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8 oe ypae pea:

9 1) A1(OH)3 4) Fe(OH)9 ;

2) H2SiO3 ; 5) FeS + O2 ;

3) HNO3 + P2O5 ; 6) S + O2.

9 Coo pao co opayec p aoec 20 oca a c 60 aoo co 1.6.7 Coca oyee ocoa ece coca. Ocoa - epe eeca, pao opaee: OH, Ca(OH)2, NaOH - ee, Ni(OH)2 - ee p.

o pacopoc oe ocoa ec a e py: pacope oe (eo) epacope. eoa c poc eox (eeo ao opy I py), eooeex (eeo ao opy II py, poe Be Mg) eao. Hapep, OH - poc a, NaOH - poc ap, Ca(OH)2 poc a. eo - o oe coee. B yax pcaecx peeo epx eoe axoc o eao poc-o.

poc cex pyx eao epacop oe.

Xece coca 1 eo e opacy ox aopo. Hapep, oo-cpo pacop eoaea p oae o eo caoc ao.

2 Ocoa aoecy c coa. p o opayc co oa. Pea ey ocoae coo aaec peaue empauauu:

NaOH + HC1 = NaCI + H2O poc xopooopoa xop ap coa ap Mg (OH)2 + HC1 = MgOHCI + H2O poc xopooo - xop a poa poco coa a Ca (OH)2 + H3PO4 = CaHPO4 + 2H2O poc opoocop - pooca a a coa a 3 eo aoecy c co oca. p o opayc co oa Ca(OH)2 + CO2 = CaCO2 + H2O poc oc apoa a yepoa (IV) a 4 eo aoecy c co. p o oy opaac ooe ocoae co (cpe ocoa):

a) cpe co: NiCl2 + 2NaOH = Ni (OH)2 + 2NaCI xop poc poc xop e ap e ap ) ocoa co: CuCl2 + NaOH = CuOHCl + NaCI xop poc xop xop e (II) ap poco- ap e (II) 5 p apea ocoa (poe NaOH OH) paac a oc eaa oy:

Ca(OH)2 = CaO + H2O poc oc a a oyee 1. eou oyac: a) p aoec eox eooeex eao c oo:

2Na + 2H2O = 2NaOH + Hpoc ap Ca + 2H2O = Ca (OH)2 + Hpoc a ) p aoec oco eox eooeex eao c oo:

Na2O + H2O = 2NaOH oc poc ap ap CaO + H2O = Ca(OH)oc poc a a 2 Hepacmopue oe ocoa oyac p aoec ooo pacopa co co eo:

NiSO4 + 2NaOH = Ni (OH)2 + Na2SOcya poc poc cya e ap () e (II) ap BiC13 + 3OH = Bi (OH)3 + 3Cxop poc ppoc xop cya a cya a (III) OPATTE BHMAHE ! mo paaaec a mo.

Moe ocoa paaac a oc eaa oy.

PAHEH 1 ae eeca aac ocoa 2 ae ocoa c eoa 3 a ecy eo a aop 4 aa pea aaec peae epaa 5 Hae ypae pea ey cey coee (co ce oo poya): 1) poco a aoo coo; 2) poco a xopo e (II), 3) ppoco cya cepo coo; 4) poco a oco pe (IV); 5) poco ap cyao a; 6) poco a xopo a.

6 Hae ypae pea, p oo oopx oo ocyec pepae:

a) OH; ) Ba Ba(OH)2; ) Ca Ca(OH)2; ) FeSO4 Fe (OH)2; ) Ca3N2 Ca(OH)2.

7 aa co coo pao ee opayec p aoec 8 poca ap c 19,6 cepo co 1.6.8 Coca oyee co ece coca. co oy ep (opa H3BO3, opoocopa H3PO4) (cepa H2SO4, aoa HNO3) eeca. oco x xopoo pacopec oe. coa c ae pacop ao HC1, HBr, H2S pyx oe. B oeyax co ao oopoa ca c co ocaa oaeo opo c.

Xece coca. 1 co e opacy ox aopo. B a.

19 oaao eee ea aopo pax cpeax.

19 e eoopx aopo oe, eo coe e aop oe eo coe Meo Opae e pac opae ece Mao ece eoae C ayc oeo pac 2 co aoecy c ocoa. p o opayc co oa 2NaOH + H2SO4 = Na2SO4 + 2H2O poc cepa cya ap coa ap paaea 2Ni (OH)2 + H2SO4 = (NiOH)2SO4 + 2H2O poc cepa cya e (II) coa pocoe paaea OH + H3PO4 = H2PO4 + H2O po - opooc - po c - opa oca a coa a 3 co aoecy c oco oca. B peyae pea opayc co oa:

CaO + 2HO3 = Ca (NO3)2 + H2O oc aoa pa a coa a paaea 4 co peapy c eaa. B peyae pea opayec co eec oopo:

Zn + H2SO4 = ZnSO4 + Hcepa cya coa a paaea P ape eao: , Ba, Ca, Na, Mg, Al, Zn, Fe, P, H, Cu, Hg, Ag, Au, Pt.

Mea, oope py ape pacooe cea o oopoa, ec eo co. Mea, oope py ape pacooe cpaa o oopoa (Cu, Hg, Ag, Au, Pt), e ec eo co.

p pea eao c aoo coo opayc co, o oopo e eec.

Hapep, Cu + 4HNO3 = Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2 + 3H2O aoa pa coa e (II) oeppoaa 5 co aoecy c co. p o oy opaoac: a) oa coa cpe co BaCl2 + H2SO4 = BaSO4 + 2HCl co cepa co xopooo xop coa cya poa ap paa- ap coa ea ) oa coa ca co NaCl + H2SO4 = NaHSO4 + HCl xop cepa pocy- xopoooap coa a poa oe- ap coa ppoaa ) oo ca co CaCO3 + H2CO3 = Ca (HCO3)apoa yoa poapoa a coa a 6 p apea copocoepae co paaac a oy co oc:

H2SO4 = H2O + SOcepa oc coa cep (VI) oeppoaa oyee. 1 ucopocoepaue co oo oy p aoec cox oco c oo P2O5 + 3H2O = 2H3PO4; SO2 + H2O = H2SO3.

oc opoocopa oc cepca ocopa (V) coa cep (IV) coa 2 ecucopoe co oyac p pacope oe poyo coee eeao c oopoo:

H2 + Cl2 = 2HCl, pacop HC1 oe - xopooopoa coa xopooopo H2 + I2 = 2HI, pacop HI oe - oooopoa coa oooopo 3 eccopoe copocoepae co oyac p ec a x co pyx co (oee cx eee eyx). Hapep, 2CH3COONa + H2SO4 = 2CH3COOH + Na2SOaea ap cepa ycyca cya coa coa ap oeppoaa FeS + 2HC1 = FeC12 + H2S cy xopoo- xop cepooopo eea (II) opoa eea (II) coa NaC1 + H2SO4 = NaHSO4 + HCl xop cepa pocy- xopooopo ap coa a oep ap poaa Na2SiO3 + 2HCl = H2SiO3 + 2NaCI ca xopoo - peea xop ap opoa coa ap coa PAHEH 1 Hae ypae pea paaeo cepo co: a) c ae; ) c oco a; ) c poco eea (III); ) c pao ap. o oeo x peax 2 Hae opy oco, oope cooecy coa: opoopo H3BO3, apaoo H2MnO4, opoocopo H3PO4.

3 Hae ypae pea, c oo oopx oo oy:

a) cepy coy H2SO4; ) cepooopoy coy H2S; ) yoy coy H2CO3.

4 ae ceyx eao ec oopo xopooopoo co: , Ba, Hg, Fe, Cu, Al, Ag, Na, Mg, Au 5 Hae ypae pea, p oo oopx oo ocyec pepaee:

P H3PO4; FeS H2S CH4 H2CO3; Cl2 HCl 6 aa co coo pao ee opayec p aoec 19,6 poca e (II) c 6 xopooopoo co 7 Cpae coca ocoa co:

Baoece Ocoa co C oco oca Cco oca C eoa C coa ae coca ocoa co: a) oo, ) poooo 1.6.9 Aoepe poc Opeeee. poc, oope aoecy c coa eoa c opaoae coe, aac aoep.

aoep poca oocc poc eoopx eao ax opy (ep, a), a ae eoopx eao oox opy epoeco cce eeo poeyox ceex oce. Hapep, Be(OH)2, Al(OH)3, Zn(OH)2, Cu(OH)2, Mn(OH)4, Fe(OH)3, Cr(OH)3 - aoepe poc.

Xece coca. B acoc o yco aoepe poc oy po ocoe coe coca.

1 p ec co aoepe poc po ocoe coca:

A1(OH)3 + 3HC1 = A1C13 + 3H2O.

ocoae xopoo- co oa poc opoa xop a coa a 2 p ec eoe aoepe poc po coe coca:

A1 (OH)3 + 3NaOH = [H3AlO3 + 3NaOH] = Na3AlO3 + 3H2O coa ocoae opoa- ocoae co oa ea opoacoa a ap AI (OH)3 + NaOH = [HAlO2 + H2O + NaOH] = NaAlO2 + 2H2O coa ocoae eaa- co ea eaacoa a ap oyee. Aoepe poc epacop oe. oya x, a pye epacope oe ocoa, p aoec coe co eoa (o oyc poc e pacopc e eo, epy aeoe oeco eo).

Hapep, Cr2(SO4)3 + 6NaOH = 2Cr(OH)3 + 3Na2SOPAHEH 1 ae poc aac aoep pee pep.

2 a oya aoepe poc pee pep.

3 Hae ypae ceyx pea:

Zn (OH)2 + HCl; 2Pb(OH)2 + HCI Zn (OH)2 + NaOH; Pb(OH)2 + OH 1.6.10 Coca oyee coe ece coca. Co - epe pcaece eeca. Oca ocoa co cox ca ey coo, a pao, oo c. Co e pa e xapaepyec pao pacopoc oe (a. 20).

Xece coca. 1 Co peapy co eoa. p o opayc oa co ooe ocoae ocoa co:

MgCl2 + 2NaOH = Mg (OH)2 + 2NaCl MgCl2 + NaOH = MgOHCl + NaCI 2 Co aoecy c coa. p o opayc:

a) oa coa oa cpe co:

Ba (NO3)2 + H2SO4 = BaSO4 + 2HNO) ca cpe co Ca3 (PO4)2 + 2H2SO4 = Ca (H2PO4)2 + 2CaSO) oo ca co Na2S + H2S = 2NaHS 3 Co oy aoecoa ey coo. p o opayc oe co.

Pea oea ey pacopa coe ey o oa, ec peyae pea opayec epacopa co:

CaCl2 + Na2CO3 = CaCO3 + 2NaCl.

4 Co oy aoecoa c eaa. p o opayc oa co o ea:

CuSO4 + Fe = FeSO4 + Cu a ea oe ec pacopo coe ce ea, coe py ape oce eo, e oe ec ea, coe epe :

FeSO4 + Cu pea e e 5 Heoope co paaac p apea CaCO3 = CaO + COoyee. Co oya:

1 p aoec eaa c eeao:

Fe + S = FeS 2 p aoec eaa c coa:

Zn + 2HC1 = ZnCl2 + H3 p aoec eaa c co:

Cu + Hg(NO3)2 = Hg + Cu(NO3)4 p aoec eao, oc oopx aoep, co eoa:

Zn + 2NaOH = NagZnO2 + H5 p aoec ocox oco c coa:

CaO + 2HC1 = CaCl2 + H2.

6 p aoec ocox oco c co oca MgO + SiO2 = MgSiO7 p aoec ocoa c coa:

2ON + H2SO4 = K2SO4 + 2H2O OH + H2SO4 = KHSO4 + H2O Bi (OH)3 + HC1 = Bi (OH)2C1 + H2O 8 p aoec ocoa c co oca:

NaOH + CO2 = NaHCO3NaOH + CO2 = Na2CO3 + H2O 9 p aoec eoe c co:

CuCl2 + NaOH = CuOHCl + NaCl CuCl2 + 2NaOH = Cu(OH)2 + 2NaCl 10 p aoec eoe c eeaa:

2NaOH + Cl2 = NaCI + NaClO + H2O 11 p aoec coe c coa BaC12 + H2SO4 = BaSO4 + 2HC12 p aoec coe c co oca:

Na2CO3 + SiO2 = Na2SiO2 + COCaCO3 + CO2 + H2O = Ca (HCO3)13 p aoec coe ey coo:

Ba (NO3)2 + Na2SO4 = BaSO4 + NaNO 14 p aoec coe c eeaa 2KI + Cl2 = 2Cl + I coco oye coe cee a. 21 (cooaa pa ec yepa cocoo).

21 Coco oye coe Oco Ocoa Beeca Mea Co Heea e oc eo Heea (poe copo 1 - 10 14 a) co e - 6 8 12 oc co 2 5 7 11 Co 3 - 9 3 Mea - - 4 13 PAHEH 1 ae coco oye coe aee 2 Cocae ypae pea ey cey eeca: a) eeo xopooopoo coo; ) cepo coo poco ap; ) xopo a poco a; ) pao ap cyao ap; ) xopo a pao cepepa.

3 Hae ypae pea, p oo oopx oo ocyec ceye pepae:

1) Cu CuO CuSO4 Cu(OH)2 CuCl2 Cu 2) Zn ZnO ZnSO4 Zn(OH)2 Na2ZnO 3) P P2O5 H3PO4 Na3PO4 Ca3(PO4) 4) Mg MgO Mg(OH)2 MgCl2 Mg(NO3) 1.6.11 eeeca c ey oco acca eopaecx coee Mey coee cyecye eeeca c. pocx eec oo oy cooe eeco:

4P + 5O2 = 2P2O cooo eeca oo oy poce eeca:

2HgO = 2Hg + O coee ooo acca oo oy coee pyoo acca. Hapep, p ope ocopa opayec co oc P2O5, oop aoecye c oo opaye coy. co oo oy co. oo co oo oy pyy co:

P P2O5 H3PO4 Na3PO4 Ca3 (PO4)p ope a opayec ocoo oc MgO, oop c oo opaye ocoae Mg(OH)2 poca a oo oy co:

Mg MgO Mg (OH)2 Mg3 (PO4)p aoec a c oo opayec poc a, oop c oco yepoa (IV) opaye co CaCO3. apoa a paaaec p apea. oca a oca yepoa (IV), oope p o opayc, oo oy co CaCO3:

Ca Ca(OH)2 CaCO3 CaO CaCOa , eeeca c cyecye ey poc eeca oe acca eopaecx coee. Ha ocoe a eeeco c oo e oo pepaa o eeca pye, o oya o cxoe eeca.

Cxey eeeco c ey oco acca eopaecx coee oo peca a:

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