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. . poo, O.. aoa, A. B. ay, C. .ypyo OA XM ATECTBO TT Mcepco opaoa Poccco eepa TAMOBC OCAPCTBEHH TEXHEC HBEPCTET . . poo, O.. aoa, A. B. ay, C. .ypyo OA XM Peoeoao e coemo yuepcumema aecme yeoo nocou ATECTBO TT Tao 2000 Pae I OA XM aa 1.1 BEECTBA 1.1.1 Ocoe o X, oo, a ay, oope ya ppoy. ppoa - o oyx, oa, e, Coe, ya, pace, oe, .

e, Coe, o, aoyc, eoe, oa, a - oe ea. Xec caa, oa, popa - oe ea. O coco cea. oa, a coco a, cepepa, A, cepepo, ceo, oa, cepa, e, caxap, copo, ao, eeo - o eeca. Tea cocmom u eecm.

B ppoe oe oo eec. Beeca cyecy ppoe eaco o eoea. M e ceac oy, o oa ec pee, ope. M e copo e yae o e, o copo ec oyxe. M copoo. ooy oo caa:

eeca cyecy eaco o ac.

COBA COBOCOETAH Beeco, -a popa, - Ao ppoa Ceo eeo Boyx A Coco (u eo) ya Cepepo Cyecoa Pacee, - Cepa Cyecoa eaco ooe, -e copo (om oo om eo) oa, - OPATTE BHMAHE ! 1) mo coco u eo.

Tea coco eec.

2) Cyecmoam eaucuo (o oo o eo ).

Beeca cyecy eaco o eoea.

PAHEH 1 Haoe ea, oope aee.

2 Haoe eeca, oope aee.

3 Boe ypaee o opay:

Teo Beeco Caa eeo Caa, eeo, ya, cepa, ceo, oa, e, Coe, caxap, a, cepepo, e, o, a, o, copo, ao, a, aoyc, oa, popa.

4 eo coco: a) oa; ) popa; ) oa 5 eo coco ea 1.1.2 Coca eec Boe pae eeca: caxap, co, e, cepy, oy, o cp, cepy coy.

a paac eeca. Caxap, co, e, cepa, epe eeca; oa, o cp, cepa coa - e eeca.

a pa epe eeca: caxap, co, e, cepy Co, caxap, e - eeca eoo ea. Cepa - eeco eoo ea. M , o eeca e pa e.

Aa pa eeca ooo ea: caxap, co, e Caxap co pacopc oe, a e e pacopec oe. a pa caxap co O e pa yc.

Boe e eeca - oy, o cp cepy coy. O e e ea (ecee). a x pa Cp ee xapaep aax. Boa cepa coa e e aaxa. a pa oy cepy coy Boa cepa coa e pay ooc. ooc o 1 /c3 (o pa a yec caep), ooc cepo co 1,84 /c3 (oa ea oceec epe cox paa a yec caep).

Boa, o cp, cepa coa e pae eepayp e.

Teepaypa e o 100 C (co payco ec), eepaypa e cepo co 338 C, eepaypa e cpa 78 C.

Apeaoe cocoe (epoe, oe, aoopaoe), e, ooc, pacopoc, eepaypa e, eepaypa ae - o ece coca eeca.

aoe eeco ee co coca. Hapep, cepa coa - oe eceoe eeco, e aaxa. ooc cepo co 1,84 /c3, eepaypa e 338 C, eepaypa ae 10,4 C. Cepa coa xopoo pacopec oe.

o - epoe eeco eo-cepoo ea, ee xapaep aax. ooc oa 4,94 /c3. Teepaypa ae oa 11 - 3,7 C, eepaypa e 184,5 C. o ao pacopec oe, o xopoo pacopec oo cpe.

o pa pae eeca, yo cpaa cooyoc coc x eec.

Cooyoc coc, oopa xapaepye oo aoe eeco - o aeco eeca.

o paa eeca, yo a x aeca.

Beeca c x coca cyecy eaco o eoea. Beeca ecy a a opa yc. M e eec, ycye x aax yc.

COBA COBOCOETAH Pa, -a, -oe, e Coco, -a e, -a Cepa coa Cp, - aax, - Paa - pa o cp ooc, - Tep, -a, -oe, -e coa, - pa, - , -a, -oe, -e Byc, - Cooyoc, ece, -a, oe, - Caep, - e Teepaypa aeco, -a Xapaep, -a, -oe, e aee Tao, -a, -oe, -e Teepaypa e Xapaepoa ae Opa, - e, -a, -oe, -e aoopa yco, -a Pa, -a, -oe, - Cpaa ycoa e ecoa Pacopc ( e) Pacopoc Apeaoe cocoe OPATTE BHMAHE ! 1) mo pacopec e.

Caxap pacopec oe.

2) mo + uuumu, yo + uuumu.

o paa eeca, yo a x aeca.

3) mo ee mo.

Beeco ee e.

PAHEH 1 ae coca eec aee 2 o aoe aeco eeca 3 Oe coca eec, oope pee a. 1, o cxee: a) apeaoe cocoe; ) e; ) aax, yc; ) ooc; ) eepaypa e, eepaypa ae; e) pacopoc.

1 ooc, eepayp ae e eoopx eec Teepaypa, C Beeco ooc, /c3 ae e Boa 1,00 0 o 0,8 -114 78,cp 2,7 659 A 10,5 961,3 Cepepo 2,1 112,8 Cepa 2,2 801 Co (NaCl) 1,25 -209,9 -195,Ao 1,43 218,7 -copo 1.1.3 ece xece e ppoa ce pe eec. oe eee ppoe - o eue. ee e, ee eoea, aee a, ee capee o, opee c, pacopee caxapa oe, pacopee eaa coe - o e.

p apea e ac - pepaaec oy. Boa capec, pepaaec ap. ap p oxae pepaaec oy. Boa p oxae pepaaec e.

e, oa, ap - o e pae eeca. o oo eeco - oa pax apeax cocox. aee a, capee o, pepaee apa oy, pepaee o e - o uuecue eu. p x ex eec apeaoe cocoe o, a eeco oa e eec.

Ec yco ea pepa opoo, ec opa ea, o eeco e e ec. o oe ecoe ee.

p ecx ex ec oo oee coca eec e: apeaoe cocoe eeca, opa, oe, ooee ea. p ecx ex oe eeca e opayc.

ye apea cyxo pope cyxo caxap. Caxap - o epoe eeco eoo ea, e aaxa, ee ca yc. Caaa o ac - o ecoe ee. oo caxap ee e. M ycye ep aax. Ha ceax pop oec oa. B pope opayec ooe eeco epoo ea. o eeco e ee yca, e ac p apea - o yo. Caxapa ye e. Opaoac oe eeca c o coca - o xuuecoe eue.

p ope a eec eoa opayec ooe eeco - opoo eoo ea.

p ope cep eec eoa opayec ooe eeco a c ep aaxo.

p pacope ea a coe oe opayec ooe eeco c o coca.

opee a, opee cep, pacopee ea a coe - o xece e.

e, p oopx o eeca pepaac pye, aac xec e (xec pea).

pa xecx pea: 1) eee ea eeca; 2) opaoae eeca, oopoe e pacopec oe; 3) opaoae aa; 4) eee ooee eo.

Ma op. Cepa coa e op. pacopec cepo coe. Cepepo e pacopec cepo coe.

Coca aoo eeca cya pea c py eeca aac xec coca.

Cooyoc xecx ecx coc, oope xapaepy oo aoe eeco, - o aeco eeca.

p xecx ex ec e oo oee coca eec. p xecx ex ec aeca eec. p xecx ex opayc oe eeca. X yae eeca, x coca, coca, cpoe pepae.

COBA COBOCOETAH ec pepaac o eee, - Oxaee Ma o, -a, -oe, - yco Bec e opoo Beee ee, - pa, - Teoa ee Oe, - cea capee Oe, -a, -oe, -e pa, - capc ooee, - Opaoae opee Opaoac ooee Pacopee Cyxo, -a, -oe, -e Hapeae oc Bcya pepaee, - Hepacop, -a, - pea ac oe, -e Coca e Cpoee, - Cea, - OPATTE BHMAHE ! 1)pu apeauu (uneuu, naeuu).

p apea cepa ac.

2) mo pepaaec o mo.

e pepaaec oy.

3) Ecu + uuumu.

Ec yco ea pepa opoo, eec opa ea.

4) mo aaec e.

pepae ox eec pye aac xec pea.

5) mo cyae pea c e.

cyae pea c coo.

PAHEH 1 o aoe ee 2 p ax ex opayc oe eeca 3 p ax ex ec aeca eec 4 ae e aac xec 5 ae o e (ece xece): a) aee a; ) opee a; ) pacopee a cepo coe; ) aee cep; ) opee cep; e) capee cpa; ) opee cpa; ) pepaee ea opoo.

6 Bo o pepaaec: a) a p ope; ) e p ae; ) cepa p ope; ) oa p e 7 o ec, ec: a) yco ea pepa opoo; ) paca cepy; ) pacop ea coe 8 ae coca eec aac xec 9 o aoe aeco eeca 10 o yae x 11 Ce a cyae pea: a) p ope; ) p pacope coe 12 Opeee, ae ee xapaepy xecy pea: eee op ea, eee ea, opaoae eeca, oopoe e pacopec oe, eee apeaoo coco eeca, opaoae aa, eee oea, ooee eo.

aa 1.ATOMHO-MOEPHOE EHE OCHOBHE OHT AOH XM 1.2.1 Moeypoe cpoee eeca M ae, o p ee eepayp oe ea eec. oey o pocxo ooy o eeca coco aex ac oey. Mey oeya ec poey. p apea ea poey yeac, p oxae - yeac.

Moeya - o caa aea aca eeca, oopa coxpae eo xece coca.

M e oe ye oee oey o oa. Ho o cyecy. B epo poco oo oe oe oey, apep oey ea.

Mey oeya ecy c pe oaa. Moey e accy, paep, xece coca. Moey ooo eeca oao. Moey pax eec e pa coca, pay accy, pae paep, pae coca. Hapep, ce oey o oao. Moey o oa pae (pc. 1).

Moey ocoo yc. B 1827 oy ac ye poy ye poco ee epx ac oc. ac yc epepo ecopoo. o ee aa poyoc ee.

a) ) Pc. 1 Cxe oey:

a - oa; - o Oo oaae, o oey oc ecopoo epepo yc.

Moey ooo eeca oy poa ey oeya pyoo eeca. o ecoe ee aaec uyue.

poyocoe ee, y, pacopee eeca pye e oaa, o oey cyecy epepo yc.

COBA COBOCOETAH pocxo epo eo aca, - Mpoco, - Macca, - Moeya, - Hepepo Paep, - Mey ecopoo Oao, -a, -oe, poeyo Ca, - e eac Oaae ocoo eac pee oc, - ac, - a poa Coxpa e y PAHEH 1 eo coco eeca 2 oey ea e oe p ee eepayp 3 o aoe oeya 4 Moo caa, o oeya coxpae ce coca eeca 5 ae coca xapaepy eeco, a ae oeyy: eepaypa e, acca, eepaypa ae, paep, coca, apeaoe cocoe, ooc 6 Moo coxpa a opx oax 7 o oaae poyocoe ee 1.2.2 Ao. Xece ee Moey cocmom u amoo.

p xecx peax oey paaac a ao. Ao e paaac p xecx peax. aoo opayc oe oey.

Ao oeya eeco - o u cyecmoau amepuu.

Xece pea - o oco e aoo. o xeca opa e aep.

B ppoe cyecy pae aoo, oope e pa paep, pay accy pae coca. a oe aoo aaec xuuecu eemo.

Ceac eco 107 xecx eeo. a xec ee ee coe aae co xec a (co). Xec a - o oa e y acoo aa eea. Hapep, H (a) - xec a oopoa, acoe, aae oopoa Hydrogenium, Fe (eppy) - xec a eea, acoe aae eea Ferrum.

B a. 2 pee pycce ace aa eeo, xece a ee x opye.

2 Haa, xece a oocee aoe acc eoopx eeo pouoe Oocea Xec ac Pyccoe ue aoa acca a oe aae xuueco (opyea) aa oaa e 1 2 3 4 Ag Argentum Cepepo Apemuy A1 Aluminiu A A m As Arsenicum My Apcey Au Anrum ooo Aypy C Carboneu epo e m Cl Chlorum Xop Xop 35,Cu Cuprum Me ypy Fe Ferrum eeo eppy pooeue ma. 1 2 3 4 H Hydrogniu Boopo A I He Helium e e Hg Hydrargyru Py pappy m Kalium a a N Nitrogeniu Ao m Ca Calcium a a Na Natrium Hap Hap O Oxygenium copo O P Phosphorus ocop e Pb Plumbum Ce y S Sulfur Cepa c Sb Stibium Cypa Cy Si Silicium pe Cy Sn Stannum Ooo Cay Zn Zincum Xec a ooaae: 1) ee; 2) o ao eea. Ao xecx eeo xo coca pocx cox eec.

Beeca, oope coco aoo ooo eea, aac poc.

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