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O oaa oe coo epe, oo acco py paepa.

cooepeece ac e oac ac, yx a ee. oa ac x ooec o e eoaoo o, a ocae, poxo epe aocepy, oopao caac c py aoa oeya e ca aec.

ocece y, ocae e, peca coo oo epx ac, cpe ep oopx cocae 1,610-9 . o a aaeoe epoe ocecoe yee. Coco oo pooo (92%), -ac ep e (7%) ep pyx aoo. p aoec ocecx ac c aoa oeya aocep oae opoe ocecoe yee poee opaoae paoyo. o epe pe oepxoc e ecoc epoo ocecoo ye yeaec; a ooc ooa eo e aoe oe e, ooee apee ac opao ocecoe pocpaco. ecoc opoo ocecoo ye opacae ocae acya a coe 21043104 ; a ee coe poecc ooe oo a ye oaac peoaa a eo ooee.

Paaoe oca e. Bopy e ec oac (co), oopx aoe oe aepae opooe oeco apex ac acae x ac a epe o oca ocy pax apaex o ay paeop. ae co aa paao oca, oca Ba-Aea.

Paa a oca: e ype. Bype ee acay ooc ac (peyeceo pooo) a aopo a coe ooo 3500 (35105 ), e co epo a coe ooo 22106 .

a paaox oca Ba-Aea pocpac a pacco o 1,2 o 8 ex payco o aopa. Bype oc pacooe ey 30 60 ceepy y o aopa. Be cocpeooe oac oee x po. peoaaec, o ocoa ac ac oo ep o ypee paaoo oce opayec p pacae epoo ocecoo ye. B peyae px coyape pooo coo ep epoo ocecoo ye c aoa, pcycy oyxe, o peyae epx pea opayc epo.

Moe x epoo oy aocep e cpay, ec x ep ocaoo ea, poecce y, ec x ep cpaeo aa.

Paaoe oca e co paaoo oacoc p ocecx oeax.

Coee opycype co. Opeee a o oo ocecx ac, aax a oepxoc e, oc Coe. p peo yee coeo aoc ooo opacae ecoc ocecoo ye a 4100%.

Coea paa epoaoe opycypoe ye Coa. epoaoe yee oxaae aao o o aa-ye o paoo, eo epeec acy pxoc a y ac cepa, a opycypoe yee a opao poo epo.

oepxoc Coa apea o eepayp 5700C, o pea aa-y oa eo oepxoc ocae eepayp o payco. ooa aoc aaec c coex e (opaoa oocepe Coa), oope pe o pee pepaac coee c (eae ece yee poc xpoocep Coa). Coee c paac cpo, cae y, x eooo oo pecaa, a cee oo, o o oopc epe 11 e.

Bo pe ce Coe cycae opooe oeco ep e ye oac oo, ypaoeooo peeocoo cepa ye. Bce opayxc o (ce, paoo, peeoce y) oca e epe 480900 c oce oo, a ca a oepxoc Coa caoc o, a eae ac (opycy) yc co copoc 510-5 710-5 /c oca e peo epe cy. aa ca a Coe e a eoea, epe ooa peapy ae a oe ep, pe oea aoo o oe co ecy a ox.

Ac pa .Moppe peyae ae ee 1928 . cea o, o o pe ce a Coe ecoo pa yeac cya yc, caoyc, pcyo ec. payce yee oaa, o 80% eax cepe coaae c oee a Coe e. Cepoc o apa oapa o pe, coex epc opacae 1116 pa, 4 paa ae pocxo aooe aacpo. Paa ecye a cxy eoea. o cyecy e oea ooe oeco opye paa yeae co eycox eeo op oooo oa.

He eee o ae coecoo yeoo, paa-eaooa H.A.ya, oop y oee aao po opox e, yx a ceepe e, aae ocoe. e ycao, o o pe ce a Coe y e paaec pea, aaoa o, o ae oce peeocoo oye, eoe (yeee ca eoo po). e oo ee poe ea, o ppo peapy a coee c. B oe a coeoe oyee oeco eooa aae a 1020%, c c e peo yxyaec cocoe opo. ee oy aooepoc ycao pa. ee, pocxoe po oe a coeoe epee, opao oe cee poc a coeoe epee, opao oe cee poc y e, yx popx paoax, e y acee aopao ooc.

C oopaoae coe a ca pae ee ppoo cpee. B eee 11-eeo coeoo a ooc ooo opoaoo aa, yaeoc o Coa, peepeae ece ee, oca acya o pe yee coeo aoc ya epo coooo Coa. B XIX . aepac ye A.ac y oy oox oe a oocex cax epee pe oy, o oa oeec o ao o acao pepo oaoo pe, pao 11 oa. pye ececocae ae ao e p paoe p, aceox, ex pyo ..

oee oae cceoa o oac paea aey cooeecey A..ecoy (1897 1964), ypoey poeco yep, peao oapeoy eoey xyoy, yay, oy,.ooey epe cx yex aee eey yee cee oopa ceoe cop e, aaa o-execx ay, oeoy ey oee 30 ocpax aae ayx oec. Cpe oocex eo ayx pyo acyae a oopa eece aacpo epoeca eeoc Coa.

O cceoa e Coa a ce e opa, pacp exa oec x ocec, ycao c ey eec aoc Coa xapaepo pea ex opao. acyx, ope o, yeee yeee ca pyo, eee ooo ox ox eo, aacpoeca e ppyx , ypoaoc cecoxocex yyp yao ce poxo ya acya acoc o ee aoc Coa.

Cyeceoe aee ee oaa ce a oepxoc Coa. Ta, ec pya e opaoaac epao ac ae eo e, o e coeo aoc ye paeo oe cee, ee ex cyax, oa a oc e epep ca.

o oo: oo c e Coe aec oc, a cao e ee oo ap apaee ye c epa cep e a e, a c opa ocecoe pocpaco.

Coee c a a ee ypaa yp.

B oe epo ea 1972 . a Coe oa opoa oac oeo aoc c oe oa oee 1,5 1015 2 oao oo paoye c eepaypo e eee 900000C. a oac opaoaac o epe oo ca 1011 poa epe epa coe epa. eo a ee aa co papyey eeoc eao ae ypaa Aecc, oyco p ocox ao Ceepo Aep. epe 27 cyo (pe oopoa Coa opy oc) aocepa o opeapoaa o aya Pa, Ce Tcc, oope apoc 7 8 . A ee epe 27 cyo (4 ayca) a ee poecc ay Ac, eeca ec. oo cepcoy oopoy, .e. cyc epe eca, aoc a cac acoo, o e peca ea ox e.

Coeoe ocecoe yee, oaee o pe coex ce, oaae cpaeo o epe oo e po aeoy yee o ye a oepxoc e.

acoc oceco paa o eopaeco po co a ypoe op. B oce oace Bceeo ypo paa aoo e, e a oepxoc e. o ocec e, o e ee ce a ac a. Heoope apee ac ooc ao oe poxo o ae ae, pye e co ypc a aopo copac e opoo paoax oco, apyac cooec c apaee ax cox po a eoa oco. ocec eoe ceepoo c, oaeo p poxoe ecx ooo ocecx ye paoe oco.

B eopaecx oacx, pacooex a ypoe op, o aeo yaex o aopa, oa ocecoo ye yeaec cocae a poe ooo 50 pepo 0,5 /. Tay oy oya e opoo ooa, Moc, H-opa, Too, pacooex o po.

Bcoa a ypoe op pae ae oy po, e eopaeca poa, a a c ee yeee ce ee a a oyxa, paeo po aoo paa. Oaee oac e, pacooee a coe 4500 , ca oy ocecoo ye o 3 /. Ha epe epeca (8848 a ypoe op) cooecy oaae cocae peo 8 / (cpe ooc o ocecoo ye ee e peo paa 0,3 /.

o, oyaee accapa peax caoeo o ocecx ye. Oye ocec ya oepac a accap peax caoeo. Tpacaaec oe Coeex ao Aep Epoy copooaec ooe oece a opa ocecoo ye oe peo 510-5 . ac ooc ooeo o o co oea eopaeco po. Bo pe peca apa o Po-e-aepo a opee o apa, o Haa, oa aep ee co cepxyoo copoc a coe 7,2103 , ooc ooeo o paac 310-7 p/c. Ha opee y o Haa o aapa, oa aep ee co cepxyoo copoc ye a coe 16103 , ooc ooeo o paoe 45 ceepo po oca 1,710-6 p/c, a ae caa yeac c poo p e a cac o e 8,310-7 p/c paoe 25 ceepo po.

p oee oceco pocpace ocoa oepac oye ep ocec yee, oa p coex cax. Mooc o, pxoyc a ocoao, oo ye ye ee ooex papyx aepao oy opa, o o ye eo accy. ooy ee ocece oe ye ocyec epo aee coeo aoc.

pa ooo pacpocpae xec ee, pe eo coepae yeaec o oepxoc e ee epy. Ec oepa ypaa o ce oe e a ao e, a oepxoco coe, eepaypa oepxoc -a ooe ep paoaoo pacaa a pepo 100 pa e. A pa ape oo ee oaeoo, a, epax e ypaa aoo ee, e y oepxoc. B aaoepoo coe e coepc 1017 ypaa. ep eo pacaa aea 851029 , o o oo oo pa peae eocoepae cex paeax opx coaex, oeae oooc poepe, o epeecoy oeay ycyae oo oopoy Mpooo oeaa. Taoe eee eo -a pacaa ypaa epax e ae aeoe oee eepayp oepxoc ae. Ec ce 851029 ep ec oopeeo, o eepaypa e oac a ecoo c payco aea pepaac ap, ao oa, epoo, a ecoo apo e aa.

Py ypaa oo pae a e oe py: epe (opaoaec opax aax epex aaecx py) oapyaec ae ceo eaax, ope ocaoe poy oce epa epx epao. O eo paac o ey: epe py epoo ea, ope po-ee, eee pace. Paep pyx e o oa oec o ecox epo o oepo, o ye aea o oepa, pe o oy cpeac e , .. Hapep, poeoc oo pyoocx ooc o Ape ocae 2105 p ye 2,5103 . B ax oapacx oooocx ecax ypa pcycye e coox epe ypaa opaeco co, ae op, ypa pye ee. Oee coepae ypaa x oeaec 21093109 .

B paeco ooe oa cac ecopoe, coepae o 0,1% ypaa oe acce opo.

Mecopoe, coepae 0,020,05% ypaa ( ocoo ecaooo a, ae epa acypa apo), xo ceac poo e papaaac, o cac oe epce.

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