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oaee oco a xoo a pycco e, o oya aeoe pae aea poy a pyx ax, ocoeo oce 1905 . poe pyccoo, ae xo ee a 24 ax (oe ceo - a oco, eeo, aco, coco, pyco, apco, ..

oce peop 1861 ., ocoeo e oy coe, pocxo yp poc oeca eeex ae, oopx oco aaoc, payeec, coax, o eao o pyx pyx opoax - Bapae, Pe, Oecce, Tce p.

ce e eyee ooee epoe Pocc opo oo XIX . paeao "oc" ypaa-eeeca. O pacca a ae-eeyaa, epaypoo ypaa, oop o a ec, o oya aecee aepa, cae epo acx aopo. Ceye oa, o ae a, a pao, ecap, o e co oecy opea, o ocoeo ao pooc c opaoae Pocc oecx ap - oe XIX aae XX .

Teep co caa ecoo co o ycox, oopx cyecoaa pycca opeopea ea.

e 1855 - 1861 . - epoo oceoaecoo e - o xapaepo aeoe cee eyp ooe ea. Be o o papeeo ae ox ox ypao ae (co, o aox peye a ece Pocc e ooc). Ho cope aaac "oa a eppop", c c o ycac ocopooc ooe ac ea. paoac peee pepae a ypao ae, aoaeoc yaa oope, a oa ooe a oea ap. C 1870 . pe o pee apeaac poa poaa oex ae. B oe apcoa Aecapa II o aac ocae, o oe "Bpeee paa" o ea 27 ayca 1882 . ac oppeop oca oooy peccy pyoe ooee. B 1884 . ap oce acc eopaeco ypac ececo - ypa "Oeecee ac" (eo "copa" "Copee", "Pyccoe coo" apee paee - 1866 ., oce oye . apaooa). B ooe ea o eeo oeco pypo apee, ooe e ocye ea ocpx coax poe e, "cox" e, a o: oo, xoepe e, pecce oe, cyeece ecop. Bce o o Pocc o, pecca, ecop a poe e ca, ce pao axoa cpeco ooec oeco o x poeax.

o acaec coceo eypoo aooaeca, o epecopy pex eypx opo ac pcy c 1857 . Bapee 1865 . yepe Bpeee paa o ea. Bc opao oeo pyooca eypo cao aoe ypaee o ea ea, cocoee ccee MB. Ey oc oe ypee eyp eepype, Moce, Tce, Bapae, oe ocpao eyp eepype, Pe, Oecce, oee eop eepype, Moce, Bapae, ee pyx pyx opoax. Coaco Bpee paa, paac peapea eypa ocoa ccea acpax ca, aaaex a e a, oope ocooe o peapeo eyp. ca, ep ae, e oepc peapeo eype, ae epacoc "Copee" ( 8 a 1865 .) a, epoece a ocooac o peapeo eyp, o c pa c ocooo papee cpa ypex e p yco ece aee eeoo aoa cye 2500 - 5000 pye. Bcyae apye a ae aooaeca o ea oe apye (aop, peaop, ae, ae opa, opoa) peac cyeo oeceoc. Cyee poecc o ea epoeco ea ac ee opeopeo Pocc, pecaee eopaeco yc yacoa oox poeccax eaco caoc xopo oo. "Bpeee paa" peycapa epoecx a acpae ep ca:

- peocepeee;

- peea pocaoa a (o ec ece);

- pepaee (ape).

Hoe eype op ecoa oo coax. poaa ea (poe a paecex ayo-yex aee) ocaea a o peapeo eypo.

"Bpeee paa" 1865 . c eoop oe ooe opee ooee ea o o oa 1905 . oco x pa o eo ec ooo a eypoo ycaa,, oeoc 1876 . Oepee a eypoo ycaa xo ce 1886 1890 . oce oo o 1905 . coo-y aex epee oac eyp e o. Booe e ooee ypaco opeeoc, oay, e coo yo eypoo aoa, coo opeo copeco oeco ocaoo oc - pecae ac, oope a y ocaoy a ae peapoa.

PHAHA EAT opeopeo Pocc oe ycoo oeea a O OTPACEB.

Oa ypaca. Ha yo ce ypaa oo axoc cxoe cee o epoeco a. O paeac o aae - epooc, aoe coepae, ae. B poecce a ae cee o ec. Ta, "Bec Epo" epoaao ( 1866 - 1869 .) eoac "ypao copooecx ay", 1870 - 1909 - "ypao cop, o, epayp", a c 1910 "ypao ay, o, epayp".

Bype cpyypa a (eee a oe o coepa) ae oa oec poecce xoa. Haoee py ee oea eeecax oeo coepa : xyoeceo-epayp (coecoc, eepca); ay xyoeca; ypeee oopee (xpoa); ocpaoe oopee (xpoa); pa opa; cec.

Cyecoa a a ox ypao:

N "oce" eeece ("Copee", "Oeecee ac", "Bec Epo", "poceee");

N "oe" eeeee ("Ha", "Ooe", "Poa").

epe cac, a ye oopoc e, opaa co, cepe, opepoa a eeoo ae, ope oee e o coepa, paeae, o apecoac po pya y caoo paoo poa. epe pcyo e e, ope oao cppoa.

Haoee aee a-pecae oe ypac paea pa apae. o oeco o ypa eo ec a ecoo py:

- apccce, eopaae - "poceee", "Copeea ", "Haa ap", "eoc";

- ypa eopaece 1860 - 70-x . - "Copee", "Pyccoe coo", "Oeecee ac" (c 1868), "eo" (o 1884).

- apoece - "Pyccoe oaco", "Ceep ec", "Hee", "ae".

- epae - "Pycc ec" (o 1863), "Bec Epo", "Pycca c", "Mp o", "Ceepe ac".

- ocepae, oxpaee (peaoe) - "Pyccoe oopee", "paa", "Haae".

Cyecoao ecoo xapaepx ceec ypao-aex apo.

a e co ypee aooepoc, pe oa pacp oo oo coepa. ae apa ypao-aeoo ca : ca, epeoa ca, oep, oopee, eeo, opa, oppecoe, cye oe, eapaa pee, epoo.

Ca pycco ypace pecaea a pe paooc yceca, peca, aya. Opaa yceco peco cae eopaecoo apae cya oe poee ecoo, opooa, capea, eexooa "Pycco oace", Apceea "Bece Epo" p. accece pep ayx cae -o epa Tpea, coo, ecoo p.

epeoa ca a apo o ceo ae. o ap oy pae co opo oo 60-x . XIX . B ox ex aeax epeoe ca cac eee ox e opeee aopa, ceaca oo apa.

epeoe ca po paeoc a oy oy apae.

Tao epeoe M. aoa "Mococx eoocx", paocoo "ooce", oocoo "Cpae". epeoe a pea ce e oc.

Oep aa oe eco ypaax aeax. pepace opa oo apa oca Ceo ("Bapa", "a"), eyo ("Oep pycco "), exo ("Ocpo Caxa"), opoeo ("aoce oep", "B oo o"), Bepecae ("Ha oco oe"), p ("Bpa eyax ") p.

Oopee pax o - eca o ap pycco ypace opo oo XIX aaa XX . Ocoe oo apa - ypeee, ocpaoe, epaypoe oopee, oopee ea.

aeae acepa ypex oope . Ecee, H. eyo, C.

peo, . ooc, H. Aec, A. eexoo. ocpax oope ae oeceoc pea oece oop. ypea, .

Caocoo, oeo, oaee o coepa epaype oope ea eee 40 e op A. H. "Bece Epo". Oope eaac oo (o e cea!) e oc aopa o ceoa.

eeo peyeceo ae apo. Hepeo eeo oae eeo ae opeeee , apep, "ocpec eeo". B peeax oo apa cooc ecoo paooce: capec, cxoop eeo, ycec, eeo-ae.

oppecoe a xapaepa ae, o c oa XIX aaa XX . oa caa cpeac ocex oeax oeecex ypao. oco coce (oopo, ocpa) oppecoea ae aco cya ece cae, yee, oecee ee (. C. Typee,. . oop, H. .

apee, H. M. ap-Mxaoc). oppecoe peca coo eoe, acee aa, ea, aa ca, cooae o eyx cox ee a opao opaooe aee. Ocoo paooc oo apa oee oppecoe - cooe epa oex ec, apep, B. .

Hepoa-aeo opycco-ypeo oe 1877 - 1878 . p.) Cyee oe (cyee xpo, pyp " aa cya") ceao ocac cye poecca cooe o cyex eax. B pype cya oe aec pc (A. . o,. H. Oc p.).

Hepoo pecae ea o paooc - o oe o e, ace ece oca ea oooo eo opee o ox epooecx cae, ocex "a " aoo-o a. poee oo apa cya ae, aacy ece coa copo-opaecx ax o oex eex. Xapaepo epo oo apa o pao "o epx xopoo, eo", ooy ocoo oepac ococa oooo, eo acy e, o eex copoax eocaax po o yaa. paa, cyac ce, o ao peo ooox, paax ax, oa pe a o cep (e) ocyapceoo ee, oecoo poa .. Aop y e yc paoc o ooy paecx, oe-o, co. ooe ya e oca ocoe eaee: e coo ae coepae, coo x o ceecy o ocye o oeeoeecx opax op.

Opacea ypaca. e paea oocee oaoeocee ypa. Opa opaceo ypac oce opeee opac ooeco, yypo, acpao-oeco , e oac a eeoc, oe aya. O, a pao, opepoac a opeeee aece py (ypa e, ee, "apoa", coa, cecx xoe, opoe, poeo, oxoo, ececocaee p.) a opaceo ypac o paea:

- oa eoca;

- oeca;

- ac ae.

Cpe pyccx opacex a ceye e.

oouecue ypa: "ooc" (1858 - 1865), "ooec ypa" (1885 1893), "Xo" (1894 - 1905), "Aoep" (1860 - 1863), "ypa ayayp opo" (1864 - 1866), "ypa Mcepca ye cooe" (1865 - 1882), "Tpy Booo ooecoo oeca" (aac o 1815) p.

Auucmpamuo-noumuecue u puuecue opa: "ypa paacoo opooo paa" (1871 - 1906), "ypa Mcepca c" (1868 - 1899), "ypa Mcepca ypex e" (o pa aa xo o 1917 ., oceee eo aeoae - "Bec Bpeeoo paeca").

ypaucmua no onpoca npoceeu u umepamyp: "ypa Mcepca apooo pocee" (1834 - 1917), "Pycca oa" (1890 - 1917), "Ce oa" (- 1888), "eaoec cop" (1871 - 1918) p.

cmopuecue ypa. x 1861 -1917 . Pocc xoo oee 100. B x oyoao oeco aepao, oyeo, eyapo, ce, ayx cae, cceoa, pee o oeeceo cop a opao XVIII aao XX . B peeax o oac ec oecopece ypa ("Pycc apx" (1863 - 1917), "Pycca capa" (1870 -1918), "copec ec" (1880 - 1917), "pe oa Pocc" (1875 - 1881), "ooc yeo" (1913 - 1923)); apxeooece ("Bec apxeoo cop" (1885 - 1918), "peoc" (1865 - 1916)); copo-opaece ("a capa" (1890 - 1916)); ypa o cop cycca epayp ("Bec x cycc" (1883 - 1890), "Cape o" (1907 - 1915), "Pycc o" (1911 - 1915));

ceae copo-peooe ypa, oope ca oc oce 1905 .

("oe", "Mye o").

umepamype, xyoecmee, meampae, yae ypa: "Mp cycca" (1898 - 1904), "Bec" (1904 - 1909), "Aoo" (1909 - 1917), "Bec ocpao epayp" (1891 - 1916), "Eeo epaopcx eapo" (1892 - 1915), " Teap " (1823 - 1884), "Mya ce" (1847 - 1878).

Boee ypa: "Boe cop" (1858 - 1917), "Mopco cop" (1848 - 1917).

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