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a aee, epoe opa (poe s-opae) e pocpacey anpaeocm. oaea c, oopa ec peyao epepa epox oao aoo, pacoaaec opeeeo apae o ooe pa x aoo.

Ec epoe oaa epepac apae po, oopa coee pa aoo (.e. o oc c), aa oaea c aaec c (ca - c). Hapep, oeyax H2F2, HC1 ao coec oaeo -c. oaee ca-c opayc p epepa opae: s - s (a H2), s - p (a HC1), px - px (a F2) (pc. 6).

F F H H H C s s s p p p Pc. 6 Cxeaecoe opaee -c oeyax oopoa, xopooopoa opa p epepa p-opae, apaex epeypo oc c, opayc e oac epepa o oe copo oc c. Taa oaea c aaec z zx c (-c) (pc. 7). Hapep, oeye aoa ao ca oo -c O y -c (pc. 8).

y N N Hapaeoc oaeo c opeee pocpacey cpyypy oey, x .e. x opy. Moeya xopooopoa ee ey opy; oa opayec c oo p oo -c (s- - p-opa). Moeya o ee yooe cpoee oa opayec a p yx ce epepa s-opae yx aoo oopoa c y ao epeyp 104,5 pz pz H s s H Pc. 8 Cxeaecoe opaee - -c oeye aoa Pc. 7 Cxeaecoe opaee Pc. 9 Cpoee oey o -c p-opa aoa copoa (pc. 9). Ceoaeo, yo ey -c oeye o oe pae 90. B eceoc yo pae 104,5, o ocec ee pa. Moeya aaa ee opy pao pa, oeya eaa - opy epapa.

opocm cu, opeeec acepe pacpeee oeo epooo oaa o oc c.

Ec oe epoe ap pacoaac cepo ooceo oox ep, o aa oaea c aaec eopo.

B oeyax pocx eec - oopoa H2, copoa O2, aoa N2, xopa C12, opa Fao coec eopo oaeo c.

Ec oe epoe ap ceac ooy aoo (pacoaac ecepo ooceo pa pax aoo), o aa oaea c aaec opo.

C oeyax o H2O, aaa NH3, xopooopoa HC1 - opa.

pamocm oaeo c opeeec co ox epox ap, oope ca ao.

C ey y aoa p oo oo ap epoo aaec npocmo (c H - C1, C - H, H - O ..). C ey y aoa p oo yx epox ap aaec oo. C ey y aoa p oo pex epox ap aaec mpoo.

Hapep, oa c aaec ey aoa yepoa ee H C = C H, poa c aaec oeyax aoa N N, H H aeea H C C H ua cu - o paoecoe paccoe ey pa aoo. y c paa aoepax (). e ee a c, e poee xeca c. Mepo pooc c ec ee ep.

epu cu paa paoe, oopy eoxoo apa a pap c. Bpaa ep c ooyx a o (/o). Hapep, oeye oopoa ep c paa 435 /o. ep c yeaec c yeee c (a.

11).

11 B, a aep ce oeyax eoopx eec opya ep c, B a c, oey /o c H2 0,074 s(s - s) F2 0,142 x(px px) Cl2 0,20 Br2 0,229 I2 0,267 HF 0,092 x(s - p) HCl 0,128 HBr 0,141 HI 0,162 ep c yeaec c yeee paoc c (a. 12).

12 a ep ce ey aoa aoa ey aoa yepoa C a c, ep c, /o N N 0,140 164,N = N 0,120 420,0,109 945,N N 0,154 347,C C 0,134 606,C = C 0,120 831,C C COBA COBOCOETAH Hapaeoc e, - a, - oe, - Pacpeee opoc e e paoc op, - a, - oe, - pa Tepap e Cep Heop, - a, - oe, a Hapae, - a, - oe, - e apa - e Paoec, - a, - oe, Pap - e poea paa poecc opaoa c poeae c eee ep (oepec poecc), a poecc papa c - c ooee ep (oepec poecc).

OPATTE BHMAHE ! 1) mo xapaepyec e.

oaea c xapaepyec paoc.

2) mo ec peyao eo.

oaea c ec peyao epepa epox oao aoo.

3) mo pacoaaec a.

C pacoaaec opeeeo apae.

4) mo coeec a.

Ao coec oaeo c.

PAHEH 1 e xapaepyec oaea c 2 aa oaea c aaec a) -c, ) -c 3 aa oaea c aaec: a) opo, ) eopo pee pep.

4 e opeeec paoc c 5 a aaec a c ep c c yeee paoc c 6 Hae epoe opy ceyx eec: H2O, NIH3, HB, F2, N2 - yae coca oaex ce (apaeoc, opoc, paoc).

1.5.3 opoc oey opocm oey ac o opoc oex ce o x pacooe oeye (.e. o cpoe oey). Moey pocx eec (H2, F2, N2 p.), opaoae eop oae c, eop. Moey cox eec oy eop op. pep eec c eop oeya - oc yepoa CO2, ea CH4, eo C6H6, oa C6H12O6, eo p C2H6O p. pep eeca c op oeya: cep SO2, oa H2O, aa NH3, o cp C2H5OH p.

B eopx oeyax "ep ec" epooo oaa coaae c "epo ec" ooeoo apa ep. B opx oeyax "ep ec" epooo oaa e coaae c "epo ec" ooeoo apa. ooy ope oey oo paccapa a empuecue unou, oopx ap, pae o ay, o oaoe o ee, pacooe a opeeeo pacco py o pya. Mepo opoc oey ec epec oe o.

empuecu oem uno - o poeee e apa a paccoe ey epa ooeoo opaeoo apo oeye. epec oe o oeye ac o ee cpyyp. Hae ocyce oea o ooe cy o eoepeco cpoe oey. Hapep, oeya COeopa, a oeya SO2 oaae oeo o. Oca ceye, o oeya CO2, ee eoe cpoee O = C = O, a oeya SO2 - yooe.

Coca eec ac o opoc oey. Beeca, oey oopx op, e eepayp e ae e, e eeca, oey oopx eop. o ocec a pee opx oey.

COBA COBOCOETAH eo ep ec Hae o epec oe Ocyce a o OPATTE BHMAHE ! mo coaae c e.

"ep ec" epooo oaa coaae c "epo ec" ooeoo apa ep.

PAHEH 1 O eo ac opoc oey 2 Moey ax eec: a) eop, ) op pee pep.

3 o ec epo opoc oey 1.5.4 epoopaeoc Cocooc aoo xecoo eea pa cee oe epoe ap aaec epoopaeoc.

Bea epoopaeoc eea opeeec cyo eo ep oa cpoca epoy. Oocee epoopaeoc aoo eoope eeo pee a. 13.

13 Oocee epoopaeoc eoopx eeo pya eeo epo I II III IV V VI VII 1 H 2,2 Li Be B C N O F 0,98 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,07 3,50 4,3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl 0,93 1,2 1,6 1,9 2,2 2,6 3,4 K Ca Ga Ge As Se Br 0,91 1,04 1,8 2,0 2,1 2,5 2,5 Rb Sr In Sn Sb Te I 0,98 0,99 1,5 1,7 1,8 2,1 2,e oe epoopaeoc aoa, e cee pae o oy epoy apy. oa ey y aoa pax eeo opayec oaea c, oe epoe ap ceac oee epoopaeoy aoy. Hapep, oeye o H2O oe epoe ap ceac aoy copoa.

Oocea epoopaeoc aoa e ec cpoo ocoo eo peec oo opeee apae cee ox epox ap p opaoa oey. epoopaeoc eeo oec epoecoy aoy. B epoe epoopaeoc eeo yeaec c yeee opooo oepa eea. B aae epoa axoc ee c o epoopaeoc (ea), a oe epoa - ee c ace epoopaeoc (eea). B opye epoopaeoc eeo yeaec c yeee opooo oepa. Ca epoopae eeo epoeco ccee ec op. epx eeo epoopaeoc ocycye.

Xece ee oo pacoo p, ope opaca epoopaeoc:

Sb, Si, B, As, H, Te, P, C, Se, I, S, B, Cl, N, O, F, epoopaeoc opacae epoopaeoc xapaepye pae coc eeo. ooy ee coy a aecey xapaepcy p opeee ppo xeco c pax coeex.

COBA COBOCOETAH epoopae Hapaee Cy oc Ceee, - Cocooc PAHEH 1 o aaec epoopaeoc 2 Ka eec epoopaeoc eeo ooo epoa c yeee opooo oepa eea 3 a eec epoopaeoc eeo oo py c yeee opooo oepa eea 4 eo coy epoopaeoc eeo 5 B copoy aoo eea ceac oe epoe ap oeyax ceyx: H2S, PCl5, F2O, N2O3, HC1, H2O, PH3, P2O5, SiH4, SO3 1.5.5 oa c p opaoa coee eeo, oe oaxc o epoopaeoc (x eao x eeao), oe epoe ap ooc ceac oee epoopaeoy aoy. B peyae opayc o.

Hapep, p ope ap xope ecape 3s-epo aoa ap capaec c 3p-epoo aoa xopa. Oa epoa apa ooc ceaec aoy xopa. B peyae opayec ap - o Na+ xop - o CI-.

apee ac, oope pepaac ao peyae oa pcoee epoo, aac oa.

ap opaeoo oa pae cy epoo, oope ao pcoe. ap ooeoo oa pae cy epoo, oope ao oa.

pooooo apee o pac py pyy.

Coee, oope opayc oo, aac o. C ey oa aaec oo.

Mey oo oaeo c e peo pa. oy c oo paccapa a pa cya oaeo opo c (pc. 10). B oe o oaeo - oa c eapaea.

poecc oa epoo aaec ocee. poecc pcoee epoo aaec occaoee.

Hapep, p aoec ap c xopo ao ap oae epo, ocec opayec ap-o l l Na e- Na+.

Ao xopa pcoee epo, occaaaec opayec xop-o l - Cl + e- Cl-.

Mea ax opy I II py p coee c eeaa ao opy VII py opay e l oe coee. Hapep, xop ap NaCI, op a KF, xop a CaCl2.

oe coee - epe pcaece eeca.

Pc. 10 Cxea epexoa o oaeo c oo COBA COBOCOETAH o, - pcaec Boccaoee Capac Ocee apoopa Oaa pcoeee PAHEH 1 aa c aaec oo 2 o aaec oo 3 ey pae ap oa 4 o aaec: a) ocee; ) occaoee 5 ae coee aac o 6 oa opayc oe coee 1.5.6 Boopoa c Ao oopoa, oop ye ca c co opae eeo (opo, copoo, aoo), oe opaoa ee oy c c py aoo co epoopaeoo eea. Hapep, oeye o ao oopoa ca c aoa copoa opo oaeo c. Oe epoe ap co ceac aoy copoa. Ao oopoa ee ooe ap, a ao copoa - opae. ooeo ape ao oopoa oo oey o paec opaeo ape aoo copoa pyo oey o. Boae c ey y aoa copoa c oo aoa oopoa. Ao oopoa axoc a po, oopa coee pa x aoo O H... O H... O H... O H H H H H C, oopa oae ey y epoopae aoa c oo aoa oopoa, aaec oopoo.

pepa eec c oopoo c c oa, aa opooopo, oe opaece eeca. Boopoa c ec po aoao cox eepayp e ae ax eec, a oa, aa, opooopo, cp. Boopoa c caee oo oaeo c. Hapep, a ep oopoo c O H... O paa 20 /o, o cocae oo 4,3 % ep oaeo c O H Boopoe c pa ay po ooecx ooecx poeccax x opao.

COBA COBOCOETAH Boopoa c ooec, - a, - oe, - e ooec, a, - oe, - e PAHEH 1 aa c aaec oopoo 2 B ax eecax opayec oopoa c oey oa, aa opooopo e aoao coe eepayp ae e 1.5.7 Meaeca c Mea e cae e ep oa. ooy eaax aee epo eo opac o oex aoo caoc o ceo pcaa (ooece). Ta opayc ooee o eaa epo a - cooyoc ox epoo. B pcae eaa eooe co ooecex epoo cae ooe co.

Xeca c eaax ey ooe oa ooece epoa aaec eaeco c.

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