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Cepa S, oopo H2, copo O2, oo O3, ocop P, eeo Fe - o poce eeca.

O ee oe opaoa ecoo pocx eec. o ee aaec aomponue. Hapep, ee copo opaye a pocx eeca - copo O2 oo O3; ee ocop opaye poce eeca - e ocop, pac ocop, ep ocop; ee yepo opaye poce eeca - pa aa.

Beeca, oope coco aoo pax eeo, aac co.

Hapep, oa H2O coco aoo pax eeo - oopoa H copoa O;

e CaCO3 coco aoo eeo a Ca, yepoa C copoa O. Boa e coe eeca.

COBA COBOCOETAH Ao, - ee, - opa Ao, -a, -oe, -e Oc, - ea opa Oco, -a, -oe, -e Py Haae, - oepa (mo) Copac a Opae, -a, -oe, - Boopo Aopo e Paaac pac, -a, -oe, Cepepc, -a, -oe, - eco -e e Coepae pa poco, -a, -oe, -e Aa Co, -a, -oe, -e OPATTE BHMAHE ! mo xoum cocma eo.

Xece ee xo coca pocx cox eec.

PAHEH 1 eo coco oey 2 o aaec xec eeo 3 o oaae xec a 4 ae eeca aac: a) poc; ) co pee pep pocx cox eec.

5 ae ee xo coca: a) ea; ) o; ) copoa; ) ooa; ) cepo co; e) aaa; ) paa 6 ae, oa oop o copoe eee oa - o poco eece: a) oc py coco copoa py; ) oa coco copoa oopoa; ) copo oxo pacop oe; ) pa copoo; ) eoe copoo; e) coca oyxa xo ao, copo pye a.

1.2.3 Oocea aoa acca Macca aoa - oe aea ea. Hapep, acca aoa oopoa 0,00000000000000000000000167, 1,67 10-24 (oa ea ecec ce cox, yoea a ec yc aa eepo cee pao). Macca aoa yepoa 19,93 10-24 . cooa ae ca p paceax eyoo. ooy x coy oocey ecy ey - oocey aoy accy eea Ar.

Oocea aoa acca eea - ea, paa ooe acc aoa eea 1/12 (oo eaao) acc aoa yepoa - 12.

- - Oa eaaa acc aoa yepoa - 12, paa = aaec amoo euue acc (a.e..).

Hapep, acca aoa copoa 26,60 10-24 ; ooy oocea aoa acca - copoa = = - Oocea aoa acca oaae, o coo pa acca aoa oe, e 1/ac acc aoa yepoa. Oocea aoa acca eea - aa oecea xapaepca eea. Oocee aoe acc eeo pee a. 2.

COBA COBOCOETAH Ooce, a, - oe, - e Bea, - cooa Bpae, -a, -oe, -e Pace, - epo Heyoo oece, -a, -oe, -e Xapaepca, - OPATTE BHMAHE ! Bo coo pa oe (ee), e.

Oocea aoa acca oaae, o coo pa acca aoa oe, e 1/ac acc aoa yepoa.

PAHEH 1 o aaec ooceo aoo acco 2 o oaae oocea aoa acca 3 Bo coo pa acca aoa: a) yepoa; ) copoa; ) cep; ) eea; ) ocopa oe, e 1/12 ac acc aoa yepoa 4 Opeee oocee aoe acc: a) eea (acca aoa oopoa 93, 10-24 ); ) oopoa (acca aoa oopoa 1,67 10-24 ); ) ypa (acca aoa ypaa 396,67 10-24 ).

1.2.4 ao ococa cocaa. Xece opy.

Oocea oeypa acca eoe yae pae op e aep, pacpae c acoc ey e ppo, opae ao ppo ao ppo ecy eaco o eoea. ao x, a ao pyx ay - o opaee aoo ppo.

B XVIII (oceaao) XIX (eaao) eax yee op ocoe ao x.

ao ococa cocaa. B 1799 oy payc ye pyc op ao ococa cocaa:

Bcoe coe eeco ee oco coca, oop e ac o cocoa oye oo eeca.

Hapep, oa H2O (a - a - o) coco oopoa copoa (aece coca). B oe coepc 11,11 % oopoa, 88,89 % copoa (oece coca).

Boy oo oy pa cocoa. Bo cex cyax ca oa ee oao coca.

epoc oopoa H2O2 (a - a - o - a), a oa, coco oopoa copoa. Ho oece coca epoca oopoa oaec o oeceoo cocaa o. B epoce oopoa coepc 5,89 % ( ex oceec e cox poea) oopoa 94,11 % (eoco epe ex oaa cox poea) copoa. epoc oopoa ee xapaepe coca, oope oac o coc o.

a , oecee ee po aece ee.

oeco aeco axoc aeco aoc.

Xece opy. Coca eeca oo pa p oo xeco opy. Xeca opya oaae:1) ax eeo coco eeco (aece coca); 2) coo aoo aoo eea xo coca oey eeca (oece coca); 3) oy oeyy eeca.

Hapep, opya o H2O oaae, o: 1) oeya o coco aoo oopoa copoa, 2) oeyy o xo a aoa oopoa o ao copoa.

Maea pa, oopa co cpaa e xecoo aa (uec), oaae, coo aoo aoo eea xo coca oey. oa pa, oopa co epe xec ao opyo (ouuem), oaae co oex aoo oey. Hapep, 2H (a - a) - a oex aoa oopoa;

oe H2 (a - a) - oa oeya oopoa;

ec 5H2 ( a - a) - oey oopoa.

oe Oocea oeypa acca. Macca oey paax oe aea ea. Hapep, acca oo oey o paa 28,944 10-24 . ooy oyc ooceo eco eo - ooceo oeypo acco (Mr).

Oocea oeypa acca eeca - ea, paa ooe acc oey eeca 1/12; acc aoa yepoa - 12.

cooe aee ooceo oeypo acc pao cye oocex aox acc aoo, oopx coco oeya. Hapep, oocea oeypa acca o = 2 1,008 + 1 16 = 18,016.

Oocea oeypa acca oaae, o coo pa acca oey aoo eeca oe, e 1/12 ac acc aoa yepoa. Oocea oeypa acca - aa oecea xapaepca eeca.

o xeco opye oo c: 1) ooee acc eeo h eeca; 2) oocey oeypy accy eeca; 3) coca eeca accox ox poeax (acca o, %).

Hapep, c ooee acc eeo oeye o H2O. B coca oey o xo: a aoa oopoa (Ar(H) = 1); x acca paa 1 2 = 2; o ao copoa (Ar(O) = 16).

Ooee acc oopoa acce copoa oeye o 2 : 16, 1 : 8 (o oc).

Bc ae coca oca a MgO accox ox poeax. B coca oey oca a xo o ao a o ao copoa:

1) Mr(MgO) = 24 + 16 = 40;

2) 40 acc. ox MgO coepc 24 acc. o Mg. Ooee acc a acce oca a pao 24 : 40 = 0,6 poeax - 60 %.

3) 40 acc. ox MgO coepc 16 acc. oe O; ooee acc copoa acce oca a pao 16 : 40 = 0,4 poeax - 40 %.

Coca oca a accox ox poeax: 60 % a 40 % copoa.

COBA COBOCOETAH ococo Baoc oe Ooee, - opya, - aece Bc, -a, -oe, -e Coco, - Eco c, -a, -oe, -e oyee poe oco, -a, -oe, - Haxoc ec e Bcee, - C, - Bpaa - pa Bc acoc, - (mo) (mo) Macco, -a, -oe, aec, -a, -oe, Coepac -e -e ace (om o eo) OPATTE BHMAHE ! 1) mo ac (e ac) om eo.

Coca eeca ac o cocoa eo oye.

2) mo oaec om eo.

Coca epoca oopoa oac o coc o.

3) p oo eo.

Coca eeca oo pa p oo xeco opy.

4) mo coepc e.

Boe coepc 11,11 % oopoa 88,89 % copoa.

5) p + ame nae + ao.

o xeco opye oo c coca eeca accox ox poeax.

PAHEH 1) Copypye ao ococa cocaa.

2) p oo eo paa coca eeca 3) o oaae: a) xeca opya; ) ec; ) oe 4) oey coca ox eec, oac o coc pyx eec 5) Hae opy eec, oopx coepc: a) o ao cep a aoa copoa; ) p aoa eea epe aoa copoa; ) a aoa oopoa, o ao cep epe aoa copoa.

6) Ooae xec aa opya: a) p aoa cep; ) a aoa aoa; ) ce oey o; ) o ao xopa; ) aoo eea.

7) Bce oocee oeype acc eec: H2SO4, Mg(NO3)2, Fe2(SO4)3, Al2O3, Ca3(PO4)2. Opeee: a) ooee acc eeo, oope xo coca x eec; ) coca x eec accox ox poeax.

1.2.5 Mo B x ec ocoa ea oeca eeca "o".

Mo - oeco eeca, oopoe coep coo ac (aoo, oey pyx ac), coo coepc aoo 12 paax yepoa.

B 12 yepoa coepc = aoo (19,93 10-24 - acca ooo aoa yepoa). o co (NA = 6,02 1023 o-1) aaec ocoo Aoapo.

Macca 6,02 1023 oey, aoo pyx ac eeca aaec eo opo acco (ooaaec yo M).

Mopy accy eeca oo pacca o opye M = Mr 1,66 10-24 6,02 1023 o-1 = Mr 1 /o M = Mr 1 /o, e Mr oocea oeypa acca; 6,02 1023 o-1 - ocoa Aoapo; 1,66 10-24 o 1/12 acc aoa yepoa.

cooe aee opo acc eeca M pao ooceo oeypo acce (Mr) (a. 3).

Mopa acca eeca paaec paax a o (/o).

Mopa acca aoapoo aoa M(N) paa 14 /o, opa acca oeypoo aoa paa 28 /o.

3 opy, oocee aoe oeype acc ope acc eoopx eec Oocea opya co ac Mopa eeca aoa 1 o acca M, oeypa /o acca Fe 56 6,02 1023 aoo O2 32 6,02 oey H2O 18 6,02 oey CaCO3 100 6,02 oey H2SO4 98 6,02 oey S 32 6,02 oey Mey acco eeca m, co oe oo eeca n (o) eo opo acco M (/o) cyecye aa acoc m = M n.

ooy acca 4 o o paa 18 /o 4 o = 72 .

COBA COBOCOETAH Mo Mopa acca Mepa Coo OPATTE BHMAHE ! 1) mo coep mo.

Mo coep 6,02 1033 ac.

2) Cmoo , coo.

a paa oopoa coep coo oey, coo oey coep paax copoa.

3) mo paaec e.

Mopa acca eeca paaec paax a o (/o).

4) mo pao ey.

cooe aee opo acc eeca (M) pao ooceo oeypo acce PAHEH 1 o aoe o 2 ey paa opa acca oo eeca 3 Baxeax paa opy accy 4 Opeee ope acc eec: CuSO4, Cl2, Zn, Ca(NO3)2, A12(SO4)3.

5 Coo pao oopoa: a) 1 o o; ) 3 o NH3; ) 0,5 o H2 6 Coo pao eea: a) 5 o eea; ) 2 o Fe2O3; ) 0,2 o Fe3O4; ) 3 o Fe2(SO4)3 7 Coo oe ap: a) 2 paax Na2CO3; ) 4 o NaOH; ) 0,5 o Na2 SO4 8 Coo oe coca: a) 10 H2O; ) 96 S; ) 80 NaOH; ) 4,9 H2SO 9 Coo aoo cex eeo coepc: a) 20 NaOH; ) 8,2 Ca(NO3)2 10 Coo aoo copoa coepc: a) 2 o O2; ) 0,3 o H2SO4; ) 68,4 Al2 (SO4)3; ) 3,21 Fe(OH)3 11 Coo pao cep coepa coo aoo, coo x 3 oopoa 12 Coo pao cepo co coepa coo oey, coo x 9 o 1.2.6 Baeoc p opaoa eec ao pax eeo coec opeeex coooex.

Baeoc - cocooc aoo aoo eea pcoe opeeeoe co aoo pyx eeo.

Ao oopoa oa e pcoee oe ooo aoa pyoo eea.

ooy aeoc oopoa p a ey ee aeoc eeo.

Ec ao eea pcoee o ao oopoa, o o ee ee aeoc o (ooaee). Ec ao eea pcoee a aoa oopoa, o ee yxaee. Ec ao eea pcoee p aoa oopoa, o o ee pexaee.

Hapep, coeex: HCl - xop ooaee, H2O - copo yxaee, NH3 ao pexaee, CH4 - yepo epexaee. Bx coeex aeoc eeo opeee o opya oopox coee - o aemocm no oopoy.

copo cea ee aeoc a. Ec ae opy coee eeo c copoo, o oo opee aemocm no ucopoy. Hapep, ceyx coeex ee e ae aeoc (ooae pc pa):

I II III IV V VI VII Na2 O, CaO, Al2O3, CO2, P2O5, CrO3, Mn2O7.

Heoope ee e ocoy aeoc. Hapep, Na, , Rb, Li, H coeex cea ooae; O, Ca, Mg, Sr, Ba cea yxae; Al - pexaee.

Moe ee e epeey aeoc. Hapep, eeo II III voe e aeoc a p (FeO Fe2O3); e ee aeoc I II o a (Cu2O, Cu2O). Cepa ee aeoc a ( coeex c II II II oopoo c eaa: H2S, CaS, Na2S) aeoc epe ec IV VI ( coeex c copoo: SO2, SO3).

Ec ae aeoc eeo, o oe eo coca opyy eeca, oopoe coco yx eeo. Hapep, ec eeco coco a (aeoc a) xopa (aeoc o), o opya eeca MgCl2.

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