep e a coae ooa peeocoo ye, pya ac pacxoyec a apeae aoa.

Topooe yee aaec ae cno, ..

opaye epep cep peeocoo ye.

B ao cepo aoee opoooooe opooe yee oae o cyae, oa ep, min popeea epoo ycope oe, ooc epexo ep ooa:

hc = max =, qeU h min qe e = 1,610-19 ap epoa;

U apee peeoco pye;

h = 6,62510-34 c ocoa aa;

c copoc cea = 3108 /c.

hc min =, e qeU min aoee opoooooe opooe yee.

12,B pae, e U epec B, emin = min U pec paecx eax acpeax (1 = 10-10).

e opoe a o, e oe poae cocooc oaae peeocoe yee (ecmoe).

ooooe yee aaec u.

oo peeocoo ye cec o opye: = kIU2Z, e k = 10-9 B-1.

p yee ape a peeoco pye a oe cooo cepa oec ea, oop cooecye xapaepcecoy peeocoy ye.

Mexa ec coco o, o ycopee epo poa y aoa ypex coe a epo. Ha cooe eca epecaa epo c epxx ypoe, peyae ceac oo xapaepcecoo ye.

Xapaepcece cep cac copoy ox aco, ao Mo:

= A(Z - B), e acoa cepao ;

Z ao oep cycaeo eea;

A B ocoe.

Xapaepcecoe yee oae cea p a coooo eca o ypex cox aoa eaco o p, oopa eo aa.

Pecpa cooae peeocoo ye, a ae oece eo a ooece oe opeec ep poecca aoec peeocoo ooa c epoa aoo oey eeca.

B acoc o coooe ep E ooa ep oa A ee eco p ax poecca (x ceo ).

u oepeoe paccee ooooo peeocoo ye pocxo e ueeu u o. Oo oae, ec ep ooa ee ep oa:

E=h

B 1922 . A.X.oo, aa paccee ecx peeocx ye, oapy yeeue npouae cnocoocmu pacce oo nya no cpaeu c naau. o oaae, o a o pacceoo peeocoo ye oe, e aaeo. Paccee peeocoo ye c eee o aa eoepem, a cao ee emo onmoa. O oae, ec ep ooa peeocoo ye oe ep oa: h >A.

u p ooepeco ee ep aaeo aa ooc ooaec eeco, peyae oc cooe epo, oaae opeeeo eeco epe, ea oopo paa ep aa ye a eo pao xoa aoo epoa aoa. Coo epo, accopyc c o epax aoo, opoae opae o. ooe xapaepe oo ooooo peeocoo ye. Eo epooc ac o aooo oepa poopoaa Z5.

p oaa -ac eeco c oo epo oc pocxo aoe aoece ee c epoo, peyae oopoo eco ap epoopo opa yec a -ooa.

Puc. o poecc (c. pc.4) aaec ae: nihil (a) o (pyc).

pea a (yoe).

e0 +-1e0 2h + ep aoo -ooa, oaeo p a, oa e ee ep oo epoa opoa, .e. e ee 0,51 MB (81,610-15 ).

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