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Ta, oce oooo ypooo ee yo239 oece 0,003737 y 30% pc a ece e oee cepo o ooo ea, oao po, opoaecee oaecee oyxo.

Opa pe. ax o ypox ooe paoyo ax aa eoax ao. Aa-yee cocoo co a poecc ee eo xpycaa, o oe cy po ooe aapa. Oao o cx op e opeeeo, e opee oco xapaep o oo oye p pyx ax oye.

ee. p xa ac, coepax paoy, eoc x ooe ao yace ac o ecx coc xecoo cocaa apoox ac, coepax paoy. Oac ocae, pe yepa apoox ac a yacax ocae pooeoc pea a yx yae opee ey aey oy. Pacope paoy oaa po oc opaa.

oco o eo, cocax ee, ooceo ycoo epooeoy oye, e e eee eoe a opa -a eo oo cpyyp oaae paoyceoc a aeo ypoe oea ao.

yeo eo ocaea pea eoo a ece opyeo ye. a eo, a po, apya apepe y aeo y ao. eo pea ocaea, o pe a po xapaepye popeccoe opeee aeopx apo c aeee x coeeo a. p xa paoyo opeac ae aece y. ox oapyac ae po.

o a, oye a pyax, oe pca ooe paa eoo o xaex paoyo oeec o 1050 cyae cep o paa a o ocoe a ay ecy p ex ea-, aayaee o 6001600 cyae paa a o ocoe a ay ecy p aa-yaee. py xayc (ep aoo oappo o) pc pa paa ex 1040 cyae a o eoe a ay ecy pe.

Opa eape. a ee, eyoo-e pa ec o ye ocye ee paoyo. Bcacae paoyo eyoo-eo pae co ac o x e pae coee. oaao, apep, o cacae eyoo-eoo paa opaec caoo yo- 25 pa e, e cacae paa yo. p o 90% ocyeo yo-238 aaaec ceee.

xpoecoo aoea, aoo e ocyee paoyo, 3050% cyae xapaepo ae eaax ceo, coo, pee po ax ocaox e ocae x yacax e cae ea cco. ac ox xpoeco ca oe oae p ex epocepoa, cpoecx cepoecx ee ee.

ae ceo aooec poecc oeac e eax apep, oopx aa oepee eooe poae ypee cpee oooe c ocey peoaae eeo, xapaepx coeeo a, oppoae pyo. acoa oo poecca y oox pc peae ececey aoeaeoc.

Ocao pae paa eoa y ooo 20 poo oce ee paxe 925 144CeF3. Xo paoy axoc ex, aooece ee pocxo e oo ex, o cocex opaax, apep, eoe, a oop oecoao ea- aa-yee ep-144, axoeoc ex. Oapyeo ae ooee paa eoa y 9 20 e oce ee pox pooo, coepae 9,25 oaa-60.

Cepeo-cocyca ccea . B peo cepeo e aea opee ye eooo ee c aeee opeex eo paec e pocxo. ooy opeee e cepeo aeac eea coeeo a. p oye cepa aoee y oe cocy, epe co acoc. He peepea ae op ea coeeo a, oo eocpeceoo ec ye a y cepeo .

Ocoeoc poe paaox opae cepeo-cocyco ccee ec peyeceoe apyee apo ce, eooo oea apepao ce. Oo xapaepx ocoeoce opaex eo ec oe ypoe xpoocox aeppa.

opa ccea. Heopae opae ao cce, ec oo aex peyopx cce opaa, oy oapye p cpaeo x oax oye (0,5 p cpee a ce eo). Hapyee opoaoo paoec poec yee ocpooeo y, oecaopo-occaoex poecco yee aco opoao acx oyxoe.

opoppoae opa pc paoy (o-131, aca-211, cpo-90, ep-144, poe-147, pye-106, o-95, aep-241, aop-252, yo-238, yo-239) oaee cpo a yeee aco oe oyxoe oa, pe acoa ooe oyxoe ao ac o ooc o. ox, ex oyxo oa, epeo aaec opee. Hapep, p ee cpo-peoe opee o oapyeo y 5 38 pc c aeoa oa.

opo op aoeo, a opo oox ee, oocc cepoa, poo xoecepa. Cyecoae opaa e op aoeo eooo cece eo eoxooc ee opoo. opa aoeo paaae a ax acca opoo, oope peypy o, epo, yeo coeeoa oe.

Oyxo op aoeo ae oaa opoao aoc, cepepy aocepo, oop, aaac cocycx ceax, ocoeo cocyax oe, ae cepoece ee cocyo c pae coeopaoo cocycoo epocepoa.

Oeeo, o p oax 0,81,06 p aepoea eoc oa-131 eeo oye oo ee oaoa, a p oee cox oax o-opao oacee cece coo oao oepa.

Opa ee. o pa opoy po oepa ococa ypee cpe, pey coeoo ooo oea, apepaoo ae, a ae coo-eooo paoec. o ocyec eee opaa opaoax poyo oea eec, ocoeo ex x, oope oa peyae oea eo. B x axoc oocee yo oee aa, opa oa cocyca ce, epe oopy poxo ay yy oee ooo pa po.

Mey coepae paoyo oax x oepae po aaec ea acoc. Xo px, opaax eee coepa eooeex eeo, cyp, eypa pyx paoyo oax po, o oao: e eeee ee eec po, e eeee o aaaec eec oe.

o eoea ox, oepye oye opoppoa paoya, e oaoe ee cpyype yx, oao cee poe opae pe x poe eca paoopa. B ocoo x oo cec cey: eeepa, oepee apo ypeeo co eo, caeo oee cpyyp, yeee epepoee coeeo a, a ae aea po. Oaco opeee a cocyo, a apex oe. Bce o po apye y oe, acoc, apye coeoo oea. Tee aoea oe aco oapya y aeo, oop p ee o pa-224.

Pa oe y e oae cyc e cpo oce ee paoyo. Hepocepo apepocepoece opee pa oy po aoeee oyxoe oe. a pao, oyxo oe paac ec peeepa apopoax epocepoecx oe.

oc cyxo. oc paooc coeeo a, cocoe cooepepoax eo ooo eeooo eeca, coepaeo ooe oeco a oaea. Paoy pooo pyca oy paeo aaac ocx aepac x, cece eo oca a, a ae a, aee e (oc o) axoec a ee oepxoc (e pooo ooc, cocex opoco) peeax poea ea-ac (o), oepac yeoy oec.

p ooceo ax oax ye oapyeo yeee poca, eee paepo oypa oo, aoaoc aa pye aoa p ypypoo pa oa y ee. e eeee paoy poae cee, e eeee o eec eo.

epe cya ooe oyxoe, ax oyee ocx ae, aee 1925 .

Coppoaec oce a ooceo yco oye, oao x cocooc cpoa paoy po aoe oacx aepoex o a cax ocx ax, a opyax x ax.

Peoeyea epaypa 1. poeo C.. Paooo eoea ox. M.: Bca oa, 1988.

2. Paa. o, e, pc. M.: Mp, 1990.

3. o A.M. o epo. M.: eC, 1990.

4. apao B.A. oypa paooo. e: Hayoa ya, 1988.

5. Aepoa A.B., yoc B.., Pyca .M. o yo a o paa. M.: 1992.

6. y A.M. poe copeeo paooo. M., 1987.

7. ycoa A.., acooo.. Ocpa yea oe eoea, M., 1970.

e ECTECTBEHHE CTOH PAA.

EPHE PEATOP. ABAPȟ HA AC ECTECTBEHH PAAOHH OH Ececey paa opay y, aae a e ococa (oceca paa), paoae ee, coepaec ex opoax, cpoaepaax e (ea paa) (a. 3).

1) Paoae oo ececeoo pocxoe pcycy o cex oooax e: ocepe, pocepe, aocepe ocepe.

Bce ececee co oye oy oecoa a eoea e ype ye. Cpe ex acya ocooo a ocece y ececea paa oe cpoex aepaax.

Cpe ypex paoae eeca oyxe, oe, poyax a opae eoea. Ocooe eco cpe x aa a-40 pao-222.

B a. 3 pee eoope ae, xapaepye ocoe paoae oo.

Taa Paoy epo oypacaa, ea aoc, o / H 12, 3,57 C 1,56 P 14,3 cy.

1, 05 Ra 3, 65 Th 1,41 1010 4,03 AcU (235U) 7,1 108 7, 92 U 4,5 109 1,23 Pu 2,44 104 2,27 ee co paa coca oy ac oye, oopoy oepaec eoe a ce ececeo paa. B cpee o a oee 5/6 ooo eo aeo o, oyaeo aceee, ocoo cece ypeeo oye. ey paa coa paoae ee, coepaec ex opoax, ppoo ae, cpoex aepaax, poyax a, oe, oyxe p.

Paoae ee ex opo . a-40. a coo ocye o e cpey ececex paoax eec c ope opo, coca oopx xo paoae ee, oe epo oppoa pa ae. B peyae ecpyx poecco eeopooecoo, pooecoo, eoxecoo yaecoo xapaepa paoae eeca oepac pooy paccea. oeco paoax eeo, coepaxc opx opoax, ac o a opo eca ee axoe. Cpee oepa eoopx x pee ae 4.

Taa oempau au, pau u mopu ex nopoax (HAP1, 1982 .) opoa Cpaa o-o Cpe oepa, / po 40 226 K Ra pa P 34 1200 100 pae p Beopa 7 1000 90 pa CCCP 2 1500 110 Byaeca P 20 1100 130 ea a pao, oe ocycye paoece ey peeceo oep yo cece x eoaox xecx coc. oceeco oeaec ooe (o ooe 226Ra) oeco 210Pb epxe opoe o (0510-2 ). Caec, o ocoa pa aoe 210Pb epxx cox o aocepe ae.

aeoe eco poeccax pa pyoopoa paoooo aa pace o p.

Paoaoc pace ox oycoea paHAP Hay oe o ec aoo paa, coa p OOH 1955 .

ec ce paoooa, oope cpeac ppoe. Heoope x axoc cec co ca ooa eeo, ao yacy oee eec oecea yopoae cex opao cce o aep (40, 14C, H). Coepae x opae ac o cee aoe cax ooo.

Hapep, a opoxe coepc 0,9%, coo ace 0,014%, ooy yea aoc opoxa a ce a40 paa 274 /, a cooo aca 3,7 /.

Coepae pyx paoooo opae (238U, Ra, 232Th, 210P, 210Po) ac o coepa x opyae cpee.

Ta, oe pace, paex a ox oax, ypaa coepc cpee 310-4 /, a oe pace, popacax a ooaex ypao oax, 210-3 /.

Ha aoee paoax eec pace oe aop. Ta, a eocepcx oax ycoee x, a pao, pocxo eee eco, e a pyocepcx. p ece oy aex eec caec ocyee paoyo pacee, pe a ax oax oe aoe ee, e a cyxx. Cee pH copooaec poco oea aoe. Ha aoee ae opeo cce, poyoc, pooeoc eeaooo epoa pye aop.

aoe eco cpe ooo o ee coaaeo aoc aae oo a 40, oop ycaaec ece c epaoa ooa a, eoxo eeeoc opaa. oeco a pacex opaax o cpae c eo coepae eo ope (a oy y e ey acc) ee 3pa. Ee ee eo opae ox ( 1015 pa o cpae c coepae a opoax). B ae 5 pecae cee o coepa a eoopx ex poyax paceoo ooo pocxoe x yeo aoc o 40.

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