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pee paoe ocae co, pocex y paecy o. B y 25 ape 1986 . apoaac ocaoa eepoo oa AC aooo peoa. B poecce ocao o aeeo poec epoexec (o e eo aopo) cepe, aac o, o o yx ypoeepaopo oce pepae oa apa a ypy oe , pooa paac o ep, poo epoep, peaaey aa pyox acoco, poaax oy, eoxoy aapoo oxae peaopa. e cepea aaac o, o o peeo poep oooc oepa ecocooc a ce aaca ep paaeoc poopa yp cyae aapo cya, oa pepaaec oaa apa a yp oac ee co epoa cce aapoo oxae peaopa (CAOP). popao cepea peoaaoc:

p ce ooc peaopa o 1600 MB (ec aee yaaa eoa ooc) o o ypoeepaopo, p o ae oa epeec ooc o opoo ypoeepaopa;

p oe ooc o 7001000 MB pepa oay apa a opo eepaop e ca eocpeceo aa o;

poa epecy e acoco CAOP oee eepaopy epex ax pyox acoco (H);

oxae ao o peaopa oce ocao ypoeepaopa oy o popae o oe ee 4 (epe) Ha, oope aac ye o oe epoce AC poo paoy oce ooa oa;

ce oooc cpaaa aopoa CAOP.

Aa o popa ceaca oo yaa a pyee o ee aopo. Bo-epx, oee CAOP o eoaeo , o-opx, epeca e acoco CAOP oa cpoaa e yoo, o oo e Ha, ocoy acoc poaa oy eocpeceo epe ay oy peaopa eee pea x pao e oe e oaa oec a paoy peaopa eo.

o c cece pecyoo peepee opoca epo eoacoc peaopa co copo aopo popa cepea, x oe epaooc eoeeoc. Heoca popa oa ycyyc oa epcoaa p ee peaa, a ae ocye o popa, oeo, oycoe eae o o o cao poec o cepe. o yopco, opeeoe peepeee opa epo eoacoc, cao oo ax p pae.

a, 25 ape 1 ac o aaoc cee ooc peaopa. cepee oo e ooc a cea aooy, oe o ypoeepaopo CAOP.

Oao aapoaoy oy yaoc pcy oo 23 aca. o pooo -a poc ceepa eepo pocao ocaoy peaopa opaoa eoopoe pe a ooo ooc .

Ho opeee epoep yeaec, ooy o oyeo papeee a aeee cee ooc peaopa. Ho -a o oepaopa e yaoc yepa ooc peaopa a aapoao oee 700 1000 MB, oa yaa ceo o 30 MB. p ao peo ae ooc apyaec paoece ey opae opaoae ceoa ao oe, oycoeoe yeee ooa epoo, aaec ceoooe opaee ao o. o paa cyaa o cyae eoxoo eeeo ay peaop, o eco oo epcoa oac o eo ooc.

1 acy o 26 ape ooc oea o 200 MB.

o ooc o aapoao oa e e yaec -a coo ooe epoo ceoo, ae ecop a o, o cep pyoo peypoa ye o oepaopo, a cep aoaecoo peypoa paec ee ao o.

po peee aa cepe. Ey cyeo o pooac oo eee 20 y. B cooec c popao peaopy oac ooee pyoe acoc, oo o, oxaa ay oy, yeaec, o po ooeoy ce apoopaoa aaax peaopa ce ypo o apaaax-ceapaopax. o capoa ypoe o apaaax-ceapaopax pyx cceax peaopa opeoa o epcoaa aopoa ca aapo ocao peaopa o eocaooy ypo o ae apa, ec ao o cep pyoo aoaecoo peypoa. p o apoopaoae aaax peaopa paec pepaoc. Paoa oa caa pae eycoo.

o o oycoe pe ocpy ocoeoc PM. epa caa c poecca, pocxo p ceooo opae peaopa. a ye oeaoc, p peo ae ooc peaopa, oa oo epoo ao oe yeaec, apyaec aecoe paoece ey oee ceoa peyae paoaoo pacaa poecca opa ceoa p epx peax. o ceoa, oop xopoo ooae epo, po aeey ce ooc, a o peye oa ao o ypax cepe. Ec e eep o ao-o pe ooc pea eao yec, o o pee yee oeca ceoa ao oe, a ceoaeo, yee ooa epoo aeey yee ooc. Ta opao, ceoooe opaee oe apye ypaee peaopo.

Bopa ocoeoc caa c e, o peaop PBC e ooe oe peaoc o apy.

o oaae, o ec pea ee ycaec, o cococye yee oeca apa aaax peaopa, o ocey aop, co oepe, po aeey yce pea. Booo, o cao c e, o ap cy coe ee ooc ec xy ooee epoo, e oa.

pe ocoeoc peaopa PM aaec o, o peaop xopoo oaec a epeeee cepe peypoa oo oa, oa x o epy ao o. ooy p ooc ox cepx ay pea cpo e yaec, a a coa ao o PM-1000 7 , a copoc ee cepe 40 c/c=0,4 /c. ooy opeeeoe oeco cepe ao oe oca pao eoxoo.

peo 1 22 . oepaop yeae oay o ay oy, o po yee oeca apa ayec caa pao peaopa. po peee o oay apa a ypoeepaop. Oa oaec 1 23 04 c. epe pyox acoca, paoax o ocaaaeoc eepaopa, aa ca oopo. oo o yeaec, oxaee o eaec ce caee, eepaypa o pace.

1 ac 23 30 c. ee ycoc. Mooc caa oac. Aoaece cep o , o capoa pea e yce e co.

1 ac 23 40 c. Haa ce a oay aa oy A5 ca acao aapo a, o oopo oy eeeo oc ce cepooe.

ec pooy po cpaa ee oa ocpya ocoeoc peaopa PM. Oaaec, o a ypa cepe oee ece aoe pao 4,5-epo ae p.

Eo aaee cea pea oee yceo e oa cep, a a p o pocxo aeee paa aepao cep-ooe. Ho ao cyae, oa o ecee o o a ao o, o ec aao peaopa axoyc a oy. p o oeco apa o ooe oecy o peo yeoc -a ooeoo apooo oea peaoc ooc pea opoca ee oe.

pae cep ocaaac, po epa. O e cac ae oce oo, oa oepaop oae yepae y, o cep ya o ece c ec.

1 ac 23 44 c. Mooc eo pea 100 pa peca oay. a o ceya papyac, aee apa aaax oopao opacae. pocxo ep p. paee peaopo caoc eoo. aee apa papyo ac aao.

Boa aaa ocya e oo a, o paoo ae.

Haac xece pea o c ape pao, poe, pao o. -a ypoo ee ao aee o opoco. Hapa oy eaeca 1000-oa a poaec.

1 ac 23 46 c. Boyx ycpeec ay oy, paac o p, a ca, peyae opaoa cece oopoa oc yepoa c copoo. Papyoc epepe peaopoo aa, ooo eep paa ac oa poe apyy. ea pea oe pepaac.

Haae ocec aap epoca aacpoa ec pyee pe paaoo aape, peyae oopo aocepy o poeo opeeoo peaopa ooe oeco poyo epoo ee aeeo aoc.

Cyapa aoc aapx poco oeaec 1850 , o cocae 34% oe aoc poyo epoo ee peaope. B peyae coac paaoa ocaoa, coeopae oopo o oycoeo pooeoc (10 cyo), cepc (aoapoo) cocao coo (co epo, oee o 11,5103 oee) paoaoo poca, c oo copo, coo eeopooeco ocaoo, c pyo.

Meeoocaoa xapaepoaac ca eyco o apae epo pex cox aocep, a a coax 7001500 o-oco epo c epeoco oyx acc ceepo-aao apae co copoc 510 /c.

Haoee oa cpy aoopax apoox paoax poyo aaac eee epx 23 cyo oce aap. B cooec c eeopooeco ocaoo a cpy pacpocpaac ceepo-aao, ceepo ceepo-ocoo apaex (.e. a pae pao eopycc) acoc o co poca, apae copoc epa a x coax. pepy, ceepo apae ypoe paa oca 27 ape 710-8 /(c) a coe yae o eca aap a 5103104 .

oaa oaa aap, peopae oeppoa pacaeoo oa coa e ca oeax yco poea eo pea axy peaopa ca epe e oce aap apaca c epoeo epoo-ooa, eooo py aepaa (coee opa, ooo, eco, o, co). B peyae px ep ooc poca aaa yeac. Oao oce 2 a oc paoax poyo aapoo peaopa o aa apaca. o o oycoeo paopeo epoo oa peyae eoee p peax paoaoo pacaa caoo oa poyo eo ee ycox ocyc ooa ea o oa paoo a. aoap p cpe epa 6 a poc paoax poyo peo cc. o e oo ca epeo ope c paoa poca 4-o oa AC. oce eo poc pooa cac paec aepc oy eca, coca e o 0,74 T cy, 400000 pa ee, e 5 a. Oo ca, o 11 a paec c paoaoc ocea a oepxoc e aee oe, ooy oppoae paoaoo cea aepoc paaoa ocaoa capoaac.

ooy ce pace, cae c ee oeo, po po ypo paa a ecoc o coco a 11 a, .e. a 15 oce aap.

Oao o e oaae, o eee ocao, poe aooepoo ecoo caa ypoe paa, a o aooc. Ha apex eppopx e eaeca eoea, ocyeceo eaaoe pao, pocxoo a aaeoe opoe epepacpeeee aoc (epoe epeoc, c co oce aocepx ocao ..). ooe poecc ocoeo pae epe ec oce ape paoax c co epeao ypoe paa. ooy oea apa paaooo ape ecoc ec oe coo epaoepo.

o acaec cocaa paoyo aapo poce, o o pepo cooecye cocay paoyo, aoeoy ao oe peaopa a aa eo pao, oaec o eo oe coepae eyx poyo ee (oa, e, epx ao eoopo cee pye). Ha eppopx CCCP paoae eeca oce aap a AC a ocoo pe py a a pae, eopycc aax oacx PCCP. B eopycc ooa e cpo apeo 37500 2 (18% eppop), pe 7000 2 aoc e 55,5104 /2.

B aa epo oce aap ocoo a cyapy aoc oc cpaeo opooye oo, 89Sr, 129Te, epe a. B acoee pe ce ee cyecy 103Ru, 144Ce. Ho aoy oacoc peca ooye oo 134Cs, 90Sr, yoee paoy, xoe coca opx ac. ope ac o cpaeo pye (ec oee po), pae paoae ac epoo oa, poeoo po. O ocoo a o ac oeco oac eaeo o AC, o eox oecax oapye pyx ecax. oa ac cpo ae cocpeooea 30-oepoo oe. oee ey e oece a oe pacco, a aoopae paoyepo p pacpocpac oceeco.

Cocoe ocaoeoo peaopa a eco, yp papyeoo oa oce pa ocaoc ~ 96% oa o epoaao apy, e ca poyo ee ocpyox aepao, oaax aeeo aoc. ooy cy aex ep o a ocec aap oococ coopyee oea pe Capoa, ocooe aaee oopoo coco peopae xoa opyay cpey paoax eec opeeoo peaopa ae peae eppop o poaeo ye. p o Capoa o coey aae y e ec xpae epoo oa, oo cooax oxoo. o coepeo ya poo pae oe.

Ocoa ac capoaa, aaa ce aap o, a ocpoea op 1986 oa, a ec oe, peca coo eeoeooe coopyee coo 20-a o, o ec oo eaoocpy oopoo 10 c. o, aepe 1988 oy. poe eocpecex y a opyae cpe oe eoacoc capoaa peoaae, o p eo cyaa cac:

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