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Coaco o eop ocoe xecx pea ea poecc epecpo epox oooe aoa - epoe aoec. B xecx peax yacy a opao epo ex coe (aee epo). Oo o ooe (eape, e capee) epo. Ooaac .

Macao aoee opa aoee yco. epoe co, opa oopx aoe acao, aac aepeu. Be epo co ec aepe, ec ee epoy oypa s2p6 (oce epoo)*.

Ao epx eeo (He, Ne, Ar, r, Xe, Rn) e aepee ee epoe co ooy c o pyo cya xece pea. Ao cex pyx eeo e eaepee ee epoe co.

aoo eao o ee coe, a pao, coepc ee epex epoo, o cao ca c aoo. Ao eao, cya xecy pea, ep aee epo. a eco, aoc eao paa. Hapep, ap a - oee ae ea, e ooo aa. cpae aoc eao oo coy ceay ey-epu uouauu I.

ep oa - o oeco ep, eoxooe opa aoee cao caoo epoa o aoa.

ep oa paa epo - oax a ao (B/ao).

ae ep oa oee ax eao ee, e eee ax. eoe ea e cae e ae ep oa (a. 9).

aoo eeao o ee epoo coe coepc epe oe epoo, oope poo ca c aoo. Ao eeao, cya xecy pea, oo pcoe epo. cpae eeaecx coc coy ceay ey - cpoco epoy E.

Cpoco epoy - o oeco ep, oopoe eec ooaec p pcoee ooo epoa epaoy aoy.

Cpoco epoy paa epo-oax ao (B/ao). Haoe ae cpoca epoy y eeo ao opy ceo py (F, C1, Br, I) - x eeao.

Paccop, a ec cpoee aoo xece coca eeo ooo epoa, apep peeo. Ao aoo ee oo epoa ee p epox co , L M (c. a. 9). Cpoee coe L oaoo cex eeo oo epoa, cpoee eeo co M eoaoo. Payc aoo eoao.

C yeee apa pa aoo y eeo ooo epoa yeaec payc aoa, a oeco ex epoo yeaec. Bcece oo pee ex epoo py ycaec, ep oa cpoco epoy yeac. ooy oy epoa eaece coca eeo ocac, a eeaece ycac.

eceo, pe epo aaec a eo eao - ape. a ceye pyo ea - a, oop eee ae, e ap. Cey ea - a eoopx coeex poe eeaece coca. o aoep ee. ee Si, P, S, CI po eeaece coca, oope ycac o Si Cl. Xop ec a eeao. epo oaaec ep eeo apoo.

a , oecee ee po aece.

B ox epoax eaece coca ocac, a eeaece ycac oee eeo, e ax epoax. o ocec e, o oe epo coepa epexoe ee. Ha ee coe aoo epexox eeo axoc a s-epoa, a aoc peoce co y d-eeo pe c oa y f-eeo.

Paccop, a ec cpoee aoo xece coca eeo ax opy a pepe eeo IA py (a. 10).

ee oo opy e oaooe cpoee eeo epooo co, y aoo cex eeo IA py o ee coe axoc o s-epo. Oao payc aoo co epox coe yeac c yeee opooo oepa eea (apa pa). p o pee ex epoo py ocaec, ep oa yeaec. ooy ax opyax c yeee opooo oepa eea (o ec cepxy ) eaece coca eeo ycac, a eeaece ocac. oecee ee po aece.

Oca ceye, o ca a ea - pa, ca a eea op.

eee eeo a ea eea ooceo. a eco, cyecy ee c aoep coca.

M e, o co epoo o ee coe aoo eec epoec c opacae apo ep aoo. ooy coca xecx eeo ec epoec.

B acoee pe epoec ao opypyec a:

Coca xecx eeo, a ae op coca x coee, axoc epoeco acoc o e apa x aox ep opooo oepa eea epoeco ccee.

COBA COBOCOETAH Baoece, - Baee Bcece acoa epo apyc Heap, -a, -oe, - co, -a, - cac e oe, -e po Hecape, -a, - Heaepe po oe, -e co aepe co OPATTE BHMAHE! Bcece moo.

Bcece oo pee ex epoo py ycaec.

PAHEH 1 ae epoe co aac aepe 2 Ao ax eeo e aepee eaepee ee co 3 Coo epoo o ee coe e ao; a) eao; ) eeao 4 a ec cpoee aoo coca y eeo ooo epoa: a) aoo; ) ooo 5 a ec coca eeo ax opyax c yeee opooo oepa eea 6 ao ee - oee a ea: a) ap py; ) a ca; ) a e 7 ao ee oee a eea: a) yepo ao; ) ocop ao; ) eyp o; ) xop po 8 oey xece coca eeo ec epoec 9 o aoe: a) ep oa; ) cpoco epoy 10 Copypye epoec ao xecx eeo.

1.4.8 aee epoecoo aoa epoeco cce eeo . . Meeeea epoec ao xecx eeo . . Meeeea - o ocox aoo ppo. epoeca ccea eeo . . Meeeea a epo ececeo accae xecx eeo. Oa oaaa, o xece ee aoca opay ey ccey.

o copo e . . Meeee paoa a ope epoecoo aoa eo pae. Ha ocoe epoecoo aoa . . Meeee pecaa cyecoae eaa ox eecx aye eeo opee x ooee epoeco ccee: o pacca pae ae aox acc ox eeo (ep, , e pyx) oca opoo coca pex pecaax eeo coca x coee. He cpaac eoope pecaae . . Meeee 1871 oy coca eea 32 opeeee cepeao coca eea epa (op Bepo 1886 oy).

ee 32 epa Aoa acca 72 72,ooc, /c3. 5,5 5,e򅅅.eo-cep cepoao-e opya oca. O2 GeOooc oca, /c3 4,7 4,opya xopa..Cl4 (oc) GeCl4 (oc) ooc xopa, /c3 1,9 1,Teepaypa e, C e 100 Ope epoecoo aoa coae epoeco cce eeo . .

Meeee aep pae aocecx pecae XIX ee, oo aao copeeo x. epoeca ccea ooae ye opa coaa oe cyccee xece ee coee, coaa oe eeca c y coca, ya ypeee cpoee aoo x ep. C oo epoecoo aoa epoeco cce yee oa p eo aooepoc.

epoec ao epoeca ccea oep aoc e ppo, a ae o ceox aoo pa ppo - ao epexoa oecex ee aecee.

epoec ao ee ooe aee pyx ay: eox, ox, acpox epo .

epoo apa 1969 oa yee ceo pa oea co e co op epoecoo aoa xecx eeo. oceye op oac x e oo oep epoec ao, o a ey ooe oee yooe ocee. Bce o oepae oeoc epoecoo aoa, oop opaae cyecye ppoe c, eaoc op pyccoo yeoo . .

Meeeea.

COBA COBOCOETAH Baoca, - a, - oe, - e o aa 1.XMECA CB CTPOEHE BEECTBA 1.5.1 oaea c epoa eop cpoe aoo oce, a ao coec oey, .e. ppoy exa opaoa xeco c. Teop xeco c ocoaa a pecae o o, o eape epo pax aoo cpec opaoa oe epoe ap.

Ocoe xeco c - oaea (aoa), oa, eaeca oopoa.

Paccop opaoae oey oopoa H2 aoo. epoa oypa aoa oopoa 1s2, .e. o ee epoo coe (o ece) axoc o eap epo. p opaoa oey oopoa yx aoo, ex eape s-epo c aapae ca, pocxo epepae s-opae opayec oa epoa apa (pc. 4, a).

) ) a) Pc. 4 epepae:

a s-opae; s- p-opae; p-opae Cxeaec o oo opa c oo epox opy H + H H : H aox ee:

+ Oa epoa apa oaoo pae oo aoa. a ao oyae ycoy oooy yx epoo. Haoa epoa ooc oeo epooo oaa poec oac ey pa. Moeya oopoa opayec a ce aoec oe epoo ap c pa oox aoo.

C aoo c oo ox epox ap aaec oaeo c.

B oeyax, oope coco yx oee aoo ooo eea, c oaea; apep, oeyax xopa (Cl2), aoa (N2) oa opayec c oo ox epox ap. B oeye xopa - oa oa epoa apa (pc. 4, ), oeye aoa p ox epox ap. C oo epox opy o opaaec a:

..

:N + N:: :N N::

........

..

:Cl + Cl: :Cl : Cl:

........

Bo cex x cyax a ao oyae aepe yco e epo co.

B oeyax, oope coco aoo pax eeo, c oe oe oaeo. Paccop opaoae oey xopooopoa. epoe oypa aoo oopoa xopa H 1s1 ;

3s2 3pCl 1s12s22p63s2poaa, o ee epoe co x aoo e o ooy eapoy epoy. p ce opa x epoo epepac, opayec oa epoa apa (pc. 4, ).

oaea c oe opaoac ey y aoa, oopx o ee eoeey apy epoo, a pyo - cooy opa. Hapep, p aoec aaa NH3 xopooopoa HC1 eoeea epoa apa aoa caoc oe oopoa aoa, oyaec o ao NH4 + ;

+ + + Tao exa opaoa oaeo c aaec oopoaenmop. B ae pepe oopo epoo ap ec ao aoa, a aeopo - o oopoa (o ee cooy opa). oopo-aeop exa opaoa oaeo c aaec oecx coeex [Ag(NH3)2]OH, K4[Fe(CN)6].

epo, oope yacy opaoa xecx ce, aac aemu. eeo ax opy aee epo pacooe a s- popax eeo epooo co. eeo oox opy (a cee aaoo aooo) aee epo pacooe a s-opa eeo co a f-opa peoceeo epooo co. Bae epoa oy e oo eape epo aoa opao (eoyeo) coco.

Hapep, opao coco ao yepoa ee a eapx epoa:

2s2 2pC Oao oce cox coee ao yepoa opaye epe oaex c (CH4, CCl4, CH3OH ..). o caoc oo ooy, o p ooe ep (420 /o) y aoa yepoa o 2s-epo epexo a 3p-opa.

2s1 2pC Tao ao yepoa aaec oye. O ee epe eapx epoa oe opaoa epe oaex c. Ec oe epoe ap ooaa epo, o epoa opya pepaaec cpyypy:

H : Cl H : : H : : H H : : H epoe cpyype opy oaa oceoaeoc coee aoo oeye. Hapep, oeye aaa ao oopoa coec c aoa aoa, o ey coo e coec.

Beeca c oae c oy ep (apa, e), (oa, cp), aoopa (copo, ao, aa).

Cpyype opy e opaa pocpaceoo pacooe aoo oeye. opa eo oo c oo oe (pc. 5).

HH2O NHPc. 5 Moe oey H2, H2O, NHCOBA COBOCOETAH Mexa, - epepaec oop pecaee Heopa Aeop Hecape c Cee epo opa c pocpace Opaa paea Capee epo oaea c poc Heoeea oa c Ceac epoa apa epepae oec oceoaeoc oopao Cpec Boye OPATTE BHMAHE ! 1) mo + ao +a ce eo.

Moeya xopooopoa opayec a ce aoec oe epoo ap c pa aoo oopoa xopa.

2) mo ooa e.

Oy epoy apy ooa epo (-).

PAHEH 1 aa c aaec oaeo 2 Hae epoe cpyype opy oey: HBr, H2S, PH3, SiH3, Br2.

3 oa oaea c opayec o oopo-aeopoy exay pee pep.

1.5.2 Xapaepc oaeo c oaea c xapaepyec apaeoc pocpace, opoc, paoc, epe o.

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