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1 Ec paece coepac o eao, y oopx E0 < -1,18 B (apep, o K+, Ca2+, Al3+), o occaaac yy oey o:

2H2O + 2e- = H2 + 2OH2 Ec pacope coepac o eao, y oopx E0 0 (Cu2+, Ag+ ..), o o eo occaaac, apep 8Cu2+ + 2e- = Cu 3 B pacope, coepae o eao c 1,18 E0 < 0 (apep, Zn2+, Fe2+), p epoe poea oopeeo a poecca occaoee aoo eaa oey o:

Zn2+ + 2e- = Zn 2H2O + 2e- = H2 + 2OHB peax a aoe oy pa yace ao eoopx eccopox co (Cl-, Br-, I-, S2-) poc - o OH-, apep:

2Cl- - 2e- = Cl4OH- - 4e- = H2O + OEc pacope pcycy ao F-, SO42-, NO3-, CO3-, o oce oepaec e ao, a oa:

2H2O - 4e- = 4H+ + Op epoe c pacop epoa a aoe ocec ea, apep cyae eeoo aoa:

Ni - 2e- = Ni2+ epo ae pooe peee poeoc, epy oepe o coyec p oye pax eec (eao, ao p.).

PAHEH 1 o aaec epoo 2 ae poecc pocxo a aoe aoe p epoe pacopa: a) paa e (II); ) xopa ap; ) 4 cyaa e; ) poa a; ) cyaa ap 3 ao ea ye ec y aoa p epoe pacopa, coepaeo o a (Zn+), ca (Pb2+) eea (II) (Fe2+) Pa e II HEOPAHECA XM aa 2.META 2.1.1 Coca eao. Ca Bce xece ee opae a ea eea. eeaa ooc 22 xecx eea. eaa paea ce ee oox opy, a aao ao, ee ax opy I py (a cee oopoa), II py, III py (a cee opa) eoope ee ax opy IV VI py (epa, ooo, ce, cypa, cy, oo).

Heoope ee, ooce eaa (epa, cypa p.), aa poeyooe ooee ey eaa eeaa. Oee eaece coca oy poc y eoopx eeo eeao (pe, , eyp).

Bae ec coca eao c: coa epo- eopoooc, eaec ec acoc. coca oycoe eaeco c.

xecx coc eao ceye pee ceo oe x occaoey cocooc, oopa oycoea eoc oa epoo aoa eao. Mea peapy co o oce, apep:

+ + = + + = + eao xapaep pea c coa. ocaoo ae ea (Al, Mg, Zn, Fe, Sn) pacopc coo paaeo cepo coax c eee oopoa:

2Al + 6HCl = 2AlCl3 + 3HZn + H2SO4 = ZnSO4 + HMaoae ea (Cu, Ag) x coax e pacopc.

Aoa oeppoaa cepa co, ec c oce, pacop oe ea (oopo x peax e eec), apep:

Cu + 2H2SO4 = CuSO4 + SO2 + 2H2O Ag + 2HNO3 = AgNO3 + NO2 + H2O Heoope ea (Al, Zn, Pb, Sn) pacopc ox pacopax eoe, apep:

Zn + 2NaOH + 2H2O = Na[Zn(OH2)4] + H2Al + 2KOH + 10H2O = 2K[Al(OH)4(H2O)2] +3HB poeoc a opao coy e ce ea, a ca.

Cnaau aac eaece aepa, cocoe yx ecox pocx eec. poe eao coca cao oy xo eea. a ea, ca e eaec ec oaa cocooc poo epec o.

p ae eao oy opaoac epeaece coee, ooee cec eao (epe pacop), eepoee cce (cocoe pcao oex ooeo).

PAHEH 1 a pacoaac ea epoeco ccee 2 ae ece coca eao aee 3 e oycoea occaoea cocooc eao 4 a xapaep xec coca oaa ea 5 Hae ypae oox pea ey cey eeca (co co e ox pacopo):

1) Cu + Hg(NO3)2 4) FeSO4+Cu 2) Fe + ZnSO4 5) Ag + HCl 3) Mg + H2SO4 6) Pb(NO3)2 + Fe 6 o aoe ca 7 e coyc ca 2.1.2 Py. oyee eao oco eao cpeac ppoe e pax coee (epao). B cooo e eo ope cpeac oo ea, oope py caapx epox oeao co cpaa o oopoa - e, py, cepepo, ooo, aa.

ppoe epae coee, oopx ooec eecoopao oya ea, aac pyau. Hapep, eea pya oe coepa Fe3O4, Fe2O3, Fe2O3H2O pye coee eea. poe oex epao pya coep ycy opoy.

Py c oco cpe emaypuu opac poeoc, pooe ea. oye eao py epepaaa. Coee eao occaaa, coy pae occaoe: yepo, oc, yepo (II), ae ea (a, ap, a), oopo, epec o a aoe, apep:

NiO + C Ni + CO + + + + + + + PAHEH 1 Bao e cpeac ea ppoe 2 ae ea cpeac ppoe e coox coee 3 o aaec pya 4 ae coco oye eao aee 2.1.3 eoe ea eo eaa aa ee ao opy epo py epoeco cce . . Meeeea: (Li), ap (Na), a (K), py (Rb), e (Cs) pa (Fr).

Ao x eeo e a ee epeeco ypoe o ooy s-epoy (ns1). Bcya xece aoec, ao eo oa o epo eeo epecoo ypo, po coeex cee oce +1.

eoe ea oaa coo xeco aoc. B peax o c c occaoe. Bce eoe ea eo occ copoo oyxa, p o opaye oc:

4Li + O2 = 2Li2O ap - epoc ap:

2Na + O2 = Na2Oa, py e - aepoc:

K + O2 = KOeoe ea ao peapy c py eeaa, apep:

2Na + S = Na2S 2Na + H2 = 2NaH 2Na +Br2 = 2NaBr Bce eoe ea occaaa oy o oeypoo oopoa:

2Na + 2 H2O = 2NaOH + HAoc aoec eao c oo ( py eeca) yeaec o e. eoe ea ae ao peapy c coa.

eoe ea opay ocoe oc (apep, Na2O, K2O) cooecye poc (NaOH, KOH), oope c eoa.

Mea ao opy x coee (ocoeo coee ap a) pa oy po apoo xoce. Coee ap coy ee, eo, xeco poeoc, ceco xoce y. Coee a eoxo pace PAHEH 1 ae ea aac eo 2 Hae epoe oypa aoo: a) ap, ) a.

3 ay cee oce po eoe ea 4 ao ee oee a ea - a ap oey 5 Hae ypae pea, oope oe cya: a) ap, ) a.

6 ae oc poc opaye ap a 7 eo coy coee ap a 2.1.4 Ma a Ma (Mg) a (Ca) c eea ao opy opo py epoeco cce . . Meeeea. B y opyy ae xo ep, ap, cpo pa. a, ap, cpo pa aac eooeeu emaau.

Ao eeo ao opy e o a s-epoa a ee epeeco ypoe (ns2). B xecx peax ao eo oa epo eeo ypo, po cee oce +2.

Ma a oaa ocaoo coo xeco aoc, pe aoc a e, e a. ea peapy co o eeaa, apep:

Mg + Cl2 = MgCl2; 2Ca + O2 = 2CaO C oo a peapye p apea, a p ox ycox:

Mg + 2H2O Mg(OH)2 +H2; Ca + 2H2O = Ca(OH)2 + HMa a ao peapy c pa coa:

Mg + 2HCl = MgCl2 + H4Mg + 10HNO3(pa) = 4Mg(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + 3H2O 4Ca + 5 H2SO4 (o.) = 4CaSO4 + H2S + 4H2O Ce occaoee cocooc a a (ocoeo p cox eepaypax) coyc p oye eee ax eao, apep:

TiCl4 + 2Mg = Ti + 2MgClV2O5 + 5Ca = 2V + 5CaO Oc MgO CaO po ocoe coca. cooecy poc:

Mg(OH)2 (aopacopoe ocoae) Ca(OH)2 (eo).

Coeee a a coyc poeoc ceco xoce, apep: CaO - eaea ec, Ca(OH)2 - aea ec (o pacop ecoa oa), CaCO3 - ec. Pacope poapoa a a Mg(HCO3)2 Ca(HCO3)2, a ae xopa cya x eeo oycaa ecmocm o.

PAHEH 1 ae ea aac eooee 2 Hae epoe oypa aoo: a) a, ) a.

3 ay cee oce poe a a 4 ao ee oee a ea - a a oey 5 Hae ypae pea, oope oe cya: a) a, ) a.

6 ae oc poc opaye a a 7 eo coy coee a a 2.1.5 A A (Al) - ee ao opy pee py epoeco cce .

. Meeeea. Ao a ee p epoa a ee epeeco ypoe.

Oaa epo, ao a poe cee oce + 3.

A - xec a ea. Oao eo aoc ecoo caec -a a oo poo e oca, oopa cea opayec a oepxoc eaa p oae eo c oyxo.

A peapye co o eeaa, pe c xopo poo p ox ycox, a c py p apea, apep:

2Al + 3Cl2 = 2AlCl3; 4Al + 3O2 = 2Al2O2Al + N2 = 2AlN; 4Al + 3C = Al4CC oo a peapye oo o cyae, oa c oepxoc yaea oca ea 2Al + 6H2O = 2Al(OH)3 + 3HA aoecye c coo paaeo cepo coa c eee oopoa:

2Al + 3H2SO4 = Al2(SO4)2 + 3HAoa oeppoaa cepa co accpy a: yeaec oa ao e ea e pacopec.

A aoecye c pacopa eoe c eee oopoa:

2Al + 2NaOH + 10H2O = 2Na[Al(OH)4(H2O)2] + 3HA p cox eepaypax ec xopo occaoee ox oco eao, o coyec eayp (aomepu), apep:

Cr2O3 + 2Al = 2Cr + Al2O3Fe3O4 + 8Al = 9Fe + 4Al2OA opaye oc Al2O3 (uoe) poc Al(OH)3. Oc oya pocx eec epec paoee poca. poc oo oy, ecy o pacopo aaa a pacop coe a:

AlCl3 + 3NH3 H2O = Al(OH)3 + 3NH4Cl Oc poc a c aomepu coeueuu, .e. po a ocoe, a coe coca. Ocoe coca x coee poc peax c coa, a coe - peax co eoa:

2Al(OH)3 + 3H2SO4 = Al2(SO4)3 + 6H2O Al(OH)3 + KOH + 2H2O = K[Al(OH)4(H2O)2] A eo ca poo pec apoo xoce, aoap eoc ycooc o ooe oyxy oe. B e ex cao a coyec aa, cyocpoe, eeoopoo pacope, cpoece.

A peec ooe epecx pooo, yxoo ocy, oye ox eao eeao.

PAHEH 1 Hae epoy oypa aoa a.

2 ay cee oce poe a 3 Hae ypae pea, oope oe cya a.

4 ae oc poc opaye a 5 a oya oc poc a 6 ae coca po oc poc a 7 eo coy a eo ca 2.1.6 Xpo apae Xpo (Cr) apae (Mn) - ee oox opy cooeceo eco ceo py epoeco cce . . Meeeea. Bae c epo 3d 4s-oypoe. Haoee xapaepe cee oce aoo coeex xpoa +2, + +6, apaa +2, +4, +6 +7.

Xpo opaye oc: CrO, Cr2O3, CrO3. Oca xpoa (II) (III) cooecy poc Cr(OH)2 (oco) Cr(OH)3 (aoep). Aoepoc poca xpoa (III) poec peax c coa eoa:

2Cr(OH)2 + 3H2SO4 = Cr2(SO4)3 + 6H2O Cr(OH)3 + 3NaOH = Na3[Cr(OH)6] cooy ocy xpoa (VI) cooecy co, poce oopx c H2Cr2O7 (uxpooa ucoma). co opayc p pacope oca xpoa (VI) oe, apep, CrO3 + H2O = H2CrOCo xpooo co - xpoam (Na2CrO4 - xpoa ap), xpooo co uxpoam (K2Cr2O7 - xpoa a).

Xpoa oya p aoec CrO3 pacopo xpoox co co eoa:

CrO3 + 2NaOH = Na2CrO4 + H2O xpoa opayc p oae co xpoaa:

2Na2CrO4 + H2SO4 = Na2Cr2O7 + Na2SO4 + H2O Booe opa epexo p oae eoe pacopa xpoao:

Na2Cr2O7 + 2NaOH = 2Na2CrO4 + H2O Ta opao, cx pacopax peyeceo cyecy xpoa (o opaa pacop opae e), a eox - xpoa (pacop eoo ea).

Paoec ccee xpoa - xpoa oo peca cey ypae copaeo oo ope:

2CrO42- + 2H Cr2O72- + H2O Cr2O72- + 2OH 2CrO42- +H2O Coee xpoa (VI) (oc, xpoa, xpoa, xpooe co) c c oce. B oceo-occaoex peax o oo occaaac o coee xpoa (III), apep:

+ + + + + + = + + + + + + = + + - = Mapae opaye ecoo oco ( aoee xapaepx ceex oce).

Oc apaa (IV) MnO2 cooecy ey poc Mn(OH)4 peapye c cepo coo co eoa p ae:

MnO2 + 2H2SO4 = Mn(SO4)2 + 2H2O MnO2 + 2KOH = K2MnO3 + H2O Oc apaa (IV) acoc o eec, c oop o peapye, oe po coca a oce, a occaoe, apep:

+ + + = + + oce + + + + = + + occaoe co oc apaa (VII) Mn2O7 p aoec c oo c oo opaye cy apaoy ucomy + = Co apaoo co - nepaaam (KMnO4 - epaaaa).

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