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B oeye cooo eeca AxBy, oopoe coco eea A c aeoc n eea B c aeoc m, poeee aeoc a co aoo ooo eea pao poee aeoc a co aoo pyoo eea: nx = my. Hapep, oeye Al2CO3 poeee aeoc a a co aoo pao poee aeoc copoa a co eo aoo (3 2 = 2 3).

Baeoc - aa aecea xapaepca eea.

paecoe opaee opy. opy oey oo opaa paec.

B paecx opaex opy ay aeoc ooaa p oo ep.

Hapep, paecoe opaee H opy H2O (oey o) O H O H, H opy CO2 [oca yepoa, (IV)]O C O, opy Al2O3 (oc a) O A1 O Al O.

p paeco opae opy yo o, o oeye eeca, oopoe coco yx eeo, cya aeoce aoo ooo eea paa cye aeoce aoo pyoo eea.

COBA COBOCOETAH Baeoc, paec epa Coooee, - opaee, - opaa - pcoe opa pcoe paec, -a, - Cey, -a, -oe, -e e, -oe Coo, -a, -oe, -e OPATTE BHMAHE ! 1) mo p a ey eo.

Baeoc, oopoa p a ey epe aeoc eeo.

2) mo coeec a.

Ao pax eeo coec opeeex ooex.

3) poeee eo a mo.

poeee aeoc a co aoo.

PAHEH 1 o aaec aeoc 2 ae ooaee, yxaee pexaee ee aee 3 ae ee e epeey aeoc 4 ay aeoc e ee coeex HBr, PH3, SiH4, Cl2O7 5 a opaa opy paec 6 Cocae opy coee: a) CxC1y; ) SnxCly ) ZnxCIy; ) PxOy; ) AlxCly; e) CxOy; ) CaxOy; ) SnxOy, ec xop ooaee, copo, a, yxae, yepo ooo epexae, a pexaee, ocop aee.

7 Opeee aeoc eeo coeex: PeC13, Cu2O, MgO, Cr2O3, CuCl2.

8 opae paec opy coee: CaO, C12O3, SO3, AlCl3, P2O5.

1.2.7 ao coxpae acc eec B 1748 oy peyae cepeo pycc ye M. B. oooco op o ax aoo ppo - ao coxpaeu acc eecma. B acoee pe o ao opypyec a.

Oa acca eec, oope cya xecy pea, paa oe acce eec, oope opayc peyae pea.

payc x ayae 1789 oy oep o ao cea ee o oe a o: acca aoo eea, oop yacye pea, e eec o pea. oo ooe ceye, o p xecx peax o ee e pepaac pye.

ao coxpae acc eeca oepae, o aep ea, o e ceae e oe eo, a oo epexo ooo a pyo.

p xecx peax ao e cea e oa eo. Oee co aoo p xeco pea e eec. Macca aoo aoa p xeco pea ocaec ocoo. ooy oa acca eec e eec.

Ha aoe coxpae acc ocoa oecee pace xecx pea.

COBA COBOCOETAH Peya, - oepa - Bo, - cepe, - oep (mo) Ceoa Coxpaee cea - cey Ocoa, - opypoa, c OPATTE BHMAHE ! 1) mo (o) + ao + peyae eo.

oooco op peyae cepeo ao coxpae acc.

2) mo ocoao a e.

oecee pace xecx pea ocoa a aoe coxpae acc.

3) eo ceye (ceoao) mo oo ooe ceoao, o p xecx peax o ee e pepaac pye.

4) mo aac e.

oooco aac cceoa oac , x, eayp, eopa acpoo.

PAHEH 1 Copypye ao coxpae acc eec.

2 eec p xeco pea a) acca aoa; ) co aoo 3 ao ao op M. B. oooco 4 Oco aoo ye papaoa M. B. oooco 1.2.8 Xece ypae Xecoe ypaee - o paee xeco pea c oo xecx opy. ea ac ypae coep opy eec, oope cya pea, paa ac opy eec, oope opayc peyae pea. ea paa ac coec ao paeca.

Coaco aoy coxpae acc eec ca aoo aoo eea eo pao acx xecoo ypae o oao. o x ypa, coy oe. Hapep, cxea ope a copoe Mg + O2 MgO paee pea ope a copoe 2Mg + O2 = 2MgO a ypae a: a-a c o-a paec a-a-o.

2Fe(OH)3 + 3H2SO4 = Fe2(SO4)3 + 6H2O a-eppy o-a-p c p-a-a-c-o-epe paec eppy-a-c-o-epep c ec-a-a-o.

COBA COBOCOETAH Coaco (ey) OPATTE BHMAHE! 1) Omaooe cyecmumeoe + eo + c oo eo.

Bpaee xeco pea c oo xecx opy.

2) Coaco ey.

Coaco aoy coxpae acc eec.

PAHEH 1 o oaae xecoe ypaee 2 Coo pao a copeo copoe, ec pea cyo 32 copoa, a peyae opaoaoc 80 MgO 3 ocae oe aee cpe ao paeca, poae ypae pea:

a) P + O2 P2O) A1 (OH)3 + H2SO4 Al2(SO4)3 + H2O ) Fe2(SO4)3 + NaOH Fe(OH)3 + Na2 SO) Fe + O2 Fe3O) Al(OH)3 Al2O3 + H2O 1.2.9 ao aeo Coaco aoy ococa cocaa pae ee coepac py c pyo opeeex ooex acc.

Macca eea, oopa coeec c oo accoo ac (acc. .) oopoa (oee c 1,008 acc. . - c oo eo oce c acco ac) c 8 (oce) acco ac copoa, aeae acc oopoa copoa coeex, aaec xec aeo eea ().

Hapep, oe H2Oc oo accoo ac oopoa coec oce accox ace copoa (2 : 16 = 1 : 8), a xec ae copoa pae oc (O = 8); xopooopoe HC1 c 1 acc. . oopoa coeec 35,5 acc. . xopa, a Cl = 35,5 (pa e ec); cepooopoe H2S c 1 acc. . oopoa coeec 16 acc. . cep, a S = 16 (ecaa).

Xec ae oopoa pae 1 (ee). ae eea oe e pae ae, ec o ee opaye c py eeo ecoo coee.

Hapep, yepo copo opay a coee CO CO2:

opy eec .. CO COOoee acc eeo ... 12 : 16 = 6 : 8 12 : 32 = 3 : ae yepoa . 6 Mey ooceo aoo acco, aeoc aeo aoo eea cyecye aa aoc: = Ar / aeoc. BCO aeoc yepoa paa y, a CO2 - epe, ooy CO C = 12/2 = 6, a CO2 C = 12/4 = 3.

aeo cooo eeca aaec eo accoa ac, oopa aoecye c o aeo oo pyoo eeca. Hapep, pea CuO + H2 = Cu + H2O c 1 acc. . oopoa peapye 40 acc. . CuO, ooy. CuO = 40.

poe o ec pya xeca ea oeca eeca pa-ae ().

pa-ae eea (eeca) - o oeco eea (eeca), oopoe coeec c 1 o aoo oopoa aeae o e oeco aoo oopoa xecx peax.

pa-ae oo eea ( eeca) coep 6,02 1023 aeo oo eea ( eeca).

Macca 1 pa-aea eea (eeca) aaec eo pa-uaemo acco. cooe aee pa-aeo acc eea (eeca) pao eo aey. pa-aea acca paaec paax a o (/o). Hapep, H = 1 /o; CuO = 40 /o.

B oe XVIII ea ee ye Pxep op ao uaemo, oop acoee pe opypyec a.

Macc eec, oope cya pea opayc peyae pea, poopoa x aea.

Maeaeca ac aoo aeo 1 =, e m1 m2 - acc eec; 1 2 - ae x eec.

ae ec ao oeceo xapaepco eea eeca.

ao aeo pacpae c ey aeceo oeceo xapaepca eeca.

COBA COBOCOETAH Coec - ae Peapoa (c e) coec poopoa Opeee, -a, -oe, aea (ey) -e aee Baoecoa (c e) OPATTE BHMAHE ! 1) mo coeec c e.

ee coec py c pyo.

2) mo aoecye c e.

O ae cooo eeca aoecye c o aeo oo pyoo eeca.

3) mo peapye c e.

Oc e (II) (CuO) peapye c oopoo.

PAHEH 1 o aaec aeo: a) eea, ) cooo eeca 2 aa aoc cyecye ey aeo eea, eo ooceo aoo acco aeoc 3 Copypye ao aeo.

4 Opeee ae aoa ceyx coeex: N2O, NO, N2O3, NO2, N2 O5.

5 Paccae ae aeoc eea, ec 22,4 eea coec c 9,6 copoa.

6 Oaooe oeco oopoa aoecye c 4 poa c 0,8 cep.

Opeee ae cep, ec ae poa 80.

7 Opeee co pa-aeo copoa: a) 1 o O2; ) 24 o O2.

1.2.10 ao Aoapo Oe opeeeoo ca oey aa ea e ocoa. O ac o yco, .e. o eepayp T ae p.

B 1811 oy ac ye Aoapo opypoa oey:

B pax oeax pax ao p oaox ycox coepc oaooe co oey.

cepeae a oep y oey. Oa caa aoo.

Aoapo oaa, o oey pocx ao (oopoa, copoa, aoa, opa, xopa p.) coco yx aoo.

a oc aoy Aoapo, a epe e eeca e oc.

oey B aax p ax aex paccoe ey oeya cy pa oe, e paep cax oey. ooy oe aa opeeec a opao co oey eo poeyo (paccoe) ey oeya. Paep cax oey po e pa. p oaoo ae oaoo eepaype pacco ey oeya pax ao peo oao. Ta opao, oaooe co oey pax ao p oaox ycox aae oao oe.

Bx epx eecax pacco ey oeya a, ooy x oe opeec e oo co, o paepa oey.

p x eepaypax cox aex a e oc aoy Aoapo, a a paccoe ey oeya yeaec caoc paepa cax oey. a p x eepaypax cox aex cxo c oc.

COBA COBOCOETAH ep, -c oc (ey) Ca, -a, -o, - aee Opee, -c Caoc oea, - Paccoe, - .e. - o ec a, - peo , -a, -oe, -e aa oe Cxo, -a, -oe, -e OPATTE BHMAHE ! 1) mo oec ey.

a oc aoy Aoapo.

2) mo opeeec e.

Oe aa opeeec co oey eo pacco ey .

PAHEH 1 Copypye ao Aoapo.

2 aoo ca aoo coco oey oopoa, aoa, copoa, ooa, xopa, opa 3 O eo ac oe aa 4 e opeeec: a) oe aa; ) oo eeca 5 oc aoy Aoapo: a) a; ) e eeca; ) epe eeca oey 6 p ax ycox a e oc aoy Aoapo oey 1.2.11 Mop oe aa (epoe cece aoa Aoapo) M ae (c. . 1.2.5), o o oo eeca coep 6,02 1023 oey. aoa Aoapo ceye, o 0,02 1023 oey oo aa p oaox ycox o aa oao oe.

Paccae oe, oop aae p opax ycox (.y.) (t = 0 C p = 101325 a) 6,02 1023 oey eoopx ao. oo, coaco opye V = M/p, opy accy aa M yo pae a ooc aoo aa p (accy 1 aoo aa paax) p opax ycox (a. 4).

4 Mope acc ooc eoopx ao Mopa ooc aa p a acca aa, opax ycox, /o / Boopo H2 2 0,copo O2 32 1,Oc yepoa (II) 28 1,CO Haxo, o 6,02 1023 oey aoo x ao (1 o oey) p opax ycox aa oe:

= = = Oe, oop aae 6,02 1023 oey oo aa p opax ycox, peo pae 22,4 . o oe aaec op oeo aa Vm.

Mop oe aa paa eax: 3/o (ep yec a o) /o (p a o).

Oe, oop aae o pa-ae aa p opax ycox, aaec pa-uaem oeo aa (V). pa-ae oe oopoa p opax ycox = 11,2 /o; pa-ae oe copoa p opax ycox = 5,6 /o.

COBA COBOCOETAH Hopae yco (.y.) pa-ae oe Mop oe PAHEH 1 o aaec op oeo aa 2 Bax eax paa op oe aa 3 o aaec pa-ae oeo aa 4 ao oe oopoa ec p pea c coo ooo o eaa; a) ooaeoo; ) yxaeoo; ) pexaeoo coye ao aeo.

5 aoa oocea oeypa acca aa, ec acca 1 eo p . y. 2,86 6 Opeee accy p .y.: a) 1 aaa NH3; ) 0,5 oopoa H2; ) 2 oca yepoa (IV) CO2 1.2.12 Pace ooceo ooc ao (opoe cece aoa Aoapo) aoa Aoapo ceye, o ooc oo aa oo pacca o opye = M/Vm, e M - opa acca aa; Vm - op oe aa.

Ooee ooce yx ao p oaox ycox aaec ooceo ooc ooo aa o pyoy (d).

Hae oocey ooc epoo aa o opoy: d = 1/2. Ta a 1 = M1/Vm1, 2 = M2/Vm2, a p oaox ycox op oe pax ao oao Vm1 = Vm2, o d = M1Vm2/(Vm1M2) = M1M2.

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