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Meaeca c cxoa c oaeo c. B ocoe opaoa oex x ce e poecc ooece aex epoo. Ho eae aee epo c o ceo pcaa, a coeex c oaeo c o c oo oaee epo yx cocex aoo. Meaeca c eapaea, a a aee epo pacpeee o pcay o paoepo.

Meaeca c xapaepa oo eao epo o apeao coco.

COBA COBOCOETAH epo a Ooece, - a, - oe, - e o, - a, - oe, - e Ooecee PAHEH 1 aa c aaec eaeco 2 ax eec ao apeao coco xapaepa eaeca c 3 o oeo ey oaeo eaeco c 1.5.8 Baeoc cee oce B cepee XIX ea x o eeo oe "aeoc" (c. .

1.2.6). . . Meeee ycao c ey aeoc eea eo ooee epoeco ccee eeo, e pecaee o epeeo aeoc.

epoa eop cpoe aoa oca ec c aeoc cpyypx opy.

Baeoc eea opeeec co ox epox ap, oope ca ao aoo eea c py aoa.

Hapep, aeoc aoa coee N2 ( N N ) paa pe, + coee NH4Cl - paa epe. Baeoc xopa coee Cl (: ) paa ee.

Baeoc e oe opaeo e oe pac y. oe "aeoc" oo, pe oo coee c oaeo c.

B acoee pe xapaepc coco aoa coee coy oe "cee oce".

"Cee oce" - o yco ap aoa oeye, oop o a aoe, ec oe epoe ap ooc cecc oee epoopaeoy aoy (.e. ao pepac o).

Cee oce e cea ceo paa aeoc. opeee cee oce aoo eea coee yo o ceyee:

1 Cee oce ooaooo oa paa eo apy.

Hapep, xope ap cee oce ap paa +1, cee oce xopa - 1; coee NaH cee oce ap paa +1, a cee oce oopoa paa -1.

2 Cee oce oopoa o cex coeex, a cee po eao (NaH, KH, CaH2 p.), paa + 1. B pax eao eo cee oce paa 1.

Cee oce opa o cex eo coeex paa 1. eoe ea (Li, Na, , Rb, Cs, Fr) o cex coeex e cee oce + 1, a ee ao opy opo py (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) cee oce +2.

3 Cee oce copoa oce coee paa - 2. B coee co opo copo ee cee oce + 2. B coeex a H2O2, Na2O2 cee oce copoa paa - 1. a eo aeoc (H O O H, Na O O Na) paa y.

4 Cee oce aoo pocx eecax paa y:

0 0 0 0 C12, H2, N2, P4, S8.

5 a cee oce ox eeo, oo opee cee oce pyx eeo ao coee. oo yo o, o aepaeca cya ceee oce cex eeo coee (c yeo ca aoo) cea paa y.

Hapep, opee cee oce aoa aoo coe HNO3 aoco coe HNO2. B aoo coe cee oce oopoa + 1, copoa - 2, cee oce aoa - x:

+ 1 + x + (- 2 3) = 0, x = + 5.

B aoco coe cee oce aoa + 1 + x + (- 2 2) = 0, x = + 3.

6 Cee oce oe paac e oo e, o po co.

Hapep, cee oce copoa O2 paa -, a O3 - /3.

7 Cee oce ox eeo epeee.

Hapep, cee oce cep cepooopoe H2S paa - 2, oce cep (IV) SO2 + 4, oce cep (VI) SO3 + 6.

8 Bca cee oce eea oo paa oepy py, oopo axoc ee epoeco ccee eeo.

Hapep, a Mg axoc o opo pye eo ca cee oce paa + 2. Mapae Mn axoc ceo pye eo ca cee oce paa + 7.

COBA COBOCOETAH Cee oce co, - a, - oe, Bec oe e Boa oy p, - PAHEH 1 e opeeec aeoc eea 2 o aoe cee oce 3 ey paa cee oce aoo pocx eecax 4 Opeee cee oce aoo eea coeex: H2, N2OKMnO4, Ca3(PO4)2, K2O2, FeS2, NH2C1, K2Cr2O7, CrO3, F2O.

1.5.9 Apeae coco eec Beeca oy axoc epex apeax coeex: aoopao, o, epo aeo. aoopaoe cocoe eeca xapaepyec o pacco ey aca (oeya, aoa). B aax ca aoec ey aca aa ac yc xaoec. opa oe aa opeec opo oeo cocya, oopo axoc a.

B uocmu pacco ey coca ee aca (oeya, aoa, oa) ee, e ae, ac e oy epeeac cooo eaco py o pya. oc aae opeee oe, a opa opeeec opo cocya, oopo oa axoc. Too oe ax oecax oc coxpae opy a.

ooy oc aa poeyooe ooee ey aa ep eeca.

B mepo eece pacco ey aca (oeya, aoa, oa) a, c x aoec e. Tepoe eo ee opeee oe opy, eo ac e epeeac cooo, a pacooe opeee opao pocpace o ooe py pyy. ac epoo eeca oec ooo paoecx ooe. Paa e op epoo eeca - pcaecy aopy. B pcaeco eece ac pacoaac pocpace opeeeo ope opay pucmauecy peemy. B aopo eece o pacoaac ecopoo. Oo o e eeco oo oy a pcaeco, a aopo ope.

aa - o a, coco ooeo opaeo apex ac, o ap oopx pae y. ay ca paccapa a eepoe cocoe eeca eao. o epeec eeco aoopaoo coco ay, yo eo ao pepa o (.e. opoa a), oopa o x epo (ce ac).

oa aa pocxo p apea o cox eepayp opa ecox eco c payco oe, p ec ypaoeooo ye epecoo papa.

Ha ee aeoe cocoe eeca - peoe ee. Oao epxe co aocep coco a. Mo, ceepoe ce, ceoe pea (apooe eooe) - o e a. Ha Coe eeca axoc aeo coco.

COBA COBOCOETAH aa oeac Cocaa ac Xaoec Aop Pe, -a, -oe, -e a, - Mo, - Ceepoe ce poeyo, -a, -oe, Ceoo, -a, -oe, -e Peaa, - e OPATTE BHMAHE ! mo opaye mo.

ac opay pcaecy peey.

PAHEH 1 aue aeme apeame cocmou eecm 2 a coca xapaepyec cocoe: a) aoopaoe; ) oe; ) epoe; ) aeoe 3 ae op epx eec aee 4 e cpeac aee coco eec 1.5.10 pcaece pee pca aoo pcaecoo eeca e xapaepy opy.

Hapep, pca xopa ap NaCI e opy ya, pca cyaa a K2SO4 - opy poa, pa a Ca(NO3)2 pcayec e pax oapo (pc. 11).

B acoc o ppo ac, oope opay pcaecy peey, paa oe, aoe, oeype eaece pee (pc. 12).

a Pc. 11 op pcao:

a - y; - oap; - poec oeap ) a) ) a Pc. 12 T pcaecx peeo:

a) ) ) ) B yax uoo peemu pacooe ooee opaee o.

Bopy aoo ooeoo oa pacoaac opaee o, a opy opaeoo oa - ooee. Hapep, pcaeco peee xopa ap a o C1- opya ec oo Na+, a a o Na+ - ec xop oo.

co ac (aoo, oey, oo), oope opya ay acy pcaeco peee oeye, aaec oopuauo uco. B pcae xopa ap oopaooe co oa Na+ oa C1 pao ec (pc. 13, a).

a Pc 13 Moe pcaecx peeo:

a - xopa ap; - aaa;

- oeypo pee epoo oca yepoa (IV) ) ) a) oe pcaece pee xapaep oco, poco coe.

Bce oe coee e coy eepaypy ae eey.

B yax aoo pee pacoaac ao, cae ey coo epo apa. Hapep, pca aaa e aoy peey (pc. 13, ). eec c aoo peeo xapaep coa epoc coe eepayp.pae.

B yax oeypo peemu pacoaac ope eope oey (pc. 13, ). O ca ey coo oee ca ca, e ao o. ooy eeca c oeyp peea e cpaeo ecoy eepaypy ae, o ey. Moeypy peey e oe, e opaece eeca - caxap, aapa, a ae eopaece eeca - oa, o, aa, oc yepoa (IV) epo coco.

B yax eaeco pee pacoaac epae ao ooee o aoo eaa. Mey cooo epeeac epo. oycoe oe coca eao: eaec ec, acoc, epeca poooc eopoooc.

COBA COBOCOETAH y, - Oap Heey, - a, - oe, e Po, - - e pcaeco Tepoc ey Pee Ocoae aapa Opya epeca ec opy poooc Hepa oopaooe Teopooo co c acoc OPATTE BHMAHE ! mo xapaepo eo.

eec c aoo peeo xapaepa coa epoc.

PAHEH 1 ae aee pcaece pee 2 ae ece coca e eeca: a) c oo peeo; ) aoo peeo; ) c oeypo peeo; ) c eaeco peeo pee pep.

3 o aaec oopao co aa 1.OCHOBHE ACC HEOPAHECX COEHEH 1.6.1 acca eopaecx coee Bce eopaece eeca o cocay ec a poce coe. poce eeca o coca ec a ea eea.

poce eeca ea coco aoo xecx eeo eao, apep ap Na, a , eeo Fe, a Mg, cepepo Ag p. poce eeca eea coco aoo xecx eeo eeao, apep xop Cl2, cepa S8, ocop P4, copo O2, oo O3, ao N2 p. poce eeca ea eea e pae (aco pooooe) ece xece coca (a. 14).

Coe eeca ec a acc: oc, ocoa, co, co. eee cox eec a acc ocoao a cxoce xecx coc.

14 Cpaee eoopx coc eao eeao Apeaoe T poc Heoope T cocoe pcaec e ece c (.y.) o pee eec coca a Mea Tepoe Meaec Meaec Mea cex, ec, xopoa a eca poe eoa py Hg epeca poooc, pa acoc Fr Heea Tepoe He Aoa oae (cepa S8, eaecoo (aa, op) a e ocop eca, e opa P4, o I2 poo p.) oxo poo eoy epec o, eac oe (po Br) aoopa Moeyp oe (xop a ( Cl2, epx oopo xopa Cl2, H2, aoa N2, copo copoa O2, ao O2) N2, oo OHeopa ece C poce oe Heea Ocoa co Oc Co P4, N2, O2, NaOH, HCl Mea NaCl, Na2O, Ba(OH)2, H2SO4, H2 p.

Al2O3, Al(OH)3 H3PO4 Al2(SO4), KHCO, 1.6.2 Haa opy oco Opeeee. Oca aac eeca, cocoe yx eeo, o oopx copo cee oce - 2. B ocax aoa copoa coec oo c aoa pyx eeo e ca ey coo.

Hoeaypa. Haa oco eeo, ex ocoy cee oce, cocac yx co: oc + aae eea poeo aee: MgO - oc a, Na2O - oc ap, CaO - oc a.

Ec ee opaye ecoo oco, o oce aa eea yaaec eo cee oce pco po coax: MnO - oc apaa (II), Mn2O3 - oc apaa (III).

Haae oco oo ae opaoa oaee coy "oc" peecx cex. Hapep. CO2 - oc yepoa, SO2 - oc cep, SO3 - poc cep, OSO4 - epaoc oc.

PAHEH 1 ae eeca aa oca 2 a cocac aa oco 3 Cocae; opy ae aa oco ceyx eeo: a) a; ) a; ) ocopa (III); ) pe (IV); ) xpoa (VI); e) xo- pa (VII); ) py (II).

4 opae paec opy ceyx oco: a) oca e (I); ) oca ocopa (V); ) oca cep (VI), ) oca apaa (VII); ) oca aoa (III).

1.6.3 Haa opy ocoa Opeeee. Ocoa aac coee, oope coco aoa eaa pocopy (OH ). Hapep, NaOH, Mg(OH)2, La (OH)3, Ca (OH)2.

OH - o poc-o, ap eo pae - 1. co poc-oo ocoa opeeec cee oce eaa.

Hoeaypa. Haae ocoa cocaec co "poc" + aae eaa poeo aee. Hapep, OH - poc a, Ba (OH)2 - poc ap, La (OH)3 - poc aaa.

Ec ea opaye ecoo poco, o yaa cee eo oce pco po coax. Hapep, Fe(OH)2 - poc eea (II), Bi(OH)2 - poc cya (III), Haae ocoa coca a: coy poc oa pca, oope oaa oeco pocopy ocoa. Hapep, Ca(OH)2 poc a, Bi (OH)3 - ppoc cya.

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