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Formally, it is stated in Article 22 that these monies are due to be transferred to the corresponding budget of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation. However, actual practice has demonstrated that presently the revenues received by bodies of state authority (for example, from rendering nondepartmental security services, or issuing extracts from State record books, or conducting experts estimations, etc.) are by no means classified as general revenues. Similarly to off-budget revenues of state institutions, they are only formally reflected as part of budget revenue, while being earmarked for the use by the corresponding departments. In this situation there emerges the question as to the potential tax consequences of such off-budget revenues being received by bodies of state authority.

As far as the placement of the information concerning the activity of bodies of state authority on the Internet, the new Law has introduced some significant positive developments. In particular, the norms stipulated therein make it possible to systematize both the list and the structure of information to be posted to the official websites of the bodies of state authority and local administrations.

In accordance with Article 10 of the new Law, the corresponding bodies are now directly obliged to create and renew on a regular basis their own Internet resources. Those local administrations which have no potential for creating and maintaining their own informational resources on the Internet are allowed to have their own web pages on the official website of the corresponding Federations subject.

Besides, by Item 4 of Article 10 of this Law, the RF Government is now also empowered to develop single technical, software and linguistic standards42 for regulating the operation of their official websites. In the future this must provide an adequate basis for their technological compatibility, as well as the potential for integrating interdepartmental information resources.

The structure of an official website of a body of state authority or a body of local self-government is described in much detail in Article 13 of this Law. Its further specification on the basis of the specific features of each given body must be provided at the level of interdepartmental regulations.

The list of information suggested in the new Law makes it mandatory for state and municipal structures to provide relevant information on such problematic (from the point of view of openness) issues as the placement of state and municipal orders, the presence of vacant posts, as well as the spending of budget resources, including the issues relating to the participation of a given body in the implementation of targeted programs and the granting of exemptions and delayed payments to certain organizations and entrepreneurs. However, the Law contains no stipulations as to how detailed such information must be. Thus those bodies that do not wish to disclose the details of their budgets have opportunities for making do only with most general information.

On the basis of the information discussed above, it can be concluded that, in spite of the presence of some still unresolved issues, on the whole the adoption of the new Federal Law On Access to Information about the Activities of State Bodies and Local Self Government Bodies will be conducive to making the operation of bodies of state authority and local self-government more transparent and to implementing into practice certain elements of electronic government the absence of which has been lamented by the RF President.

In accordance with Item 4 of Article 10 The requirements to the technological, software and linguistic means to be applied in providing the use of the official websites of the federal bodies of executive authority are to be established by the federal body of executive authority empowered by the Government of the Russian Federation.

REFERENCE INFORMATION In a mandatory procedure, an official website must contain the following information:

1. General information concerning a given state body or a body of local self-government, including the following details:

a) the name and structure of the state body or body of local self-government, their postal address, e-mail address (if available), and the telephone numbers of the information services of the state body or body of local self-government;

b) information concerning the powers of the state body or body of local self-government, the goals and functions of the structural subdivisions of the aforesaid bodies, as well as the list of Laws and other normative legal acts designed to determine these powers, goals and functions;

c) the list of territorial bodies and the representative state body abroad (if available), the information on their goals and functions, as well as their postal addresses, e-mail addresses (if available), and the telephone numbers of the information services of the aforesaid bodies and representative bodies;

d) the list of subordinated organizations (if available), information on their goals and functions, as well as their postal addresses, e-mail addresses (if available), and the telephone numbers of the information services of the subordinated organizations;

e) information concerning the heads of the state body, its structural subdivisions, and its territorial bodies and representative offices abroad (if available); information concerning the heads of the body of local self-government, its structural subdivisions, and the heads of subordinated organizations (their family names, first names and patronymics, as well as (with the consent of the aforesaid persons) other personal information);

f) the lists of information system, databases, record books, and registers belonging to the jurisdiction of the state body, body of local self-government, and its subordinated organizations;

g) the information concerning the organs of the mass media established by the state body or body of local self-government (if available).

2. The information concerning the lawmaking activity of a state body or body of local selfgovernment, including the following details:

a) the normative legal acts issued by that state body; the municipal legal acts issued by the body of local self-government, including the information concerning the alterations introduced thereto, their having been deemed to be null and void, and their having been deemed to be null and void by a court of justice, as well as the information on State registration of normative legal acts and municipal legal acts in instances established by legislation of the Russian Federation;

b) the texts of draft legislative acts and other normative legal acts submitted to the State Duma of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, or to the legislative (or representative) bodies of state authority of subjects of the Russian Federation; or the texts of draft municipal legal acts submitted to the representative bodies of municipal formations;

c) the information concerning the placement of orders for supplies of commodities, performance of work, or rendering of services designed to satisfy state and municipal needs in accordance with legislation of the Russian Federation concerning the placement of such orders for supplies of commodities, performance of work or rendering of services designed to satisfy state and municipal needs;

d) administrative regulations and standards for rendering state and municipal services;

e) the established forms for filing appeals, applications and other documents to be accepted by the state body, or its territorial agencies, or the body of local self-government for consideration in accordance with the Laws or other normative legal acts, or municipal legal acts;

f) the procedure for appealing against the normative legal acts and other resolutions adopted by the state body or its territorial agencies, or against municipal legal acts.

3. The information concerning the participation of a state body or a body of local selfgovernment in targeted and other programs, or in international cooperation, including the official texts of the relevant international treaties of the Russian Federation, as well as the measures being implemented by the state body or body of local self-government, including the information concerning official visits and working trips of the heads and official delegations of the state body or body of local self-government.

4. The information concerning the situation with regard to the protection of the population and relevant territories from extraordinary situations and the measures designed to ensure their safety;

concerning the forecasted and actually arising extraordinary situations; concerning the means and methods of protecting the population from them, as well as other information that must be provided by the state body or the body of local self-government to the citizens and organizations in accordance with federal Laws and the Laws of subjects of the Russian Federation.

5. The information concerning the results of audits conducted by a state body or its territorial agencies, or by a body of local self-government, or by the organizations subordinated thereto, within the limits of their powers, as well as information concerning the results of audits of the activity of the state body or its territorial agencies, or of the body of local self-government, or of the organizations subordinated thereto.

6. The texts of official speeches and declarations by the heads and deputy heads of a state body, its territorial agencies, or a body of local self-government.

7. The statistical information concerning the activity of a state body or a body of local selfgovernment, including the following details:

a) the statistical data and indices describing the existing situation and the dynamics of the development of the economic, social and other spheres of life the regulation of which lies within the powers of the state body or the body of local self-government;

b) the information concerning the use by the state body, or by its territorial agencies, or by the body of local self-government, or by the organizations subordinated thereto of the budget funds allocated to them;

c) the information concerning the exemptions, delayed payments, installment plans and writingoff of the outstanding debts of organizations and individual entrepreneurs against the payments due to the budgets of the budgetary system of the Russian Federation.

8. The information concerning the provision of cadres to a state body or a body of local selfgovernment, including the following details:

a) the procedure for admitting citizens to state service or municipal service;

b) the information concerning the vacant posts existing in the state body or its territorial agencies, or the vacant posts in the municipal service existing in the body of local self-government;

c) the qualification requirements to the candidates to the vacant posts in state service or municipal service;

d) the conditions for and the results of the contests for occupying the vacant posts in state service or municipal service;

e) the telephone numbers through which relevant reference information can be obtained concerning the applying for the vacant posts in the state body or its territorial agencies, or the body of local self-government;

f) the list of educational establishments subordinated to the state body or body of local selfgovernment (if available), with the postal addresses of these educational establishments, as well as the telephone numbers through which relevant reference information can be obtained concerning these educational establishments.

9. The information concerning the work of a state body or a body of local self-government relating to the appeals submitted by citizens (physical persons), organizations (juridical persons), public associations, state bodies, and bodies of local self-government, including the following details:

a) the procedure for and the schedule of the reception of citizens (physical persons), including representatives of organizations (juridical persons), public associations, state bodies, and bodies of local self-government, and the procedure for the consideration of their appeals with references to the acts regulating this activity;

b) the family name, first name and patronymic of the head of the subdivision, or another official whose powers encompass the organizing of the reception of the persons listed in the aforesaid Subitem a of this Item and the consideration of their appeals, as well as the telephone numbers through which relevant reference information can be obtained;

c) summaries of the appeals submitted by the persons listed in Subitem a of this Item, as well as general information concerning the results of the consideration of these appeals by relevant bodies and the measures undertaken in response to them.

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