The plan for expenses for the provision of high-tech medical aid and extra financial payments for doctors and nurses of the primary health service was almost accomplished. Among the directions of the project that were but partially fulfilled they are those which implementation required much more administrative efforts and first and foremost the provision of cooperative actions of authorities at different levels (training and retraining of general practitioners (family doctors), conducting of extra clinical examination of employees of a government-financed organizations, payments for medical aid for women in the period of pregnancy and childbirth (Уchildbirth certificateФ), construction high-tech medical care centers). It is obvious, that to secure the effectiveness of such a project changes in the very existing mechanisms of administration are necessary.
The implementation of the national project appeared to be a kind of a test and training for the government ability for purposeful organizational actions in the field of the public health care on a national scale. First results testify to the fact that the corresponding administrative potential is little.
S.V.Shishkin Changes in the trends of migration during the post Ц Soviet period In the Soviet period, the traditional determinants of migrations, such as urbanization, the labor market, and education, were significantly influenced by state policy. The majority of migration flows were regulated by the State and were taking place within the framework of organized recruitment of labor and military service; a significant role was also played by education Ц related migration and migration for matrimonial reasons. In the post Ц Soviet period we can observe considerable changes in the volumes and the directions of migrations. The mechanism of redistribution of migrations has also changed. In the past fifteen years, market mechanisms have clearly become the principal driving force orchestrating the migrations. The of main factors checking internal migrations in the Russian Federation are the underdevelopment of the labor and housing markets. The review is concerned with the changes in the scale and directions of external and internal migrations over the past fifteen years.Trends of international migration in the past fifteen years Russia is involved in the process of international migration as a country of immigration, emigration, and transit. The major factors attracting immigrants to Russia are its political and social stability, a faster implementation of market reforms, and the freedom of movement between the CIS countries. Since the disintegration of the USSR, the Russians have become actively involved in international migrations, especially after the adoption of The Law on the Procedure for Exit from the Russian Federation and Entry to the Russian Federation, and have considerably increased their presence on the international labor market during the past fifteen years.
According to the 2002 All Ц Russian Census, almost 11 million migrants arrived in the RSFSR / RF during the 1989 Ц 2002 period. Over the said period, Russia increased its population by 5.6 million persons, or by 2.3 times more than during the preceding 13 Ц year period, during which the net increase in its population size had amounted to 2.4 million persons (between the year 1975, when the influx of population to Russia began, and the year 1988). By the volume of immigration, Russia found itself in the third place in the world, One of the following issues of the Review will be entirely devoted to the theme of labor migration, therefore the trends of labor migration are not analyzed in the current issue.
after the USA and Germany.11 During the inter Ц census period, the majority of immigrants, or 6.8 million, arrived from the CIS countries and the Baltic states. In the population exchange with other countries, Russia lost 1.3 million persons.12 The migration Ц related population growth exhibited by Russia in the 1989 Ц period considerably surpassed the corresponding figures pertaining to the Soviet period (Figure 1).
The census revealed the incompleteness of migration registration. According to the 202 Census, net immigration turned to be by 1.8 million persons (or by 1.5 times) larger than that reflected in current statistical records, while the number of persons arrived Ц by 1.7 million persons (or by 12 %) (Table 1). The trends of registered migration reflect a sharp narrowing of space for legal migration, rather than a decrease in the actual flows. According to research Ц based estimates, there are between 3 and 8 million immigrants currently in Russia, most of whom have spend in the country several years without obtaining residence permits.-данные текущего учета данные переписи 2002 года Figure 1. Migration Ц related population growth in Russia, 1970 Ц 2004, in thousands of persons In the period under consideration, the migrations into Russia followed the main direction of migrations in the post Ц Soviet space. During the first five years after the disintegration of the USSR, three quarters of those persons who migrated from one CIS country into another had Russia as their ultimate destination.
On comparing the flows of newcomers who arrived in Russia throughout the two thirteen Ц year periods of 1989 Ц 2002 and 1975 Ц 1988, it turns out that despite the 1.8 million additional migrants registered by the 2002 Census, and despite the predominant belief, the previous flow was much larger Ц 13 million persons. In reality, the slump was apparently less precipitant than it follows from the data of the current statistical records, but nevertheless the downward trend is much more probable than the equalizing one.
The census adjustment is distributed by the Goskomstat by year in such a way that it practically stabilizes the migration Ц related population growth starting from the year 1995, while the trend built on the basis of the data of the current statistical records demonstrates a sharp drop from the maximum level of 811 thousand persons achieved in 1994 to 72 Ц 99 thousand persons in 2001 Ц 04. It could be assumed that in reality there was no such a sharp decline in the numbers of newcomers in the past four years. It is most likely, that there was a considerable increase in the number of unregistered migrant caused by the introduction of the new migration legislation (the Law on the Legal Status of Foreign Citizens in the Russian Federation), which considerably complicated the procedure for formalizing the stay in the territory of Russia.
For more details, see Krasinets, E., Kubishin, E., Tiuriukanova, E. NelegalТnaia migratsiia v Rossiiu (Illegal migration into Russia). Moscow: Academia. 2000; Naselenie Rossii 2002 (The population of Russia, the year 2002). Desiatyi ezhegodnyi demograficheskii doklad (The tenth annual report). Moscow: УKnizhnii dom УUniversitetФ. 2004; Topilin, A. V. SNG: Demogragicheskii potentsial, migratsiia, rynok truda (The CIS: The demographic potential, migration, labor market). Moscow: УEkonom-informФ. 2002.
Later on, all the CIS countries exhibited an almost synchronous decline in migrations. In the 1990s, the main migration flow in the post Ц Soviet space was produced by the repatriation of Russians, whose inflow accounted for two thirds of the migration Ц related population growth in the RSFSR / RF in the years 1989 Ц 2005. As a result, the net migration of Russians in the 1990s grew by comparison with the 1980s by 6 times.
According to the registration records, during the years 1989 Ц 2004, out of the 25.3 million of ethnic Russians residing in the Union Republics in 1989, 3.8 million departed for Russia (net migration). More than percent of repatriates (1.8 million persons) departed in the four Ц year period between 1992 and 1995.
Immigration from the CIS countries, and, first of all, that of local Russians, reached its peak in 1994 (1.million persons), while the emigration from Russia to the CIS countries had dropped, by that time, more than three Ц fold (Figure 2). After 1995, the flow of migrants from the CIS countries and the Baltic states into Russia considerably declined, which reduced the possibility for the RF to use the inflow of population from these countries for the purpose of satisfying its future demand for immigrant work force.14 In recent years, Russia has switched over to a rigid migration policy, including in regard to the CIS countries, by drastically toughening the procedure for registration of migrants and the procedure for granting residence permits and the acquisition of Russian citizenship.15 The two Ц fold decline in the inflow of migrants into Russia after the year 2000 is a true reflection of this situation. In 2004, the inflow from the CIS remained low - in the amount of 172 thousand persons. By 2004, the population outflow from Russia into the post Ц Soviet countries had effectively stopped, by dropping to 38 thousand that year, or by almost twenty times by comparison with the year 1989. Russia had a positive balance of population exchange with all the post Ц Soviet countries, excepting Byelorussia. In the past ten years Russia was losing its population in favor of that country.854 800 692 570 229 149 число прибывших по текущему учету число прибывших по переписи 2002 года число выбывших Fig. 2. Migration to and from the CIS countries and the Baltic states, 1989 Ц 2004, in thousands of persons Starting from 1995, immigration from the post Ц Soviet countries began to decline, at first because of the military actions in Chechnya, and then under the influence of the August 1998 default.
The corresponding policy is reflected in the 2002 Law on Citizenship and in the 2002 Law on the Legal Status of Foreign Citizens.
However, in the final account the population loss was absolutely insignificant - 11 thousand persons.
In the past fifteen years, the age structure of migrants underwent a visible transformation, owing to the ongoing social changes. The migration flows have become much advanced in age. 17 At the same time, the educational level of people coming to Russia has become higher. At present, persons with higher education comprise 20.9 % of the migration Ц related population growth in Russia, while their proportion in the countryТs population amounts to 16.2 %. The advantage of migrants as regards secondary education is also considerable, 34.9 % against 27.5 %, respectively. This situation is a logical result of the shift in the age composition of migrants towards persons of a more advanced age, who have already completed their education cycle.
Immigration from the far abroad represents that component of migration movement which is the one most poorly reflected in statistics. Although the 2002 Census registered only 50 thousand of immigrants who had arrived from outside the borders of the former USSR, de facto their numbers are much higher. The legal status of this category of immigrants has not been regulated as yet. All of them are deemed to be illegal, and therefore the recording of them is still neglected.
The international migration of Russians has significantly risen, and the geography of the countries of their destination has become much broader. Before the disintegration of the USSR, nearly the entire migration Ц related population exchange of Russia had been with the Soviet republics; in the post - Soviet period, especially as regards the flow of departers, other countries have become much more prominent in this respect (Table 3). During the inter Ц census period, more than 1.3 million persons, of 24.2 % of all emigrants, had left for the far abroad. By 2003 Ц 2004, the flows of those having left for the former Soviet republics and for the far abroad had become similar in volume.
Changes in the trends of internal migrations The reduction in the flows on migration was not limited to internal migrations, but involved external migrations as well. On the whole, in just four years, from 1989 to 1993, the number of those migrants who changed the place of residence within the country dropped from 4.7 to 2.9 million, or by almost 40 %. The reason for this was the sharply reduced possibility of migration within the country and, probably, the serious shocks experienced by the population in connection with the collapse of the USSR and the former social system. Later on, the internal migrations continued to shrink, but not so drastically, and in the year their volume amounted to 2 million persons, or 1.4 % of the countryТs population Ц by 2.3 times less than in 1989. After 2002, the slump in internal migration came to an end, at it became stabilized at the afore Ц noted low level.
The stagnation of village Ц to - city migrations. Throughout the 20th century, the rate of urbanization of Russia remained high. The trajectories of net migration of urban and rural population convincingly illustrate both the depth of the experienced crisis and its long duration (Figure 4). In the late 1980s Ц early 1990s, there was a sharp decline in the inflow of population into the cities, and even a reverse movement of townsmen to rural areas; the inversion of the migration trends of the city and the small village was caused by the fact that during the first years of market reforms it was easier to survive by Уworking the landФ.
The above Ц mention tendency was short Ц lived. Market reforms opened new ways to earning money, which became a serious alternative to the collapsed state sector. The inflow into the cities quickly resumed, and by the year 1994 it had almost reached its former level. Starting from the mid-1990s, the normal direction of internal migrations Ц from the small village to the town Ц was gradually restored. The 1998 financial crisis again reduced the migration Ц related inflow of population into the cities almost to zero, but gradually migration recovered once again at a low level.
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