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Oocea ooc ooo aa o pyoy paa ooe x opx oocex oeypx acc: d = M1/ M2 = Mr1/ Mr2.

aco opee oocey ooc ao o oopoy o oyxy.

Pace ooceo ooc ao o oopoy. Oocea oeypa acca oopoa =, ooy oocey ooc aa o oopoy pacca o opye = Maa/2. Hapep, oocea ooc copoa o oopoy = 32/2 = 16.

Pace ooceo ooc aa o oyxy. Oocea oeypa acca oyxa Mroyxa = 29, ooy oocey ooc aa o oyxy pacca o opye d = Maa/29.

Hapep, oocea ooc cepooopoa H2S o oyxy d = 34/29 = 1,17.

Oocea ooc oaae, o coo pa o a ee pyoo.

COBA COBOCOETAH Pacca - Tee Ta a pacca e OPATTE BHMAHE ! mo pacca o ey.

ooc pacca o opye.

PAHEH 1 o aaec ooceo ooc 2 ey paa oocea ooc 3 o oaae oocea ooc 4 Bee opy pacea ooceo ooc aa: a) o oopoy; ) o oyxy; ) o copoy;

5 Bo coo pa oc yepoa (IV) CO2 eee: a) eaa; ) e; ) oyxa 1.2.13 Pace ooceo oeypo acc aa ao Aoapo opae y cepeaoo opeee oocex oeypx acc ao.

Pace ooceo oeypo acc aa o ooc ( Ec ae ).

ooc aa p opae ycox, oo opee opy accy o opye M = 22,4 /o. Mopa acc ceo paa ooceo oeypo acce.

p e p. Opee Mr aa, ec = 1,25 /.

Peeue:

Maa = 1,25 / 22,4 /o = 28 /o;

Mr = 28.

Pace ooceo oeypo acc aa o acce opeeeoo oea aa. Ec ae accy m opeeeoo oea V aa, o opy accy oo opee poop:

V () aa e accy m ();

22,4 (/o) aa e accy M (/o):

= p e p. Opee oocey oeypy accy aa, ec 4,2 aa aa p .y. oe 3 .

Peeue: 3 aa - 4,5 22,4 /o aa - M /o = = Mr = 32.

Pace ooceo oeypo acc o ooceo ooc aa. Ec ae ooc ooo aa o pyoy oocey oeypy accy ooo aa, oo opee oocey oeypy accy pyoo aa.

p e p. Ha oocey oeypy accy aa, ec eo ooc o copoy paa 2,63.

Peeue:

= = Mr(aa) = = 2,62 32 = 83,7.

opyy opeee ooceo oeypo acc oo aa o eo ooceo ooc o oopoy o oyxy epe peo (1856 o) . .

Meeee.

PAHEH 1 Bee opy pacea oeypo acc: a) o ooc; ) o acce opeeeoo oea aa; ) o ooceo ooc ooo aa o pyoy.

2 ey paa oocea oeypa acca aa, ec p .y.: a) ooc o oopoy paa 8; ) ooc o oyxy paa 1,52; ) 5 aa aa oe 2 ; ) acca 1 aa 0,9 1.2.14 ao oex ooe ao B 1808 oy e-cca copypoa ao oex omoeu.

Oe ao, oope p oaox ycox cya pea oope oyac peyae pea, oocc py pyy a eoe ee ca.

Coaco aoy Aoapo paoe co oey pax ao p oaox ycox aae oao oe. a, 1 o oey oo aa p oaox ycox aae oao oe. ooy pea H2 + Cl2 = 2HCI o oe oopoa coeec c o oeo xopa opayc a oea xopooopoa, .e.

oee ooe ao 1 : 1 : 2. ooe oo opee o oea, oope co epe aoopa coee xeco ypae. ao oex ooe ooae pacca oe ao, oope cya pea oyac peyae pea.

PAHEH Copypye ao oex ooe.

Opeee oee ooe ao ceyx peax:

1) 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O (ap); 2) N2 + O2 = 2NO 3) CH4 + Cl2 = CH3Cl + HCl; 4) N2 + 3H2 = 2NH1.2.15 Aoo-oeypoe yee Ee peepeece oco ca, o eeca coco oe aex eex ac - aoo. Ho oaa o cepeao o e o.

B XVIII - XIX eax peyae pao M. B. ooocoa, aoa, Aoapo pyx a ya oea o aoo-oeypo cpoe eeca. a oea ocoaa a ee o peao cyecoa aoo oey. B 1860 oy Meyapo opecc xo eo opee o amoa u oey.. Aoo-oeypoe yee p ce yee. Xece pea ca paccapac c o pe aoo-oeypoo ye.

Oco ooe aoo-oeypoo ye:

1 Beeca coco oey - aex ac eeca, oope coxpa eo xece coca (c. . 1.2.1).

2 Moey coco aoo.

Ao - aee ac xecoo eea, oope xo coca pocx cox eec e papyac p xecx peax.

Amo, oeya, eecmo - u cyecmoau amepuu.

3 Moey ao epepo yc.

4 Moey coxpac p ecx ex papyac p xecx ex.

p xecx peax pocxo epepypoa aoo.

Xuuecue peauu - mo xuueca opa ueu amepuu.

Boe XIX aae XX eax aoo-oeypoe yee pepaoc ayy eop. Bo pe yee oaa cepeao, o ao oey cyecy oeo, eaco o eoea.

B acoee pe ooo e oo c paep oex oey x acc, o opee opo coe aoo oeye. ee opee paccoe eyoeya ae oopapy eoope apooey.

Aoo-oeypa eop - oa ax eop ececex ay. a eop oepae aepaoe eco pa.

COBA COBOCOETAH peepeec e, - Paccapa oco, - Pea paccope Hee ooee, - Toa pe oaa Hepepo Paccapa c o oppoa, - Eco pe c epepypoa, - PAHEH Haoe ocoe ooe aoo-oeypoo ye.

1 eo coco eeco 2 o pocxo c oeya: a) p ecx ex; ) p xecx ex 3 o pocxo c eeco: a) p ecx ex; ) p xecx ex 4 o pocxo c eea p xecx ex 5 aoe aee ee aoo-oeypoe yee aa 1.BCEH O XMECM OPMAM PABHEHM 1.3.1 Pace o xec opya p paceax o xec opya ypae yo o:

1 Xeca opya ooaae e oo oy oeyy eeca, o o oo eeca (c. . 1.2.5).

2 Macc eeca oo paa paax, opaax, oax ..

poopoaoc acc eec, oope cya xecy pea opayc peyae pea, e ac o opa e acc. Hapep, 2H2 + O2 = 2H2O 4 32 36 4 32 36 4 32 36 3 B ypae pea oe epe opya aoopax eec e oo ooee oe ao, o ooee x oeo (c. . 1.2.14):

H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl.

1 o 1 o 2 o 22,4 22,4 2 22,4 1 : 1 : p e p 1. Coo o a coepc 20,4 oca a Al2O3 Peeue:

a) r(Al2O3) = 272 + 16 3 = 102;

) 102 acc. . Al2O3 coepa 54 acc. . Al 102 Al2O3 coepa 54 Al 20,4 Al2O3 coepa x Al Cocae poop:

102 : 54 = 20,4 : x;

= = p e p 2. Ha pocey opyy coee, oopoe coep 43,39 % ap; 11,32 % yepoa; 45,2 % copoa.

Peeue: a) Ooa co aoo ap oeye x, co aoo yepoa y, co aoo copoa z. Toa opya eeca ye NaxCyOz; ) ax accooo cocaa o, o a 43,39 acc. . Na pxoc 11,32 acc. . C 45,28 acc. . O.

Ec pae accoe o eeo coee a x oocee aoe acc, o ae coooee ey co aoo oeye eeca, .e.

= = Haeee co 0,94 pe a ey. Toa x : y : z = 2 : 1 : 3. o a, o a a aoa ap pxoc o ao yepoa p aoa copoa. pocea opya coee Na2CO3.

aco coca eeca opee o aay poyo eo ope.

p e p 3. p oo copa 10,4 aa oyoc 35,2 oca yepoa (IV) CO2 7,2 o. ooc oo aa o oopoy paa 13. Hae oeypy opyy eeca.

Peeue: 1. Opee aece coca eeca: a) ooa opyy eeca epe X ae cxey pea:

X + O2 CO2 + H2O a o, coca eeca X xo ee yepo, oopo , ooo, copo. ooy opya eeca oe CxyOz; ) opee, coo pao yepoa coepc 10,4 eeca:

= 44,44 CO2 coepa 12 C 35,2 CO2 coepa x C = = ) opee, coo pao oopoa coepc 10,4 eeca:

= 18, 18 H2O coepa 2 H 7,2 H2O coepa x H = = Cya acc yepoa oopoa 10,4 eec paa 9,6 + 0,8 = 10,4 . a, eeco coco yepoa oopoa, a copo coca eeca e xo, ooy opyy eeca yo aca a: CxHy.

2 Opee oece coca eeca, .e. ae x y. oo pae acc eeo eece a x oocee aoe acc oy coooee ey co aoo oeye eeca:

x : y = =0,8 : 0,8 = 1 : 1.

pocea opya eeca CH.

3 Hae oeypy opyy eeca. oo opee oocey oeypy accy eeca o opye Mr =, e - ooc eeca o oopoy paa 13.

Mr = 13 2 = 26 = (12 + 1)n = n = Moeypa opya eeca C2H2.

COBA COBOCOETAH Oaa poce, -a, -ee, -e Ooaa - ooa pxoc OPATTE BHMAHE ! 1) mo ooaae epe mo.

Ooa co aoo ap oeye epe x.

2) Ha mo pxoc mo.

Ha 43,39 acc. . ap pxoc 11,32 acc. . yepoa.

PAHEH 1 Bc coca accox ox poeax; a) ea CaCO3; ) apoaa ap Na2CO3; ) cepo co H2SO4.

2 Coo o cep coepc 24 pa FeS2 3 Coo pao: a) a, ) ocopa, ) copoa coepc 620 ocaa a Ca2(PO4)3 4 Coo pao eea coepc 2 o oca eea (III) Fe2O3 5 Ha pocey opyy coee, oopoe coep aoa (N) 35 %, oopoa (H) 5 %, copoa (O) 60 %.

6 Ha pocey opyy coee, oopoe coep e (Cu) 40 %, cep (S) 32 %, copoa (O) 40 %.

7 p oo copa 6,9 eeca oyoc 13,2 oca yepoa (IV) CO2, 8,1 o. ooc apo oo eeca o oopoy paa 23. Ha oeypy opyy eeca.

1.3.2 Pace o xec ypae p e p 1. Coo pao oca a MgO opayec p copa 3 a Peeue: a) ae ypaee pea 2Mg + O2 = 2MgO ) Bc acc eec, oope cya pea opayc peyae ee.

Coaco ypae, ec, pea cyae 24 2 = 48 a, o opayec (24 + 16)= 80 oca a MgO.

Ec pea cya 3 Mg, o opayec x MgO. Cocae poop:

48 : 80 = 3 : x; = = p e p 2. Coo po copoa (.y.) cy pea p copa 4,8 a Peeue: a) ae ypaee pea 2Mg + O2 = 2MgO ) p copa 2 o a (48 ) (.y.) pea cyae 1 o copoa, .e.

22,4 . Ec cop 4,8 Mg, o copoa cy pea x . Cocae poop axo x:

48 : 4,8 = 22,4 : x , = = p e p 3. 14 oca a CaO pa 94,5 aoo co HNO3.

Coo pao co opaoaoc Peeue: a) ae ypaee pea CaO + 2HNO3 = Ca (NO3)2 + H2O ) Bpaae ox ae aae acc eec coaco opye n = m/M (c. .

1.2.5), e n - co oe; m acca; M - opa acca eeca: M(CaO) = 56 /o;

= = - = - = ) Coaco ypae pea 1 o CaO peapye c 2 o HNO, ooee oe : 2. o yco aa 0,25 o CaO pa 1,5 o HNO3; ooee oe 0,25 :

1,5 = 1 : 6. a, o co, .e. CaO ooc cy pea, a ac HNO3 ocaac oce pea. oeco co, oopa opaoaac peyae pea, paccae o oecy eeca, oopoe ooc cyo pea, .e. o ocy a CaO.

o ypae pea 1 o CaO opaye 1 o Ca (N03)2.

o yco aa pea cyae 0,25 o CaO, a, opayec 0,25 o Ca (NO3)2 164 /o 0,25 o = 41 .

COBA COBOCOETAH Copae o Paoee Cope ooc pa PAHEH 1 Coo pao cep copeo, ec peyae pea oy 5,6 oca cep (IV) SO2 (.y.) Coo po copoa (.y.) cyo pea 2 Coo po oopoa (.y.) opayec p aoec 13 a c oo xopooopoo co HC1 3 Paoee apoaa a CaCO3 paaec ypaee: CaCO3 = CaO + CO2. Coo pao apoaa a paooc, ec opaoaoc 11,2 oca a CaO 4 Coo pao co xopa a MgCI2 opayec p ec 18,25 xopooopoo co HC1 a 4 oca a MgO 5 Opeee opyy aa, ec p copa 40 oo aa 60 copoa opaoaoc 40 ox apo 40 aa SO2.

1.3.3 paecoe peee xecx paceo Xece pea ea ocoe ox pooc, apep pooca eao, pacee, yope, eapc, cea, poyo a p.

paoo poee xecx pea, yye yee oeca xeco poy yo a oeco cxox eec oex poyo, x aece oece coca. oo poo pace o xec opya ypae.

Oo pooce oyaec ee poya e pacca o xecoy ypae pea.

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