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Mea Heea Ocoo oc co oc Ocoae co Co Baa c ey coee x pepae ceecye o ece cocaa eec.

OPATTE BHMAHE ! eo oo oy mo.

pocx eec oo oy coe eeca.

PAHEH 1 ae ceyx eec aoecy ey coo: oc e (II), cepa coa, poc a, oc yepoa (IV), poc a, poc ap Hae ypae pea.

2 C coee ax acco aoecy ea Hae ypae cooecyx pea.

3 p aoec coee ax acco opayc co Hae ypae cooecyx pea.

aa 1.XMECE PEA AOHOMEPHOCT X POTEAH 1.7.1 T xecx pea Xece pea accpy o pa paa. Paccop eoope x.

1 o pay ueeu uca ucxox u oex eecm pea oo e ae :

a) pea coee, p oopx yx ecox eec oya oo eeco:

2Mg + O2 = 2MgO SO2 + H2O = H2SO oe e A + B+... = C;

) pea paoe, p oopx ooo eeca opayec ecoo eec:

2HgO = 2Hg + OCu (OH)2 = CuO + H2O oe e C = A + B;

) pea aee, p oopx pocoe eeco aeae cocay ac cooo eeca peyae opayc ooe pocoe ooe cooe eeca:

H2SO4 + Zn = ZnSO4 + H oe e AB + C = AC + B;

) pea oea, p oopx oey cox eec oeac co coca ac:

Fe (OH)3 + 3HC1 = FeCl3 +3H2O o e AB + CD = AD + CB.

2 o pay ueeu cmenee ouceu eemo, oope xo coca peapyx eec, e oceo-occaoee pea (c. 1.7.2).

3 o pay eeu nooeu epuu pea e a oepece oepece (c. 1.7.3).

Cyecy pye pa, o oop accpy xece pea. Oa a e pea acoc o paa acca oe oocc pa a pea.

PAHEH 1 ae aee xecx pea 2 aa pea aaec peae a) coee; ) paoe; ) aee: ) oea pee pep.

3 aoe ypae ceyx pea opeee aoy y oocc aa x:

1) CuSO4 + Fe; 4) Al(OH)2) Na2O + P2O5; 5) Na2CO3 + SiO 3) Ca(OH)2 + H3PO4; 6) Na2SiO3 + H2SO 1.7.2 Oceo-occaoee pea p pay ee ceee oce eeo, xox coca peapyx eec, pea e a pea, ye e ee ceee oce eeo, a oceo-occaoee (ye c eee ceee, oce eeo).

1 Pea, ye e ee ceee oce eeo:

SO2 + H2O = H2SOCaCO3 = CaO+COA1(OH)3 + 31HC1 = AlCl3 + 3H2O 2 Oceo-occaoee pea.

Pea, p oopx ec cee oce eeo, xox coca peapyx eec, aac oceo-occaoe.

Hapep, pea +2 0 +2 CuSO4 + Fe = FeSO4 + Cu e eeo e co cee oce: cee oce e oaec o + o 0, cee oce eea oaec o 0 o + 2. o e (II) pcoee a epoa occaaaec:

+ 2 Cu + 2e- Cu - poecc occaoe.

Ao eea oae a epoa - ocec:

0 + Fe 2e- Fe - poecc oce Ao, oey o, pcoee epo, aac oucumeu. x cee oce oceo-occaoex poeccax oac.

Oce c poce eeca eea (F2, Cl2, Br2, O2), a ae coee, coca oopx xo ee cox ceex oce (apep, + + + + p.).

Ao, oey o, oae epo, aac occmaoumeu. x cee oce oceo-occaoex poeccax oac.

Boccaoe c poce eeca ea, oopo, a ae coee, coca oopx xo ao eeo x ceex oce (apep, - - - - p.).

ec eeca, oope acoc o yco oy po coca a ocee, a occaoee. Oo o eeca, coca oopx xo - + ee poeyox ceex oce ( p.).

Ta, cepa p aoec c copoo - oee c ocee, oee epoopae eeo - poe coca occaoe:

0 0 +4 S + O2 = SOp o cee oce cep oaec o 0 o + 4.

p aoec c eaa oopoo oee c occaoe cepa poe coca oce:

0 0 + 2 Zn + S = ZnS p o cee oce cep oaec o 0 o 2.

paa cocae ypae oceo-occaoex pea no emoy empooo aaca:

1 Cocae cxey pea:

Zn + HNO3 Zn(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + H2O paaea 2 Opeee, ao ax eeo e cee oce 0 +5 +2 +5 -3 +Zn + HNO3 Zn(NO3)2 + NH4NO3 + H2O 3 Cocae epoe cxe poecco oce occaoe:

0 +2 +5 -Zn 2e- Zn; N + 8e- N 4 B epox cxeax opae oe a, o co epoo, oope oae occaoe (Zn), o pao cy epoo, oope pcoee oce (HNO3):

- + - + -- + 0 +5 +2 -4Zn + N 4Zn + N 5 Paccae oe ypaee pea:

2Zn + 10HNO3 = 4Zn(OH3)2 + NH4NO3 + 3H2O a o, aoa coa pacxoyec e oo a ocee a, o a opaoae coe Zn(NO3)2 NH4NO3.

Oceo-occaoee pea peca coo eco yx poooox poecco oce occaoe.

Oceo-occaoee pea e ooe aee exe . oyee eao, eeao, aaa, aoo cepo co, eapc ocoao a oceo-occaoex peax. opee, ooce, xae, eapee, oe eec - ce o oceo-occaoee poecc.

PAHEH 1 ao poecc aaec: a) ocee; ) occaoee 2 ae aee oce occaoe 3 oey ceye pea oocc oceo-occaoe:

a) Mg + O2 = 2MgO ) Fe2O3 + CO = 2Fe + 3CO) 2HCl + Zn = ZnCl2 + H2 ) CuO + H2 = Cu + H2O ao ee x peax ocec ao occaaaec 4 aoe ypae pea:

S + HNO3 H2SO4 + NO2 + H2O H2S + H2SO3 S + H2O HBr + H2SO4(o) Br2 + SO2 + H2O H2S + O2 SO2 + H2O KCl + KmnO4 + H2SO4 Cl2 + MnSO4 + K2SO4 + H2O CaH2 + H2O Ca(OH)2 + H1.7.3 Teoe e pea B xoe cex xecx pea pocxo eee ooee eo.

Pea, poeae c eee eo, aa omepuecuu, c ooee eo omepuecuu. oeco eeo ooeo eo p ax oecax peapyx eec aa meno emo peauu.

B epoxecx ypaex xecx pea eoo e yaa p oo e H, oopa aaec ueeue manuu (eocoepa) pea. Ec pea poeae p caapx ycox (eepaype 289,15 C, ae 101 325 a, oepa cex eec pacope ae 1 o pe), o eee a ooaa coo H.

Ec H < 0, o eoa eec, .e. pea oepeca. oepecx pea H > 0.

Paccop epoxecoe ypaee pea oopoa ccopoo:

2H2() + O2() = 2H2O () H = -483,6 B coax yaao apeaoe cocoe eeca, o oopoo ac eoo e pea. a ac oaae, o p aoec 2 o oopoa c 1 o copoa opayec 2 o apo o eec ( caapx ycox) 482,6 eo.

p yee oeca peapyx eec eoo e pea poopoao opacae.

PAHEH 1 aa pea aaec: a) oepeco, ) oepeco 2 o aaec eo eo xeco pea 3 e opeeec eoo e xeco pea 4 aa ep aaec xeco 1.7.4 Copoc xecx pea a copoc xeco pea pa eee oeca peapyeo eeca ( poya) o pee ee oea peaoo cce.

Hapep, A oo peapyx eec. B oe pee 1, oee V coepaoc eeco A oeco n1(A), oe pee 2 o e oee oeco eeca A pao n2(A). Toa copoc pea v o eecy A coca - = -.

- Bee ooae: - = - eee oeca eeca A; 9 -91 = 9 poeyo (eee) pee oca x ypaee, oyae = -.

a, o = oyae = - e c(A) opa oepa oeco eeca, coepaeec ee pea oea, o/.

Ta opao, copoc pea o eee oepa peapyeo eeca ey pee. Ea epe copoc o/(3 c) o/( c).

Bce eoeoe oocc ooe (poea oopoo cpee) xec pea. Bpaee copoc eepoeo pea (poeae eoopoo cpee) ecoo pyoe, ao oco oo paccapac e ye.

Copoc pea ce pe eec. Oao a eoop ocaoo opo poeyo pee oo pacca cpe copoc pea o opya.

Copoc xeco pea ac o oepa peapyx eec. B cooec c oco aoo xeco e pea + poy, copoc paaec cey coooee:

= e R - ocaa copoc pea; p q oe (opeeec cepeao).

eoopx pocex pea oe p q pa cexoepec oea ypae pea. Hapep, pea + = oo aca = .e. = =acoc copoc pea o eepayp epeaec ypaeue Bam-oa:

- = e : : 1 - copoc pea p eepaypax t2 t1; - eepayp oe copoc pea ( ox pea = 2... 4). o pao oop o o, o copoc pea opacae 2... 4 paa p yee eepayp a 10 C.

PAHEH 1 e paaec copoc xeco pea 2 O eo ac copoc xeco pea 3 O eo ac ocaa copoc xeco pea 4 a yy ec oca copoc xeco pea p oe eepayp 5 a eec copoc xeco pea o ee: a) eepayp; ) oepa peapyx eec 6 o aaec epe aa ao pea 1.7.5 Xecoe paoece Moe xece pea c opamuu, .e. poea a po, a opao apaex. Cocoe opao cce, p oopo copoc po pea paa copoc opao pea, aaec xuuecu paoecue.

p xeco paoec e pocxo eee oepa eeca ccee (ycaaac a aaee paoece oempauu eec), oao o e oaae, o xeca pea e poeae: oa e, o c oao copoc yx poooox apaex. Taoe paoece ec uauecu.

Xecoe paoece oo cec, .e. e paoece oepa eec. B cooec c npuuno e anee, ec a ccey, axoyc coco paoec, oaa eee oece (e eepaypy, aee, oepa eec), o paoece cecc copoy poea o pea, oopa ocae o oece.

Hapep, ccee + < pa pea ec oepeco, opaa - oepeco. C poco eepayp paoece ceaec copoy eec A B (a a oepeca pea ocae oece), c yeee eepayp copoy opaoa eeca C.

Ec pea yacy aoopae eeca, o p yee ae paoece ceaec copoy opaoa eeo oeca aoopax eec.

Hapep:

+ Beo ac - 1 o aa A 1 o aa B, pao 1 o aa C. p yee ae paoece ceaec copoy opaoa eeca C, p yee ae - copoy opaoa eec A B.

Ec ye oepa eec A B, o paoece ceaec copoy opaoa eeca C; p yee oepa C pocxo ceee paoec copoy opaoa A B.

Ceee xecoo paoec aco peec poocex poeccax yee xoa yoo poya.

PAEHEH 1 aa pea aaec: a) eopao, ) opao pee pep.

2 p ax ycox paoece opao pea apyaec 3 o aaec ocao paoec, o eo oa ac o xapaepye 4 B ay copoy ceaec paoece: a) p oe eepayp, ) p oe ae:

+ + + + + 5 B ay copoy ceaec paoece cce p yee oepa aaa:

+ + + + aa 1.Pacop epoeca ccoa 1.8.1 PACTBOP Pacmopau aac ooee (oopoe) cce epeeoo cocaa, cocoe yx oee ooeo. Paep ac pacopax coca eee 10c. B acoc o apeaoo pacop oy , ep aoopa.

Bao pacope oo e eee yx ooeo, o oopx aa pacopee, a pye - pacope eeca. Pacmopume - o ooe pacopa, axoc o e apeao coco, o pacop. Hapep, p aoec aoopaoo oca cep (IV) o (oc) opayec pacop. Bo cyae oa - pacope, oc cep (IV) - pacopeoe eeco. aco pacop opayc eeca, axoc oaox apeax cocox, apep cp (oc) oa (oc). Bo cyae pacopee oe cac o ooe, apep o, oopoo ccee oe.

B cooec c xuueco meopue pacmopo, papaoao . .

Meeee, pacopee (p oye x pacopo) - co oxec poecc, po opaoa xecx coee (coao) ey pacopee pacope eeca.

Coca pacopo oo paaec accox ox pacopeoo eeca epe opy oepa pacopa.

Maccoa o pacmopeoo eecma - o ooee acc aoo ooea acce pacopa:

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