WWW.DISSERS.RU


...
    !

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 3 | 4 || 6 | 7 |   ...   | 16 |

poeoe ooee oeca poyo, oopoe oyaec pooce, oecy poyo, oopoe pacca o ypae pea, aaec xoo npoyma. Hapep, coaco pacey o ypae pea o oy 100 poya. Ha pae oy 93 . Bxo poya pae (93 /100 )100 % = %. ae xoa poya ooae exooa ypa pooce poecca.

COBA COBOCOETAH poy, - pooce, -a, - poy paec, -a, - oe, -e cxo, -a; oe, -e opee, - oe, -e peee ae Oo pooco poeee Bxo poya pace, - poecc, - Texoo, - pa PAHEH 1 ae aee pooca, ocoae a xecx peax 2 o aaec oo poya 3 eo peec pace o opya ypae 4 B poeoc aa oya oopoa aoa coaco ypae pea: N2 + H2 = 2NH3. Paccae xo aaa, ec 22,4 aoa a oopoa oy 25,84 aaa. Coo aaa oo oy 56 aoa a oopoa, ec xo aaa cocae 95 % aa 1.EPOEC AOH EPOECA CCTEMA EMEHTOB . . MEHEEEBA. CTPOEHE ATOMA 1.4.1 epoec ao epoeca ccea eeo . . Meeeea oce op ocox aoo x coa aoo-oeypoo ye x cpo paaac a aya, oe XVIII ea o eco ooo 30 xece eeo, cepee XIX ea - oee 60. Hapea eoxooc x cceapoa. o . . Meeeea yee pax cpa (ace . O . Hc, eee .

eepeep . Meep, payce . a A. aypya p.) ac accpoa xece ee. Ho pe y aay pycc ye .

. Meeee 1869 oy.

. . Meeee oo ocoy acca xecx eeo ey aoo acc eea. O pacoo ce ece oa ee ope opaca x aox acc p o oapy c coc xecx eeo c x ao acca. . . Meeee copypoa epoec ao.

Coca pocx eec a ae op coca coee eeo axoc epoec acoc o e aox acc eeo.

epoec ao - o ao ppo. O opaae acoc, oope cyecy ppoe.

Ha ocoe epoecoo aoa . . Meeee coa epoecy ccey xecx eeo. ep apa cce coepa ce ece o pe eea (pc. 4).

Copeea epoeca ccea coep 107 xecx eeo. a xec ee a opeeeoe eco (ey) epoeco ccee oy co opo oep (ao oep). B ao ee a Meeeea poe xecoo aa eea yaa eo opo oep oocea aoa acca.

eco oo apao ocpoe epoeco cce. ae coy e op: opoy y.

opoa opa epoeco cce coco 7 (ce) epoo 8 (oc) py.

epo - o opoa p, oop aaec eo eao oaaec ep eeo.

co eeo ao epoe oaao e:

Hoep epoa .1 2 3 4 5 6 co eeo ..2 8 8 18 18 32 ep, opo pe epo coco ooo pa aac a.

eep, eco epo coco yx po aac o.

Bepx p - e, - ee. Ceo epo coco ooo pa. B ccee 10 po.

Beco epoe oce aaa ( 57) pacooe 14 eeo ( 58 - 71), oox aay. x aa amaouau. x eco ccee oeeo ee aaa, a xece a, opoe oepa oocee aoe acc aaoo pacooe pe eo o ae.

B ceo epoe oce a Ac ( 89) aaoo pacooe 14 eeo ( 90 - 103), oox a, - amuou. x eco epoeco ccee oeeo ee a. Xece a, opoe oepa oocee aoe acc aoo, a aaoo, pacooe o ae.

py epoeco cce (epae co) coepa ee, coca oopx oo. aa pya coco yx opy: ao ooo.

opy, oope xo ee ax ox epoo, aac a (A). opy, oope xo ee oo ox epoo, aac oo ().

Hapep, H, Li, Na, , Rb, Cs, Fr - o aa opya epo py; F, CI, B, I, At - aa opya ceo py; Mn, Tc, Re - ooa opya ceo py.

COBA COBOCOETAH Ope, - opo Pacoaa pacoo Coae Bapa epoeca, -, Hape oe, -e Copee Heoxooc oo, -a, accpo e eoo, -a, -oe, a e Hee oo oo, -a, - oe, ocoy ea e Bopacae ep Aaoo opo opya OPATTE BHMAHE ! 1) mo oo ocoy eo.

. . Meeee oo ocoy acca ey aoo acc eeo.

2) mo pacoo ope eo.

O pacoo ce ee ope opaca x aox acc.

3) mo ooo ey.

aao oo aay.

4) Ha ocoe eo coa mo.

Ha ocoe epoecoo aoa . , Meeee coa epoecy ccey xecx eeo.

PAHEH 1 o aaec epoo 2 Coo epoo epoeco ccee 3 ae epo aac a ae o 4 Coo po epoeco ccee 5 ae ee xo oy pyy 6 Coo py epoeco ccee 7 ax opy coco aa pya 8 ae opy aac: a) a; ) oo pep.

9 ae ee pacooe o ae oey 10 Bao epoe, ao pye opye axoc: a) oopo; c) eeo;

) copo; ) aao; ) ao 1.4.2 Cpoee aoa . . Meeee op epoec ao, coa epoecy ccey eeo, o e oc py epoecoo ee, cxoca pa coc eeo. Too eop cpoe aoa, coaa XX ee oca aooepoc.

B XIX e ca, ao - eea aca, oopa e eec p xecx peax. Boe XIX aae XX eo op: peeocoe yee (ee ye . Peeo, 1895 o) paoaoc (payc ye A. eepee, o), epo (ac ye . Tocoo, 1897 o).

empo (e-) ee accy oo 9,109558 10-28 epec ap 1,6021917 10- (yo). Bea apa epoa pa a ey eeapoo epecoo apa.

yee paoaoc (M. Cooca-p . p o pa .

Peepop A) oaao, o ao xecoo eea ec c o o c c e o . O coco pa, oopoe ee ooe ap, epoo, oope yc opy pa. Cooyoc epoo aoe aaec eo empoo oooo. aep aoa - ea opa 10-10 , a aep pa - ea opa 10- 10-15 .

B 1913 oy ac ye . Mo oapy, o ea ooeoo apa pa aoa paa opooy oepy eea epoeco ccee eeo . . Meeeea. Ao epoepae, ceoaeo, uco empoo empoo oooe amoa pao apy pa uu nopooy oepy eema nepuoueco cucmee Z. Hapep, ap pa aoa ypaa U ( 92) + 92 epoo oooe aoa 92 epoa.

B 1932 oy coece yee . . aeo E. H. ao eaco o x ee ye B. eeep coa pooo-epoy eop cpoe pa. Coaco o eop po aoa coco pooo epoo. pomo p - o aca c acco, pao 1 a.e.., apo + 1. Hempo n o epoepaa aca acco, o acce pooa.

ap pa aoa opeeec co pooo oope xo coca.

Ceoaeo, uco npomoo pe amoa mae pao nopooy oepy eema nepuoueco cucmee . . Meeeea. Hapep, ap pa aoa ypaa pae + 92, ooy o pe coepc 92 pooa.

Macca aoa A paa cye acc cex ac, oope xo ao:

A = acca pooo + acca epoo - acca epoo.

Macca epoo acoo aa, o e oo peepe, acca aoa opeeec cyo acc eo pooo epoo. Oee co pooo epoo aaec acco co (A). Oo pao opyeoy o eoo ca ae ooceo aoo acc:

Ar = Z + N co co pooo epoo co epoo pe aoa pao paoc ey ooceo aoo acco eea eo opo oepo:

N = Ar Z Hapep, pe aoa ypaa [Ar(U) = 238] coepc 92 pooa 238 92 = epoo.

Ta opao, o ooe eea epoeco ccee oo opee coca eo aoa (a. 5).

5 Xapaepc ca ac, oope xo coca aoa ac Oac aoa, oopo ap Macc co aa co axoc e a, aoe e ac eeap a.e..

oo apa po poo 1 +1 Z Hepo 1 0 Ar Z epoa epo e- 1/184 -1 Z oooa a e, coca aoa xo ac c poooo apa epo poo. Ao cooyoc ac c poooo coca.

poo, epo, epo - o eemape acmu. B acoee pe eco ooo yxco eeapx ac, oaax pa coca (acco, apo p.).

M e oe ye eeape ac. Ho cepeaoe opeeee ye xapaepc eeapx ac oaae x peaoe cyecoae.

eeape ac, a e a ao oey, - o pae aep.

COBA COBOCOETAH pa, - Oapya - eeapa oapy aca Pae, - epec, -a, Oaa aooepo -oe, -e c, - ap, - po, -a Paoa yee oc epoa Cxoco, -a oooa epo, - poo, - epoepa epoa Hepo, - peepea peepe Peeocoe yee OPATTE BHMAHE! 1) Bea (aa) opa 10-10 c.

2) aca (aa) c acco, pao ee.

PAHEH 1 o oaao ope e paoaoc 2 ae ac xo coca: a) aoa; ) pa; ) epoo ooo.

Paccae o x (aae, co, ap, acca).

3 e opeeec ap pa aoa 4 ey pae ap pa aoa 5 ao ap pa coo epoo, pooo, epoo aoax a, , aoa, a, oa, apoa, e, poa 6 o oaae opo oep eea 7 Bo coo pa paep pa ee paepa aoa 8 ae aep aee 1.4.3 oo Macca pooa, a acca epoa, paa ee. B aoe coepac ee ca pooo epoo. ooy oocea aoa acca eea oa paac e co. Oao oocee aoe acc oca eeo epoeco ccee peca coo poe ca. Hapep, = = = o oo oc a: ppoe ee - cec ooo.

oo - o ao ooo eea, oope e oao ap pa (oaooe co pooo pe), o pae accoe ca (paoe co epoo pe).

Hapep, ee oopo ee p ooa. H po (1 p); D ( H) 1 1 eep (1 p, 1 n); T ( H) - p (1 p, 2 n); ypa ae ee p ooa 1 Pae ee e paoe co ooo. Heoope ee (op, ap, a) ppoe cpeac oo e ooo ooa. pye oo x eeo eyco, Ooo ee caoe ooe co ycox ooo ec.

Oocea aoa acca eea epoeco ccee eeo .

. Meeeea - o cpeee apeecoe acc aoo eo ooo.

Hapep, ppo xop - o cec 77,35 % ooa C1 22,65 % ooa Cl.

ooy + = = Xece coca cex ooo ooo eea oao. a, xece coca eeo ac o apa pa aoa, a e o aoo acc. ap pa aoa ec ao xapaepco eea.

Xec ee - o cooyoc aoo c oao apo pa.

COBA COBOCOETAH! Cec, - oo, - co, -a, -oe, -e OPATTE BHMAHE! Bpaac (e ) Oocee aoe acc oca eeo paac po ca.

PAHEH 1 oey aoe acc eeo e cea paac e ca 2 o aaec ooa 3 o ec ao xapaepco eea 4 o aaec xec eeo 5 Coo pooo epoo coepa pa ooo 6 Me coco ooo Cu . Coo poeo aoo ooa coepc e, ec = 7 po aoo eea e ee epoo 8 Moo caa o poo - o po oopoa oey 9 aa paa cocae ep ooo: 10 oey epoeco ccee eeo apo ( = 39,94) pacooe epe ae ( = ), eyp ( = ) epe oo ( = ) 11 po aoa eea coep 12 epoo, = 22. Opeee opo oep eea.

1.4.4 epe pea.

ep aooo pa ee cooae a eco, ao pa pacaac a ao yx ox eeo - e paoa:

+.

B pe pocxo oee poecc:

+.

Pea, p oopx eec cocoe aooo pa po pepaaec pa ox eeo, aac ep.

p xecx peax ec oo epoe ooo aoo, o e pa.

epe pea oy ocyecc caopooo (ececea paoaoc) cycceo ( peyae oappo pa aca cox ep - epoa, pooa, pa e, eoa p.) epe pea aca c oo ypae, oox xec - ypae. B ypaex coy cpyype co: epo oo epo, poo Hapep, ececea paoaoc ypaa, op paaec ypae + - + + cycceo epo peae ec pea oye eee (Md) + = + ypao Ku + + p epx peax o ee pepaac pye. epe pea - o epa opa ueu amepuu.

Pages:     | 1 |   ...   | 3 | 4 || 6 | 7 |   ...   | 16 |



2011 www.dissers.ru -

, .
, , , , 1-2 .