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C oo epx pea oya oe ee, oope ppoe acoee pe e cyecy: exe Tc ( 43), poe Pm ( 61), aca At ( 85), pa Fr ( 87), pacypaoe ee ( 93 - 106). B 1976 oy CCCP oye ee 107. C oo epx pea oyeo oee 100 paoax ooo cex xecx eeo. Paoae oo xecx eeo coyc oo, ee, apoo xoce.

p epx peax eec ooe oeco ep. Ta, p ee 1 ep ooa ypaa eec 7,5 107 ep.

B Pocc coyec ep aooo pa px ex. B 1954 oy, CCCP a ocpoea epa pe aoa epoca 1959 oy - ao eoo "e".

Bepe a c cop opeaa 17 ayca 1977 oa ca o pe eoo "Apa" oc eopaeco o Ceepoo oca. o aac oea coeco ay ex. Ceac a ae aee paoae oee 100 aox epoca oe cya coy aoy ep.

COBA COBOCOETAH Pacaac Cocoe Ecece, -a, epe pea Caopoo oe,-e Oe, -a, -oe, o Paoa, -a, -e oappoa oe, -e Ocyec, -c OPATTE BHMAHE ! mo coyec e.

Paoae oo xecx eeo coyc oo, ee, ceco xoce.

PAHEH 1 ae pea aac ep 2 e oac epe pea o xecx 3 oc epe pea aoy coxpae ep 4 eo coy: a) epe pea; ) paoae oo 5 Ooe ypae:

a) N + n C + ; ) + ;

) + ; ) + + ;

) + ; e) + +.

1.4.5 Cpoee epoo ooo aoa B 25 - 30 oax aeo coe a coaa aoa eop cpoe aoa.

cepeao ycaoeo, o epo ee ocey ppoy: o oaae oopeeo coca ac coca o.

B aoe cocoe epoa oo peca e epooo oaa c opeeeo ooc epecoo apa ao oe (pc. 2). epoe oaa pax epoo axoc a pax paccox o pa e pay opy.

Ceaa y, oopa xapaepye epooc axoe epoa ao oac pocpaca a opeeeo pacco o pa aaec opuma.

Cocoe epoa aoe oca ep umou ucau.

1 aoe amooe uco n xapaepye ey ep epoa; n oe pa ae 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 (oo ee ca).

epo c n = 1 opay a py aoa empo co (epemuecu ypoe). epo c n = 2 opay opo o pa aoa epo co ..

epoe co ooaac o ya acoo aaa , L, M, N. O, P, Q ..

aee n 1 2 3 4 5 6 Ooaee epooo co K L M N O P Q 2 Opumaoe (noooe) amooe uco l xapaepye opy epoo opa (epemuecue noypou); p ao ae n l oe pa ae ex ce o 0 o - 1. Opa c pa aee l ooaac ya s, p, d, f.

aee l 0 1 2 Ooaee opae s p d f Pc. 2 epooe oao aoa oopoa ep epoa aoe ac e oo o ae aoo aooo ca n, o o ae opaoo aooo ca l. epo c oao ae n, o pa ae l oac aaco ep.

Opaoe aooe co l ae xapaepye ep epoa a oypoe.

co epeecx oypoe aoo epooo co pao oepy co, .e.

ae aoo aooo ca. Ta, epoy epeecoy ypo (n = 1) cooecye o oypoe s; opoy epeecoy ypo (n = 2) cooecy a oypo s p; peey epeecoy ypo (n = 3) cooecy p oypo s, p d; eepoy epeecoy ypo (n = 4) cooecy epe oypo s, p, d f.

3 Maumoe amooe uco ml opeee opea opae pocpace oe pa ae ex ce o l o + l, o ce aee 0.

Ta, p l = 0 ml = 0. o a, o s - opa ee oaoy opea ooceo pex oce oopa (pc. 3, a). p l = 1ml oe pa p ae: - 1;

0;. + 1. o a, o oy p p - opa (px, py, pz) c opeae o oopa oc x, y, z (pc. 3, , ).

Maoe aooe co opeee co opae a oypoe (a. 6).

6 Onpeeeue uca opumae a noypoe Co aooe co N K L M n 1 2 3 L 0 0 1 0 1 2 0 1 2 ml --2 -2 --1 -1 -1 -1 -1 -0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 +1 +1 +1 +1 +1 ++2 +2 ++co 1 1 3 1 3 5 1 3 5 opae Ooaee 1 2 2p 3 3p 3d 4 4p 4d 4f opae s s s s z y a) a x z z z y y y ) x x x Py Pz z z z ) y y y x x x dxy dxy z zPc. 3. opaee opae:

a - s-epoo; - p-epox; - d-epox y y 4 eepoe aooe co ms cnu oe e oo a ae + 1/2 1/ 2.

Coaco npuuny ayu:

B aoe e oe yx epoo c oao aee cex epex aox ce. Ha oo opa oe axoc e oee yx epoo epo e pooooe (aapaee) c.

Opa c y epoa, c oopx aapae (amoa ea), cxeaec opaa a:

Pacooee epoo o co opa opaa e empox ouypau. oa pa oaae oep co (aoe aooe co). y (s, p, d, f) ooaa opy opa (opaoe aooe co). Maea pa a yo cpaa epxy oaae co epoo a ao opa. Hapep, 2soaae, o a opo epoo coe a s-opa axoc a epoa, - epoa oypa aoa ocopa ( 15).

He oaaa cxea acaoo aoe epoa opae epex epecx coe K, L, M, N:

epo K L M N co Cxeaec s2 p6 d10 foe opae e opae epoa 1s2 2s22p6 3s23p63d10 4s24p64d104f oypa co 2 8 18 epoo coe a - acaoe co epoo a oo s-opa - 2, a pex popax - 6, a d-opax - 10 a ce f-opax - 14.

Macaoe co epoo (N) epoo coe oo opee o opye N = 2n2, e n - oep co (aee aoo aooo ca). Ho aoax ox eeo epoe co e aoc ooc.

oceoaeoc aoe epox coe opeeec npauo aueeo anaca epuu:

Opa aoc epoa ope opaca x ep, oopa xapaepyec cyo n + l. p o ec cya n + l yx pax opae oaoa, o pae aoec opa, y oopo n ee.

a o a. 7, opo aoe epox opaee o cye n + cey:

1s2 2s2 2p6 3s6 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p6 7s2 5f14.

ooy aoe eea a oce aoe opae aoc 4popa, ae 3d.

7 opo aoe opae o cye n + l opo opo n l n + l Op n l n + l Op aoe aoe a a 0 5 + 0 = 5 5s 1 0 1 + 0 = 1s 1 5 1 5 + 1 = 6 5p 2 5 + 2 = 7 5d 3 5 + 3 = 8 5f 0 6 + 0 = 6 6s 2 0 2 + 0 = 2s 2 6 1 6 + 1 = 7 6p 1 2p 3 2 6 + 2 = 8 6d 2 + 1 = 3 6 + 3 = 9 6f 0 3 + 0 = 3s 3 1 3p 3 + 1 = 2 3d 7 0 7 + 0 = 7 7p 7 1 7 + 1 = 8 7s 3 + 2 = 4 0 4s 4 + 0 = 1 4p 2 4d 3 4f 4 + 1 = 4 + 2 = 4 + 3 = p aoe epoa opae coaec ae npauo ya (auoeo cyapoo cnuooo uca):

Cyapoe cooe co epoo ao opa oo aca.

Hapep, p aoe 2p-opae aoa yepoa oo a apaa:

cyap c epoo 1s2 2s2 2p2 cyap c epoo _ + + = _ _ II. + - = Ta a cyap c yx p-epoo apae I oe, o aoee opae pocxo o oy apay.

COBA COBOCOETAH aoa eop Opa Co oce, -a, - Bepooc C oe, -e p peca - Haxoee Aapae peca pocpac epooe oao o ao epo co Opea ao epoa aoee oypa ea OPATTE BHMAHE! 1) mo oaae e.

epo oaae oopeeo coca ac o.

2) mo oe pa aee eo.

Maoe aooe co ml oe pa ae ex ce o l o + l.

3) Pacooeue (aoe ).

Pacooee o co opa.

4) mo cooecye ey.

epoy epeecoy ypo cooecye o s - oypoe.

PAHEH 1 ay ppoy ee epo 2 Be eo oo peca cocoe epoa aoe 3 o aaec opa 4 ae aoe ca aee 5 o xapaepye aoe aooe co 6 Coaco a pa aoc epoe opa 7 a opypyec; a) p ay; ) pao aeeo aaca ep;

) pao ya 8 Hae epoe: oypa aoo ceyx eeo: aoa, cep, cpo, poa, ooa.

1.4.6 epoeca ccea eeo . . Meeeea epoa eop cpoe aoo ooee xecoo eea epoeco ccee opeeec cpoee aoa eo coca.

1 Ec cpa epoe oypa aoo eeo c x ooee epoeco ccee (c. a. 8), o y oe epece c (acoc). co epox coe aoe oo eea pao oepy epoa, oopo o axoc. Ta, ao eeo H He e oo o epo co - o axoc epo epoe; ao eeo Li, Re B, C, N, O, F, Ne e a epox co - o axoc o opo epoe; ao oc eeo o Na o Ar e p epox co - o axoc pee epoe; ao oceaa eeo o o r e epe epox co - o axoc eepo epoe ..

B aoax eeo aoo epoa aoec o epo co. ooy epoeco ccee ce epoo.

2 co epoo o ee coe aoo cex eeo e oe oc. epoeca ccea coco oc py.

3 co epoo o ee coe aoo eeo ax opy (poe e He) pao oepy py oopo axoc ee. a aooepoc paccopea a pepe eeo opoo epoa a. 8.

8 epoe oypa eeo opoo epoa ee Li Be B C N O F Ne Hoep I II II IV V VI VII VII py ep 1s22 1s22 1s22s22 1s22s22 1s22s22 1s22s22 1s22s22 1s22so- a s2 s2 p1 p2 p3 p4 p5 po ypa 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 co epo o a ocee coe eeo ax opy aoc s- popa oceeo co. ee, y oopx aoc s-opa oceeo co, aac seemau. Macaoe co epoo s-opa - a. B ao epoe ec o a s-eea.

o ee ax opy - IA IIApy, a ae oopo e.

ee, y oopx aoc p-opa eeo co, aac peemau. Macaoe co epoo pex opae - ec. B ao epoe, poe epoo ceoo eooeoo, ec o ec p- eeo. o ee ax opy III - VIII py. O e aoepe eeaece coca. Hapep, B, C, N, O, F, Ne; Al, Si, P, S, C1, Ar, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Br ..

ee VIIIA py aa ep eea.

4 Bo ee epoo coe aoo eeo oox py oo axoc o a s-epoa. Ho y x eeo aoc s-opa opoo capy co f-opa peeo capy co (c. ee 21 - 30, 39 - 48, 57 80, 89 - 103).

ee, y oopx aoc d-opa, aac d-eemau.

Macaoe co epoo d-opae - ec. B eepo, o, eco epoax ec o ec d-eeo 21 - 30; 39 - 48; 57, 72 - 80, ceo eooeo epoe 89, 104, 105. d-ee - o ee oox opy.

ee, y oopx aoc f-opa, aac f-eemau. Macaoe co epoo ce f-opae - epaa. Beco ceo epoax ec o epaa f-eeo - o aao ( 58 - 71) ao ( 90 103). f-ee - o ee ooo opy III py. d- f-ee aac nepexou.

Cya ca s - epoo oceeo co d-epoo peoceeo co aoo eeo oox opy aco paa oepy py, oopo axoc ee.

Hapep, Cr (ee 24) ee ocee coe o d-epo peocee d-epoo; 1 + 5 = 6, o cooecye oepy py, oopo axoc xpo.

Ta opao, epoa eop cpoe aoa oca cpyypy epoeco cce eeo: co py, opy, epoo, co eeo pyax epoax. Oa oca ooee epoeco ccee eeo Ar, Co Ni, Te I (c. cpoee aoo x eeo) pyx eeo. Bce o oaae, o epoeca ccea . . Meeeea opaae oee c, cyecye ppoe.

COBA COBOCOETAH Beu Aomep OPATTE BHMAHE! C yeee eo yeaec mo.

C yeee apa pa eea yeaec co epoo eo eeo co.

PAHEH 1 oey ep epo coco oo yx eeo 2 oey opo epo coco oc eeo 3 Coo epox coe e ao eeo: a) a ( 12); ) cep ( 16); ) e ( 29); ) eea ( 26); ) ap ( 56); e) ypao ( 104) 4 Coo epoo coepc o ee epoo coe aoo: a) pe ( 14); ) a ( 20); ) poa ( 35); ) a ( 19); ) ooa ( 50);

e) eypa ( 53); ) cya ( 83) 5 ae ee aac: a) s-eea; ) peea; ) d-eea: ) f-eea pee pep.

6 Opeee ooee eeo epoeco ccee (epo, pya, opya), ec ec x epoe oypa: a) 1s22s22p63s23p4;

) 1s22s22p63s23p63d54s2; ) 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s2;

) 1s22s22p63s23p6; ) 1s22s22p63s23p63d104s24p64d104f65s25p66s2.

1.4.7 acoc xecx coc eeo o cpoe x aoo Copeea epoa eop cpoe aoa oca acoc xecx coc eea o cpoe eo aoa ooe epoeco ccee.

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