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= = e (X) - accoa o pacopeoo eeca X; m(X) - acca ooea X; m - acca pacopa.

Maccoa o - epaepa ea. Oa paaec ox poeax.

Mopa oempau - o ooee oeca pacopeoo eeca oey pacopa:

= e c(X) - opa oepa eeca X; n(X) - oeco eeca X; V - oe pacopa. Ea C opo oepa - o/3, o aoee aco coyec ea o/.

ooae e opo oepa pacopa oo coyec ya M, apep: 1M - ooop pacop (c = 1 o/); 0,1 M - eop pacop (c = 0,1 o/) . .

Cocooc eeca opaoa pacop aa pacmopuocm. Pacop, oopo oe pacopeo ee eoopoe oeco pacopeoo eeca p ao eepaype, ec eace. p oce peea pacopoc opayec ace pacop, oopo pacopeoe eeco axoc aeco paoec c o oo e eeca. oa oo oy nepecee pacop c oepae pacopeoo eeca oe, e aceo. Tae pacop p ex oecx eo papyac: opayec ace pacop, ec pacopeoo eeca.

oeceo xapaepco pacopoc ec opa oepa aceoo pacopa aoo eeca accoa o pacopeoo eeca aceo pacope. oa pacopoc oeceo xapaepy p oo oea pacopoc. o oe oaae accy eeca ( .), oopoe oe pacopc p ax ycox pacopee acco 100 .

PAHEH 1 o aoe pacop 2 ax ooeo coco pacop 3 o aaec accoo oe pacopeoo eeca opo oepae Be paac e 4 o aoe pacopoc 5 ao pacop aaec: a) ace, ) eace, ) epece 6 e xapaepy pacopoc 1.8.2 ETPOTECA CCOA empoumueco uccouaue aa poecc pacaa eec (epoo) a o ox pacopax, apep:

HI H+ + I ao ao (ooeo (opaeo apee o) apee o) epoeca ccoa ec opa poecco.

poecc epoeco ccoa oycoe aoece pacopex eec c oo ( py pacopee); opayec o - amuo auo c upamupoau, .e. xec ca c oo.

epoa oocc oa, co, ocoa, co. Paccop ccoa aex acco eopaecx coee.

p ccoa co cea opayc o oopoa H+ (oee o poco H3O+), oope oycoa aee coca co (c yc, ec a aop, aoece c ocoa) HCl H+ + Cl-.

pyx aoo, poe oo oopoa, p ccoa co e opayec.

yx- ooocoe co ccopy cyeao, oceeo oe o oopoa. Hapep, cyae cepo co:

epa cye H2SO4 H+ + HSO4 opa cye HSO4- H+ + SO4 co ccopy oe cee o epo cye, e o opo ocey.

p ccoa ocoa cea opayc poco OH-, apep, NaOH Na+ + OH yx- pexcoe ocoa ox pacopax ccopy cyeao, .e.

oceeo oe poc-o. Hapep, cyae poca a Ca(OH)ccoa poeae e cye:

epa cye Ca(OH)2 Ca(OH)+ + OH opa cye Ca(OH)+ Ca2+ + OH pyx aoo, poe OH-, p ccoa ocoa e opayec.

Cyecy epo, oope oy ccopoa a o exay co (c oeee oo H+), a o exay ocoa (oeee oo OH-). O aac aomepu empoumau aoumau. aoep epoa, apep, oocc oa H2O H+ + OH p ccoa coe opayc ao eao ao cox ocao, apep:

KCl K+ + Cl Cpee co ccopy paec ooc CaCl2 Ca2+ + 2Cl Fe2(SO4)3 2Fe3+ + 3SO42 B peyae opayc oo ao eaa ao cooo ocaa.

ccoa cox coe poeae cyeao, a, apep, cyae pocya a KHS:

epa cye KHS K+ + HS opa cye HS- H+ + S2 B peyae opayec a a aoo: ao eaa o oopoa. Tae cyeao ccopy ocoe co, apep, poc a:

epa cye Ca(OH)Cl Ca(OH)+ + Cl opa cye Ca(OH)+ Ca2+ + OH Ta opao, p ccoa ocox coe opayc a a aoo: ao cox ocao poc-o.

oeceo xapaepco epoeco ccoa ec cmene uccouauu, - ooee oeca eeca epoa AB, pacaeoc a o, n(AB) oey oecy eeca oo epoa pacope n(AB):

= =.

Cee ccoa - epaepa ea, ee paa ox poeax.

p oo ccoa epoa cee ccoa paa 1 100 %. e epoo, oope e ccopy a o = 0.

B acoc o cee ccoa ce epo opae a cae ce: cae empoum aco ccopy a o, cue empoum - paec ooc. pep cax epoo: H2O, HF, H2S, H2SO3, cx:

HCl, H2SO4, NaOH, NaCl, K2SO4.

PAHEH 1 o aaec epoeco ccoae 2 e oycoe poecc epoeco ccoa 3 ae o opayc p ccoa: a) co, ) ocoa 4 o aaec aoep epoa 5 ae o opayc p ccoa: a) ocox coe, ) cpex coe, ) cx coe 6 o aoe cee epoeco ccoa Be paaec a ea 7 o aoe ce cae epo 1.8.3 oe pea ypae Box pacopax epoo xece pea poea c yace oo, ae pea aac uou, a ypae x pea uou ypaeuu. Hapep, p aoec pacopa xopa e (II) c pacopo poca a aae ocao poca e (II):

CuCl2 + 2KOH = Cu(OH)2 + 2KCl acaoe ypaee oo aa ypaee oeypo ope. o opa eo oo ope, ao opy pacopx cx epoo aca e ex oo, a oope o ccopy pacope, a opy cax epoo, eec, aax ocao, - cxoo e Cu2+ + 2Cl- + 2K+ + 2OH- = Cu(OH)2 + 2K+ + 2ClEc oyeo oo ypae copa oaooe oeco ooex oo pao eo acx, o oy ypaee pea copaeo oo ope Cu2+ + 2OH- = Cu(OH)paee pea copaeo oo ope oaae, o pea ey xopo e (II) poco a coc aoec ey oa e (II) pocoa c opaoae poca e (II). C o pe eop epoeco ccoa o Cl- K+ e pa yac pea.

Pea oea pacopax epoo y o oa, ec peyae pea opayc: 1) paec epacopoe eeco (oca), 2) aoccopoaoe coeee 3) aoopae eeca. Ec oec xo oo x yco, pea e o oa, ec e e, o p cea pacopo e o ax pao pea. Bo cyae opayec cec oo, apep:

KCl + NaNO3 KNO3 + NaCl K+ + Cl- + Na+ + NO3- K+ + NO3- + Na+ + Cl O o ox pea - upou coe: aoece oo co c oo, peyae oopo opayec ca epo, apep:

KF + H2O HF + KOH ( ypaee oeypo ope);

K+ + F- + H2O HF + K+ + OH- (ypaee oo ope);

F- + H2O HF +OH- (ypaee copaeo oo ope).

o ocao ocoa co, a oope ccopy co, oy cac oopo-oa opoc-oa, a oope ccopye oa. o pocxo o cyae, ec opayec poy aopacope oe aoccopoa. p o paoec ccoa o ceaec pao. Pea pacopa caoc co eoo.

Oea pea c oo, peyae oopo opayc aoccopoaoe aopacopoe coeee, aaec poo coe.

poy oepac oo co, pacope oe.

Pea poa - opa poecc. p apea paae pacopa co po ycaec. Ec poy poa ya cep pea, po ycaec.

PAHEH 1 o aaec o pea o ypae 2 p ax ycox pea pacopax epoax y o oa 3 ae peex pea y o oa:

1) BaCl2 + Na2SO4 4) FeCl3 + KOH 2) KCl + NaOH 5) Mg(NO3)2 + NaCl 3) K2CO3 + HCl 6) BaCl2 + KNO4 o aaec poo 5 ae co oepac poy 1.8.4 P caapx epox oeao Pae x, oop yae poecc c yace apex ac (oo, epoo), aaec empoxuue. B epox empoo po aa ccey, oopa coco oopooeo aepaa (eaa, paa p.), opyeoo pacop paca epoa.

poce epoo oe cy ea aca, opyea pacop cyaa e (II). B peyae aoec eaa c oo oa e (II) ycaaaec epoxecoe paoece ey eao eo oa pacope:

+ - + Cyecy pye epoo. Boopo empo pecae coo ceyy ccey: aa opyea pacop co, epe pacop poyaec aoopa oopo. p o ycaaaec paoece:

2H+ + 2e- 2Hac(Pt) H ypoeo 2H+ + 2e- H e Hac - acoppoa ao.

a epo xapaepyec opeee aee empooo nomeuaa E, ea epe oopoo o (B).

epo, paoece a oopo ycaaaec caapx ycox (25 C, opaoe aee, oepa oo 1o/.), aaec cmaapm empoo (apep, caap oopo epo). Ooaee oeao caapx epoo E0.

epo oea caapoo oopooo epoa pae 0, .e. E0(2H+ | H2) = B; epo oea caapoo eoo epoa pae E0(Cu2+ | Cu) = 0,34 B.

Ec pacoo epo ope opaca caapx epox oeao, o oyc p cmaapmx empox nomeuao (c. a. 21;

ycapeee aae - p ape eao).

p oo caapx epox oeao oo pe oe opoc o x eao. Hapep, opoc o yac eao peax aee: ea, ee oee opaeoe aee E0, oo ec ea oee ooe aee E0 pacopo coe. Mea c opae ae E0 ec oopo pacopo coo paaeo cepo co. Hapep:

Zn + Pb(NO3)2 = Zn(NO3)2 +Pb;

Fe + 2HCl = FeCl2 + H2.

p cooa pa epox oeao eoxoo ya, o Li, K, Ba, Ca Na peapy c oo. He ec ea pacopo coe oeyp oopoo (oopo epo paoae oo pcyc a). Ce e ece oopo pacopo coo cepo co.

21 P caapx epox oeao epo epo, B, B oce occaoe oce occaoe a opa a opa a opa a opa Li+ Li -3, Cd2+ Cd -0,K+ K Co2+ Co -0,-2, Ba2+ Ba Ni2+ Ni -0,Ca2+ Ca Sn2+ Sn -0,2,Na+ Na Pb2+ Pd -0,Mg2+ Mg 2H+ H2 2,Al3+ Al Cu2+ Cu 0, + Hg Mn2+ Mn 2Hg 0,2,Ag+ Zn2+ Zn Ag 0,2,36 Pt2+ Cr3+ Cr Pt 1,- Au3+ Fe2+ Fe Au 1,1,1,0,0,0,PAHEH 1 o aoe epo 2 ae epoo aee 3 e xapaepyc epo 4 o aoe p caapx epox oeao 5 ye aoecoa co cey eeca, axoc ox pacopax: a) 1M HCl, ) 1M xop ooa (II), ) 1Mxop a 1.8.5 epo empou - cooyoc xecx pea, oope poea o ece epecoo oa a epoax, opyex pacop paca epoa. a ce ec coa oa a oo epoo (opaeo epoe) coaec o epoo, a pyo (ooeo - epoe) - eocao epoo. p poxoe epecoo oa epe epo apy c xaoec ee oo aaec apaeoe ee: ao epeeac opaeoy epoy, ao - ooeoy.

ac, axoec opaeoo epoa, pa epo, .e.

occaoe, epo a oopo pocxo pea occaoe aaec amoo. ac, axoec ooeoo epoa, oa epo, .e.

occ. Tao epo aaec aoo.

Bay po poecce epoa pae aepa, oopoo ooe epo, ocoeo ao. Tae aepa, a aa pa, c ep, .e.

ca e occ p epoe, a occ oo ooe epoa. Ec ao ooe e, a, e, eea .., o poecce epoa aepa aoa oe occ (epo c pacop aoo).

p epoe pacaex epoo c ep epoa a aoe cea occaaac ao eaa, a a aoe occ ao. Hapep, p epoe pacaa xopa ap yy pocxo ceye poecc:

NaCl Na+ + Cl- (ccoa epoa pacae);

Na+ + e- = Na (occaoee, pea a aoe);

2Cl- - 2e- = Cl2 (ocee, pea a aoe).

Cyapoe ypaee pea oy, ypa co epoo, yacyx aoo aoo poeccax, .e. yo ypaee pea a aoe a 2:

Na+ + e- = Na 2Cl- - 2e- = Cl 2Na+ + 2Cl- 2Na + Cl 2NaCl 2Na + Cl Ta opao, p epoe pacaa xopa ap a aoe eec eaec ap, a aoe - aoopa xop.

p epoe ox pacopo c ep epoa apy c aoa aoa epoxecx peax oy yacoa oey o. o opee, ae ac yacy aoo poecce, ao a ae oeao epoo, oop cooecy o, axoec pacope. oo ocooac po caapx epox oeao. Boo ae cya.

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