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Camupuecue u opucmuecue ypa. oy ooe pacpocpaee c oa 50-x . XIX . Oco e ooac capece ypa: "cpa" (1859 1873), "Paeee" (1859 - 1918), "y" (1865 - 1917). oeca capa ox epo pycco peo pecaea a "pe", "yee"; epeooy oxy - ypaa "Capo" (1908 - 1914), "Ho capo" (1913 1918).

epoe u peuuoe uau: "epo ec" (1875 - 1917), "epoe eooc" (1888 - 1917) - opa Ceoo Coa, a ae "epoo-pxoca oa" (c 1887), "yxoa ecea" (1856 - 1876), "Pycc ao" (1885 - 1917). B oae oce eapx Pocc aac "Eapxae eooc" oae opa eco eapxao ac. Bce o aac o eo popae, yepeo Coo. epe "Eapxae eooc" oc pocae 1860 . Cyecoa ooe a o 1917 .

AETHA EAT. ocee eep XIX . cpoc a ae co opoc. Boepx, epoeca ea ooaeo epepoaac; o-opx, ype co poccco peoa cpoo, opooo , aoe, oepaoo x ocee; aoe, eeo, o epo poc ypoe paooc yyp acc acee Poccco ep. Ap aee ooac pecae ex py acee, oope paee e oxo o eaoo coa: acepo, eaa, ae peca. e y ccece epaype c, oea oa eaa. Bce, o o peoa - ooeoc, ocy (oa) cecaooc. O e coacc oa ec a, o poa ca coeo ypa - pa oopeae. O e epecoac, o e x aeax (a aco e a a cpo pox ocyapcex eee). Ho ae yapa pecca a opeeeo ae paa ooey po - e oa xyoeo, o poaa apo paoe, e , a, ao-o cee yype.

Ocoey oypoc ae Pocc pope c aaa XX ., oa oceoa e aeoco co, oopx c xo xao a ecoo copecx ox.

Pycco-oca oa (oa oe poo oceaac aeax), apoee oecx ap, epa pycca peo, Maec 17 op poee apaeapa, poa oa, epaca peo, oocee co yypo cepepoo ea ooe pyoe - ce o a e oo oca paoyo pyccy yy. ae xo ae, peypee, aoo eee - o oeo cee "oe" ypa o oypoc y pocccoo ae.

e cpay oce oe peocoo paa ca oc ae " apoa":

"Mpcoe coo", "Hapoa aea", "Bocpec ocy" cppoae oyypa, oyae "cppoaa ee", "cppoa ec", "Mpco ec". aea caa ae eo opo eeao. epa eceypa pycca aea aaac a pae - o "ooo" epea Oapea.

oo oc apoece eeae a: ypa aea. . apoa "Bepe!", aea. H. Taea "Haa", ae oceoaee M. A. aya "Oa" "Pao". epecee a xo a peea Pocc. B Pocc aac apoece ae "Haao", "Paoa aea", "ep epee", "Hapoa o" p.

C ooee oecx ap oc oco epo - O (epa opa), peyeceo e ae. B ax a poaapoac e, caaee pecae o o ap, oocoac cpae aa ap cee pax co, coo, O aco pyopa ap, oope o peca. B x copya ae eoo ac oecx ap.

Ta, poo eca aea "Pe" - oa yx cax aecex ae aaa XX . "Pe" a O ap aeo, aee ocoo eaac ape ep, ece ce cpae:. Mo,. Cpye, A. oe, . ecce p. O ap cepo a aea "Peooa Pocc", a ae - "eo apoa". ceo (ee o paea a eeo oeo) a co "cpa", oo a aea caa eecco, a epa opao PCP() c 1912 . ac "paa". co ae a y pyx oecx ap. Haoee peaee x e opaac apo poaao aae, e aac a eyx cox. ye ae o eae o co e paoopa, a oe ypa, o oee ocy, ooy e peyeco.

PAA B PCCO EPOE. B opeope epo pycco epoe ooc opooe oeco paecx opae - pcyo, cpa, oopa, ao, epee, ap, apocxe. oe x coecoa exece ooee opaeco pooce, pae ox cocoo ocpoee cpa. oec ee epo ooe XIX . opa opoa papa a epee p coa cpa oxoc opao eee pee opoo coe pap a e. C 1880-x . ypa ca ooac o, ee oee ee cocoo ocpoee cpa - aoe (opaec coco ocpoee oyoooo pcya ooca). C 1890-x . c aoe caa oyppoa oo (coco oco ea co ceo eaeco ac). o epeopo pepoyoy exy ooe ocpoee cpa eco opeee . Opoa (1896), peoeo coco oopacoo ea, peape oceyy ocey ea.

C oa XIX . cpo yeaoc oeco oopacox cpa ypaax. O aeo oec ey opa. oaa acca opae axoac a opao ox eeeex ypaax, oope xo oo o ocpece. cpa aeax o 1905 . o oe eoo, aeco x co ycyao ypa opae.

ep opeope oao cppoa ypao, pope oypoc, a "Bcepa cpa" (1869 - 1898). ey ae a yaae pcyo.

B cop pyccx cppoax ypao acyeo ooe eco aa "Ha" (1870 - 1917) - eeee ypa ceeoo e, ycac oaec oapeco A. . Mapca. o ca pacpocpae opeooo Pocc ypa ( 1870 . - 9 c. ., 1880 - 55 c., 1991 - 115 c., 1900 - 235 c., 1917 . - 275 c. epo. B "He" ocpooc ap oeecex ocpax xyoo, yoaoc oeco eaecx pcyo, ceax acepa o aaa pea, oeeo ecoo c oppeo pax , oopa pcyo, oocxc cop o, oopx yacoaa Pocc, a ae oec oece co ocex pepeoox ece.

B eco epe pac a "Hy" pye xopoo cppoae ypaeeee: "Poa" (1879 - 1917), "Ceep" (1888 - 1918), "Ooe" (1879 - 1883, 1899 1918), "Hea" (1879 - 1887), "cppoa p" (1879 - 1896), "Bopy cea" (1860 1868 1885 - 1917).

ypao aaa XX ., oax oyea cpa, oo aa "yoope", "Coe Pocc", "Apyc", "C ypa", "Bcepa aopaa", "eoc" pycco-oco epo poo o.

Moo pcyo, co apyoo a epepo ao cop cycca, ycaeoo a, oacpe epe oyoao "copeco ece" (1880 - 1917), "Pycco aoe" (1885 - 1918), ypae "ppoa " (1889 - 1918), "Coe ycae" (1914 - 1917).

ypa e "ceeoo e" coepa oae cee oac oaeo a, ypaca, ee, ae, o, peco, oox yopo ..

Ocoa pya paecx opae epoe - paa capecx opcecx ypao pax apae (o ocepao-oxpaex o peoox), opepoaxc a pae yc. Boe aeo ea, ocoeo aae 20 coe, eaaoc eao apayp ape. Moe aec xyo a eoee a oeco cap o epo pycco peo poo o (M. oyc, . , . ycoe, A. Peo p.) TEM PEEPATOB OAOB O PC "POCCCA PHACTA XVIII - HAAO 20 ." 1 Oa xapaepca pycco epoeco ea.

2 a pa pyccoo eypoo aooaeca.

3 Caoee poccco ypac ("Bec-ypa", "Beooc").

4 ypaca opo oo 18 .

5 ypaa ea opeopeo Pocc. Paooc pyccx ypao.

6 "Eeece coe, oe yecee cyae".-. Mepa - ep pycc epaypo-oece ypa.

7 H. . Hoo - ypac pocee.

8 yca XVIII .: Eaepa II, M. oooco, M. epao, .

o, A. Pae.

9 . A. po eo ypa.

10 H. M. apa - cae ypac.

11 "Mococ ypa" H. M. apaa.

12 Oop ypao ea epo oo XIX .

13 "Bec Epo" 1802 - 1830 .

14 epaype oeca aaa XIX .: BOCHX, BOPC, "Apaac".

15 ypaca epoa e eapco. oeca yca eapco.

16 Oxpaea ypaca oaeco ox: H. . pe, . B. yap.

17 "Mococ eepa" H. A. oeoo.

18 ypa "Copee", a eo cop.

19 B.. ec - p ypac.

20 "oea e" O. . Ceocoo.

21 A. A. paec eo "Oeecee ac".

22 aa cao, x epoece a.

23 H. A. Hepaco - yc, peaop, ae.

24 Boa pycca pecca a pyeo: "opa ea", "ooo" A. .

epea H.. Oapea.

25 "Oeecee ac" p H. A. Hepacoe M. E. Caoe-epe. Xapaep a, py copyo.

26 Pae pycco ypac opeopeoe pe.

27 Ceece ypao-aee ap.

28 . M. ocoec. ypa pae ocoecx "Bpe" "oxa".

29 Pycca eceypa ea 1870 - 1880-x . "Bepe!", "Pao", "Haa".

Xapaep a x copy.

30 Hapoooece a: "e o", "Hapoa o", "ep epee".

31 yceca aeca eeoc M. E. Caoa-epa.

32 epaa ypaca opo oo XIX . "Bec Epo" eo copy.

33 Hapoeca ypaca. "Pyccoe oaco".

34 ypaca aaa XX .: aa pa, xapaep, ocoe e.

35 ocyoo-eopaeca ap ee epoece a.

36 ap coaco-peooepo, ee a.

37 a PCP (ee, oe).

38 Poccca epoeca ea epeoo epo (ap - op .). oa Bpeeoo paeca ooe ea.

39 Opc epeopo cy pycco ypac.

40 ea Pyccoo apye.

2 COBETCA EPOECA EAT OA XAPATEPCTA C ae cex eoeccx epoecx a oeecee CM ypa coe ooopae eay ac coeo oopa. Oeo epo poccco ypac oceopcoo epoa ec ee, a caa, cpoeoc apo-ocyapcey ccey. B oaapo ocyapce ypaca a "oaapo", oooe a ooc ocycoa. Ccea coecx CM eo oaec acca.

Coeca ea eac a p ocox a: ae, ypa, a ae "Tpy", "ee ac", "ee" pye a pax ayx oecex ypee opaa.

o eppopaoy pay epoece a opaec a cecoe, pecyace, paee, oace, opoce, paoe, oe, a aaee oopae (ae opaa, pep, ypee, yex aee, oxoo, coxoo).

o ae coeca epoa eac a a CC, a coecx ocyapcex opao, pocoo, ocooa, ayx ypee pax oec.

o coepa (oco eaec paea) epoeco ea ec oeceo-oece, ooece, epaypo-xyoecee ceae, opacee a.

o y eee a o aoo: a a pycco e, a ax apoo CCCP, a ax apoo apyex cpa. oaee oco ae cox aoox pecyax aaoc a opex ax acee x pecy.

poe oo, a paac o epooc, oopa opeeac co oepo o.

C pxoo ac oeo ocyapcea oa ooe cce opa oa paea eoop caa epa ocyapca - B. .

ea. Bo aoee "popae" x.

"ypa oe cy peyeceo poaae, aea peyeceo aa".

"Hao oop acca opy pay poco, co, po" oop o pax coeco ea, o o, ao o o , o oeo e a p - accooc apoc. epoeca ea, o eo e, oa a ca "ocpe opye accoo op, epo ocoo opaa accox c, oy cpeco oec a acc". Heaoe eco pyax ea o oeeo ea: "O xapaepe ax ae", "Be o", "Oepee aa coeco ac" p.

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