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Mcepco opaoa Poccco eepa Taoc ocyapce exec yepce T. . aapea, . . Mapeo HEHE CCTEM ABTOMATECOO PEPOBAH onyeo eo-emouecu oeueue yo no opaoau oacmu amoamuupoaoo auocmpoeu (MO AM) aecme yeoo nocou cmyemo cux yex aeeu, oyauxc no anpaeu "Texoou, oopyoaue u amoamuau auocmpoumex npouocm" u cneuaocm: "Texoou auocmpoeu"; "Memaopeyue cmau u ucmpyem"; "cmpyemae cucme umepupoax auocmpoumex npouocm" (anpaeue noomou unoupoax cneuaucmo "ocmpymopco-mexoouecoe oecneeue auocmpoumex npouocm");

"Amoamuau mexoouecux npoecco u npouocm ( auocmpoeuu)" (anpaeue noomou unoupoax cneuaucmo "Amoamuupoae mexoouu u npouocma") Tao aeco TT 2001 681.51 965.73-2 17 Pe e e :

aepa "Bcee ycpoca aoaa" Taocoo ceo aaooo eepoo cya;

oop execx ay, poeccop Mococoo ocyapceoo yepcea eepo oo B. C. aaupe aapea T. ., Mapeo . .

17 ee cce aoaecoo peypoa: eoe ocoe. Tao: o Ta. oc. ex. y-a, 2001. 264 c.

ISBN 5-8265-0149-9 B yeo oco oe ocoe p eo eop aoaecoo ypae: ocpoee cce ypae, eo x aeaecoo oca, pep oe ycooc aeca peypoa ex epepx eeppoax cce.

peaaeo cyeo cx yex aee, oya-xc o apae 651900 657900, o ce cce caooo opaoa.

681.51 965.73-2 aapea T. ., Mapeo . ., 2001 Taoc ISBN 5-8265-0149-9 ocyapce exec yepce (TT), BBEEHE Teop aoaecoo ypae ec ocoo oepoeccoao co apae ooo opoaoo ceaca "Aoapoae exoo pooca".

Ocoo e aoaa ec cee eocpeceoo yac eoea ypae pooce poecca py exec oea.

B acoee pe aoaa exooecx poecco pecae coo oo aex cpec poca eoc pooca, eca pa apooo xoca. Ta opao, aaa ye c "Teop aoaecoo ypae" coco ye ocox po ocpoe yopoa aoaecx cce ypae a ae copeex aeaecx eoo execx cpec.

ye eop aoaecoo ypae oe pec cce oxo, pey paccope cce ee eococ, a e poco yea aopo, x a cocoe oex eeo.

eoe ocoe acao cooec c peoa ocyapceoo opaoaeoo caapa ypca "Teop aoaecoo ypae". Ocooe x coepae coca aeaecoe ocae aoaecx cce, oco acooo cpyypoo eoo cceoa cce, ycooc, oeceee ycooc, aeco peypoa, apaepec ce ex cce aoaecoo peypoa.

1 OA XAPATEPCTA OETOB CCTEM ABTOMATECOO PABEH 1.1 PATE CTOPECE CBEEH Bepe cee o aoaax oc aae ae p paoax epoa Aecapcoo "eaa" "Mexaa", e oca aoa, coae ca epoo eo yee ece: eoaoa op epe xpaa, oo opa, aoa poa co o p. e epoa aeo oepe co e e a pee eo oxy.

B cpee ea aeoe pae oya a aaea "apoa" aoaa, oa exa coa p aoao, opaax oe ec eoea, , o yc eaee, opeae paa aoaa eee cxoco c eoeo aa x "apoa", .e. eoeooo.

B XIII . ee oco-cxoac ax Aep o oa ocpo poo opa apa epe.

Beca epece apo coa XVII XVIII . B XVIII . eapce aco ep po eo c Ap coa exaecoo ca, exaecoo xyoa p. pepac eap aoao coa XVIII . pycc exaocaoyo y. Eo eap, xpac pae, oee "acax o yp".

Ha pyee XVIII XIX ., oxy poeoo epeopoa, aaec o a pa aoa, ca c ee epee poeoc. oc epe aoaece ycpoca, oop oocc peyop ypo oyoa (1765 .), peyop copoc apoo a aa (1784 .), ccea popaoo ypae a cao aapa (1804 1808 .) .. o ooeo aao peyopocpoe.

B 1854 . ac pycc exa epoex . ocao peo cooa apox aax "epoa peyop copoc pae", a A.

aoc 1866 . papaoa peyop, e oay oa oy cooeceo ee ae apa oe. B 1879 . . Booc .

Bopo epe ocyece p pepcoo peypoa p ypae ae oa oo.

Ec epe peyop ca c apoo ao, o co opo oo XIX .

cyecey po peyopocpoe aa pa opeoc epeco ocee. Ta, 60-e o paoax B. oaea epe pee epec ae. A 1874 . o peo ocyec eo peypoa, coca ocoy copeeo epoao aoa.

o o epo pa aoa epo peyopocpoe, c ce oyopa coe, cpa opoy po exe. B o pe ee eeo cyo aa oppoac aee p aoa: p peypoa o ooe oyoa-aa, pac oe opax ce; p peypoa o apye, ocy ocoo eop apaoc p. Haa c ypca poeccopa eepypcoo yepcea . oa 1823 ., eop peyopo xo coca eeo ypc oopa o exae apo aa.

Oa eop peyopo a papaoaa, ocoo, 1868 1876 . paoax .

Macea . Bepacoo. Ocoooaa pya Bepacoo c:

"O oe eop peyopo", "O peyopax epoo ec". Bx paoax oo a co copeex eepx eoo cceoa ycooc aeca peypoa.

oco pooaee ea . Bepacoo coa eep A.

Cooa, pao oopoo oce cceoa ycooc pa cxe peypoa, acoc, epoo peypoa c eco opao c. B o e epo copypoa aepaece pep ycooc Payca ypa.

yp poc poeoc opaaec a pa pao oac eop peypoa. B oe XIX . aae XX coe coac oe epoexaecx peypyx popo ae, a popae peyop, cee cce cxe oaypoa. Ta, 1877 . A. ao papaoa poe epo cee cce, coepae epece ee, peaaeo aoaecoo pa opy aeaeo ya oe cooec c eee pacco o e, oopa a poeocppoaa 1881 .

B 1882 . a poeo-xyoeceo cae Moce oaa poo copeeoo popaoo peyopa, papaoaoo H. axapo. o acoeo pee coyec p "ycaoe oycx peex ae peypyeoo apaepa", peoe 1884 . . Ceypo. B o e epo paaec apaepecoe peypoae: papaoa epea peyop B.

oae cxea oaypoa eepaopo M. oo-opooc.

ooe aee pa eop peypoa e cceoa A. yoa.

Eo py, oyoa 1892 ., "Oa aaa ycooc e" c ao exo pa eop ycooc. B o paoe A. yo a epoe cop ay aeaec cpooe opeeee ycooc e, a ae papaoa a eoa pee aa o ycooc. ep aaec oocoa ycaoe ox pa peoc aaa ycooc, ocoaoo a ex epeax ypaex, a opo ooe cceoa ycooc e oo p ecoeo ax ooex "ycooc ao", o p oex ooex "ycooc oo".

py a eop ec H. yoc, oop coa eop opao ycooc a ocoe apaox po a, a ae a aeaecoe ocae poecco x pyopooax, paccope e cyxoo pe peyopax, cceoa eoope poecc ycoo peypoa. aca ep pycc ye "Teop peypoa xoa a" (1909 .).

aay XX . epo eo ece eop aoaecoo peypoa oppyec a oa ca c po pax paeo. Ocoeo eo c o eop peypoa a ce oeexecoo xapaepa pooc paoax .

Boececoo (1922 1949 .) pyooe oo pyx coecx o o oac, oop 1934 . epe y p aoooo peypoa.

oo eo acyo ec papaoa oeo eoa pae poecca peypoa c eco peypye ea a p aoox poecco.

Ceye oe p epecx opee oo epoa: "cpoco oye ocooo oa c oco apee p epeeo ce oopoo eepaopa" .

eepa, "Coco oe yceoc peypoa ca oopoo ae" B.

Booa M. capeo p. a epo ae xapaepyec pae opoco aoaecoo peypoa pooca pacpeee epeco ep.

ooe aee e pao C. eeea . aoa oac ycooc epocce.

B pae o XX . coac oee ee eo cceoa, acoc, acoe. oc pao X. Haca (1932 .), coepae pep ycooc paoexecx ycee c opao c, A. Mxaoa (1938 .) "apoec eo eop peypoa", oope o pay oceoee o. B 1946 ..

oe . Mao e oapece acoe xapaepc.. pay, A. Xo, .

ee,. eca, B. Coooo aep papaoy acox eoo cea pacea cce, pa opy, yoy eepx paceo.

B 40 50 o papaaac oco eop eex cce, cooc oopx coco ocyc eoo oeo aeaecoo aapaa. ec ceye oe pao o ycooc A. ype (1944 1951 .), A. eoa (1955 .). aepa ao oo apae caec papaoa eop acoo ycooc, yo A. ype B. oco (1944 .), oee eao copypoao M.

Aepao (1949, 1963 .) oeeo o oo pee pyc ye B.

oo (1959 .).

ooe aee aeceoo cceoa eex cce e eo aoo ococ aooo pocpaca, oco oopx aoe A. Apoo eo oo 1930 1940 .

. papaoa oco eop peex (1955 .) ycx (60-e o) cce c pa a oy. H. po H. ooo (1934 .) papaoa eo apoecoo aaca opeee apaepo aooea yco x ooe.

B oceoee o eop aoaecoo ypae paaac ooopo, yoy oo cex apaex aopax poco eooo. Bo eoope x: eop aoaecoo peypoa o oye, eop oeca oye apaoc papaoa pyax. aoa, B. yeaa, . epoa p.; p cpeaoo ypae eop oca cpeya papaoa B. aaee. A.

eayo, A. pacoc. B e o coac oco eop oaoo ypae . op. A. eo, H. pacoc p.

B acoee pe aee eop aoaecoo ypae epepoco pa oo execx cce. aece ypaee poecc e eco x opaax, ooecx opaaox eoeo-ax cceax, x e cyeceo oa o x po py oep.

aeee pae ycoee cce aoaec peo coa aoapoax cce ypae (AC) exooec poecca (ACT), pooco (AC) opac (ACO). o eoo ocpoe cce ocaoo ey coo, xo y exece cpeca, a oopx peayc AC, xapaep peaex aa cyeceo oac.

1.2 OCHOBHE OHT OPEEEH aaa aoaa coco ocyece aoaecoo ypae pa exec poecca.

o exooec poecc oo pace a p oee pocx epaoax cocax, o cax ey coo poecco. Bc c oop, o exooeco poecce e paoue onepauu, .e. ec, eocpece peyao oopx ec peyea opaoa aepaa, ep, opa, onepauu ynpaeu, oeceae pae ye oe yx peo, apae ..

Paoe oepa cope c apaa ep, , ec o oc eoeo, o a x oee apaaec eo eca ca. Ha oepa ypae apaaec eeya py eoea, oepa pey opeeeo aa coe.

aea pya eoea paox oepax paoo a exao aaec exauaue.

Cooyoc oepa ypae opaye poecc ypae. Ta opao, o ynpaeue oa ay opaa oo oo poecca, oopa oeceae ocee opeeeo e.

aea pya eoea oepax ypae ec execx ypax ycpoc aaec amoamuaue. Texecoe ycpoco, oee oepa ypae e eocpeceoo yac eoea, aaec amoamuecu ycmpocmo.

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