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co pocopy oeye ocoa opee eo ucomocm. Hapep, NaOH, OH, NH4OH oocoe ocoa: Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2 yxcoe ocoa; La(OH)3, Bi(OH)3 - pexcoe ocoa; Th(OH)4 epexcooe ocoae; coe eccoe ocoa eec.

Oca ocoa. ooeo apee py aoo (ooee o), oope ocac oce opa o oey ocoa oo ecox pocopy, aac ocmamau ocoau pauaau ocoau. Bea ooeoo apa ocaa ocoa opeeec co opaxc pocopy.

B ae 15 pee opy aa eoopx ocoa x ocao.

15 Haa opy eoopx ocoa x ocao Ocoa Oca ocoa opya aae cooc opy aae NaOH poc 1 Na+ Hap-o Mg(OH)2 poc 2 MgOH+pocoaMg2+ Ma-o Bi(OH)3 poc 3 Bi pococy cya (III) (III)-o (OH) + Bi pococy (OH)2+ (III)-o Bi3+ Bcy (III)-o CuOH poc 1 Cu+ Me (I)-o e (I) Mn poc 2 MnOH pocoapae + (OH)2 apaa (II) (II)-o Mn2+ Mapae (II)-o PAHEH 1 ae coee aac ocoae 2 a cocac aa ocoa 3 e opeeec cooc ocoa 4 o aaec ocao ocoa 5 Hae aa paece opae opy ceyx ocoa x ocao: Ba (OH)2, OH, Ca (OH)2, La (OH)3, Th (OH)4.

6 pee pep oocox, yxcox pexcox ocoa.

1.6.4 Haa opy co Opeeee. coa aac coee, coca oopx xo ao oopoa, cocoe aeac aoa eaa. p o opayc co. Hapep, H2SO4 + 2Na Na2SO4 + Hcoa co 6HC1 + 2Al 2AlC13 + 3Hcoa co acca. Paa co eccopoe copocoepae.

eccopo coa c oe pacop oopox coee eeao VI VII py epoeco cce eeo H2S, H2Se, H2Te, HF, HC1, HBr, HI, a ae HSCN HCN.

copocoepae co peca coo pa (poy coee c oo) oco eeao, a ae eoopx eao cx ceex oce (+5, +6, +7). Hapep, yoa coa H2 CO3 - poy coee CO2 c oo; cepa coa H2SO4 - poy coee SO3 c oo; xpooa coa H2CrO4 - poy coee CrO3 c oo.

Hoeaypa. Haa co coca aa eea c coo "oopoa" ( cyae eccopoo co) c cooecy cyco ( cyae copocoepae co) (a. 16).

co aoo oopoa co, cocox aeac aoa eaa c opaoae co, opeee ocooc co: HCI, HRr, HNO3, CH3COOH ooocoe co; H2S, H2SO4, H2CO3, H3PO3 - yxocoe co; H2PO4, H3AsO4 pexocoe co.

coe oca. Opaeo apee py aoo ooe ao (opaee o), oope ocac oce opa o oey co ooo ecox aoo oopoa, aac ucomu ocmamau.

Bea opaeoo apa cooo ocaa opeeec co aoo oopoa, aeex eao (a. 17).

16 opy aa eoopx co ee opy Haaue Cy xec aa cee a ucom c H2S Cepa 2 Cepooopoa H2SO3 S +4 -c- Cepca H2SO4 +6 -- Cepa HC1 -1 Xopooopoa (coa) HClO2 Cl Xop +3 -cXopca HClO4 +7 -Xopa HBr -poooopoa +3 -c HBrO2 Br po +7 -poca HBrOpoa 17 Haa opy eoopx cox ocao co coe oca opy aae ocooc opy aae a a HCl Xopooopo 1 Cl Xop-o a (coa) HBr poooopo 1 Br po-o a HI oooopo 1 I o-o a H2S Cepooopo 2 HS pocya o S2 Cy-o HClO Xopoac ClO oxop-o a HClO Xopca Xop-o ClO HClO Xopoaa Xopa-o ClO pooeue ma. co coe oca opy aae ocooc opy aae a a HClO Xopa epxopa-o ClO H2SO Cepca pocyHSO o Cy-o SO H2SO Cepa 2 pocya-o HSO Cya-o S - HNO2 Aoca 1 Hp-o NO HNO3 Aoa 1 Hpa-o NO HPO3 Meaocop 1 Meaoca-o PO a H2PO Opoocop 3 poocaH2PO a o pooca-o HPO Opooca-o PO H2P2 ocopa 4 H2P2O pooca O7 o coca-o P2O H2CO oa 2 HCO3 poapaao apaa-o CO H2SiO Meapee 2 HSiO poca-o a Ca-o SiO HMn Mapaoa MnO - epaaa-o OCOBA COBOCOETAH Coco, - a, - oe, - e copocoepa, - a, - oe, aeac aecc ee eccopo, - a, - oe, - Cooecy, - a, - ee, - e e aee, - a, - oe, - e OPATTE BHMAHE ! 1) mo pecae coo mo.

copocoepae co peca coo pa (poy coee c oo) oco eeao.

2) mo aeaec e.

Boopo co aeaec eao.

3) mo opeee mo.

co aoo oopoa, cocox aeac aoa eaa, opeee ocooc co.

PAHEH 1 ae coee aac coa 2 e opeeec ocooc co 3 o aaec co ocao 4 e opeeec ap cooo ocaa 5 Cocae ceyx co ay o ope a. 18: HCN, H2 Se, H3AsO4, HBrO3 H2CrO4.

1.6.5 Haa opy coe Opeeee. Co - o poy aee oopoa co eao pocopy ocoa co ocaa. Hapep, H2SO4 + Zn = ZnSO4 + Hcoa co NaOH + HC1 = NaCI + H2O ocoae coa co acca. Co a cpee, ce, ocoe, oe, oece.

Cpe co - o poy ooo aee oopoa co eao pocopy ocoa co ocao. Hapep, Na2SO4, Ca(NO3)2 - cpee co.

2Na + H2SO4 = Na2SO4 + HCa (OH)2 + 2HNO3 = Ca (NO3)2 + 2H2O uca co - poy eooo aee oopoa ooocoo co eao. Hapep, NaHSO4, Ca(HCO3)2 - ce co:

2Na + 2H2SO4 = 2NaHSO4 + HOcoa co - poy eooo aee pocopy oocooo ocoa co ocaa. Hapep, MgOHC1, BiOHCI2 - ocoe co:

Mg (OH)2 + HC1 = MgOHCI + H2O Ec ao oopoa coe aeac aoa pax eao pocopy ocoa aeac pa co ocaa, o opayc oe co. Hapep, KAI(SO4)2, Ca(OC1)C1. oe co cyecy oo epo coco.

onece cou - o co, coca oopx xo oece o. Hapep, co K4[Fe(CN)6] - oeca, a a ee coca xo oec o [Fe(CN)6]4-.

Cocaee opy coe. Moo caa, o co coco ocao ocoa ocao co. p cocae opy coe yo o pao: acoa ea poee apa ocaa ocoa a co ocao ocoa paa acoo ee poee apa cooo ocaa a co cox ocao.

mx = ny, e K-ocao ocoa, A - co ocao, m - ap ocaa ocoa, n-p cooo ocaa, x - co ocao ocoa, y - cox ocao. Hapep, + - + - + - 2x = 3y 2x = 1y 1x = 3y x = 3, y = 2 x = 1, y = 2 x = 3; y = opy Ba3(PO4)2 Ca(H2PO4)2 (MgOH)3POHoeaypa coe. Haa coe coca aa cooo ocaa (a.

18) eeo aee aa ocaa ocoa (a. 16) poeo aee (e coa "o"). Hapep, MgC12 - xop a Ba3(PO4)2 - opooca ap Na2S - cy ap CaHPO4 - pooca a K2SO3 - cy a Ca(H2PO4)2 - pooca a A12(SO4)3 - cya a MgOHCl - xop pocoa A1(SO4)3 - cya a (MgOH)2SO4 - cya pocoa K2NaHPO4 - opooca a - ap MnCl2 - xop apaa (2 : 1) Ca (OCI)C1 - xop-oxop a MnSO4 - cya apaa 2S - cy a NaHCO3 - poapoa ap 2SO4 - cya a PAHEH 1 ae coee aac co ae co aee 2 Cocae opya coe ceyx ocao: a) poa-o opoocao; ) pococy (III) o cya-o; ) pococy (III)-o pa-o; ) cy (III)-o xop-o; ) - e (II)-o opooca-o.

3 ae aa cey co opae paec opy: MgCl2, Na2SO4, K3PO4, Cu(NO3)2, BaCO3, Fe(NO3)3 FeS, KHCO3, Na2HPO4, NaH2PO4, FeOHCi.

4 Hae opy ceyx coe; a) cya eea (III); ) pooca a; ) xop pocoa.

1.6.6 Coca oyee oco acca. o xec coca oc ec a coeopaye ecoeopaye. Oc, oope p xecx peax opay co, aac coeopayuu:

CO2 + Ca (OH)2 = CaCO3 + H2O Oc ocoae co yepo- poc apaa a (IV) a a MgO + 2HCl = MgCl2 + H2O oc xopoo co a opoa xop coa a CO2 MgO - coeopaye oc.

Oc, oope e opay coe, aac ecoeopauu: NO - oc aoa (II), NaO - oc aoa (I), SiO - oc pe (II) - o ecoeopaye oc.

Hecoeopayx oco ao.

Coeopaye oc ec a ocoe, coe aoepe.

Xece coca ocox oco. oco oca oocc oo oc eao: eox (Li, Na, , Rb, Cs, Fr), (eooeex (Ca, Sr. Ba, Ra), a, aaa, a ae cex ocax eao x x ceex oce.

Hapep, N2O, CaO, Cu2O, CrO, MnO, BaO La2O2 - ocoe oc.

1 Oc eox eooeex eao aoecy c oo. p o opayc x pa - pacope oe ocoa (eo). Hapep, Na2O + H2O = 2NaOH oc poc ap ap CaO + H2O = Ca (OH)oc poc a a Ocoe oc ox pyx eao c oo e aoecy. x pa oya oce ye. pa cex ocox oco c ocoa Na2O NaOH CaO Ca(OH)oc ocoae oc ocoae ap poc a poc ap a 2 Ocoe oc aoecy c coa. p o opayc co oa:

CaO + 2HC1 = CaC12 + H2O;

oc xopoo- co a- opoa xop coa a BaO + 2HNO3 = Ba(NO3)2 + H2O.

oc aoa co pa ap coa ap Xece coca cox oco. ucom oca oocc oc eeao, a ae eao cx ceex oce. Hapep, SO2, SO3, CO2, CrO3, Mn2O7 - coe oc.

1 oco cox oco aoecy c oo. p o opayc co:

SO2 + H2O = H2SOoc cepca cep (IV) coa P2O5 + 3H2O = 2H3POoc opoocopa ocopa (V) coa Heoope coe oc (apep, SiO2) e aoecy c oo.

2 coe oc aoecy c ocoa. p o opayc co oa:

SO2 + 2NaOH = Na2SO3 + H2O oc poc co cep(IV) ap cy ap P2O5 + 3Ca (OH)2 = Ca3 (PO4)2 + 3H2O oc poc co opoocopa a oca (V) a 3 coe ocoe oc oy aoecoa ey coo. p o opayec co MgO + SO2 = MgSOocoo co co oc oc cy a cep (IV) a Xece coca aoepx oco. aomep oca oocc oc eoopx eao ax opy (ep, a), a ae oc eoopx eao oox opy epoeco cce eeo . .

Meeeea poeyox ceex oce. Hapep, BeO, A12O3, ZnO, CuO, MnO3, Fe2O3, Cr2O3 - aoepe oc.

1 Aoepe oc aoecy c coa. p o opayc co ZnO + 2HCI = ZnCl2 + H2O oc xopooo- co a poa xop coa a 2 Aoepe oc aoecy co eoa. p o oe opayc co Zn + 2NaOH = Na2ZnO2 + H2O oc poc co a ap a ap cpae coc oco paccop a. 18.

oce cpae xecx coc oco oo cea ceye opeee:

1 Oc, oope opay co oo c coa co oca, aac oco.

18 Cpaee eoopx coc ocox, cox aoepx oco Oc Coca oco ocoe coe aoepe Apeaoe Tepoe Tepoe Tepoe cocoe oe aoopao e T o oae oae xeco op op c Xapaep Ocoa co po pao coca co ocoa Baoec Baoec He Baoecy e c coo y c aoec c opaoae opaoae y coe coe Baoec e c oca:

a) He Baoec Baoecy oco aoec y c c opaoae y opaoae coe coe ) Baoec He Baoecy co y c aoec c opaoae opaoae y coe coe 2 Oc, oope opay co oo c ocoa oco oca, aac co.

3 Oc, oope aoecy c coa co eoa p o opay co, aac aoep.

a , ocoe coe oc e pooooe coca.

Aoepe oc acoc o yco oy po coca ocox cox oco.

oyee. Oc oyac:

a) p aoec pocx eec c copoo:

4A1 + 2O2 = 2A12O4P + 5O2 = 2P2O) p aoec cox eec c copoo:

CH4 + 2O2 = CO2 + 2H2O 2H2S +3O2 = 2H2O + 2SO) p paoe cox eec:

ocoa Ca (OH)2 = CaO + H2O co 2H3PO4 = 3H2O + P2Ocoe Cu2(OH)2CO3 = 2CuO + CO2 + H2O ) p eoopx pyx peax:

2HCl4 + P2O5 = 2HPO3 + Cl2ONa2CO3 + SiO2 = Na2SiO3 + COOPATTE BHMAHE ! mo oocc mo.

co oca oocc oc eeao.

PAHEH 1 ae eeca aac oca 2 ae aee ecoeopaye oc 3 ae oc aac: a) oco; ) co; ) aoep 4 a ac xapaep oca o ooe eea epoeco ccee eeo . . Meeeea 5 ae ceyx coee yy peapoa c oca cep (VI): P2O5, CaO, HNO3, Ba (OH)2, MgO, H2O, SO2 Hae ypae oox pea.

6 Hae opy aa oco x pao ceyx eeo:

eea (III), apaa (II, VII), poa (II, III, VI), cep (IV, VI), xopa (1, VII).

7 Cocae ypae pea ey: a) oco a oco ocopa (V); ) oco eea () oco cep (VI). ) poco a oco a; ) cepo coo oco a; ) ocopo coo oco a.

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