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O. . POTACOBA CTOP POCCCO PHACT (XVIII - aao XX .) N N ATECTBO TT NN BBEEHE.

PAPHACTA ypacy aa "opo peee poecce", xo a cao ee poecc ypaca a aoo e oee pex coe. Ha aec, o ypaca a cea, op epea opa ec opa opaopo py.

B pex ecx oox (eeco, co, peeco, pco p.) cyecoa ec oo, caec "papoe" copeex ypaco.

Cao oopo ypo cpe x ec epec - c eca Ma. O oac a ec oo, opoe yo, o opo coooca, oaa aeco co yc poya e. epec, coaco pecae pex peo, eoao xep pop. B pco oo ey cooecoa Mepyp, "o coececy" oo p ooae (y e oca o oocee o o poaoc ypaco!).

B pyx ocox o-ec, poo aac ea ypea, ye (a, apep, peeeec To). Caoc, o o c aopa c o oco, pope, pcpye, acpoo, x, ee py aya.

p caaco paee Oe o oe opaop - opo, oope copa ooc o ce ee. B oo pae opo cac ocpea (eaopa) ey yypo ppoo. Booe pae (ya, ee, yc) coa opa. Haepoe, paee "aea ya" e cyao. cacx oo oe co ec - ea a aa.

oo eco ceo paa, oo, oo opaoe y o e oeca, yx: y peo eo, y p - e. Caoc, o e poac ece c eoeo pyoo ce ea e.

Po ocee o oo, eco x ce pecaa pee o . o popo, aoco, pooe. Oco co ocpeo ey oa coca popae, opay - pe, aae coe, cxoe yo o oeca. poo ece ec opay Aooa pe, ecoa epe .

Ec oop o peax epcoaax, x a ee, cpe ax opaopo oo e opaopo. Opaopcoe cycco o poopao yceco eeoc; opaop, aee pacopee a cpeco oeco eeoc ce peece ypaco. Bce ee opaop peoc, epy oepe - pocaee eoce epo, oec oece ee.

yca c cax cox coo a oeco eeoc , ceoaeo, a e ypac eco caa e oo c opaopc cycco, o c oec oppoae, .e. co cpeee paee, pecaee ac pacpocpa a oo oee pooy pyy oax cy coe o.

eap, pae, oope xoe oec o oax co pa pacope, ea o yc ye, p oo aaae-oo, ceo, oapoy co oee, y opa, oopa oa a o o acee.

e c pex pee y e cyecoaa opeoc a ooc. Ee yoeop yeece, oye , o, oae pax cpaax.

a opa aco oe co caaac, opaca eee ya.

oae e oooc coepa x opaopo. ae pe epa aece oppecoeo pao oooyeo, oope o xoaacy aao oa ae oycac a acea ceaa.

Bpeee apoe ceao eeoc o copy pacpocpae opa, o, oo ca o pe, oa oc coe ae eap "Aa ceayc" (pooo acea ceaa) "Aa pa oy poa" (oceee ec pcx paa). o o epo ee o ae p.

coe ae cac a pcx oax ceoeo oope paccac poa aaa. Ca eap, o pa ceeca, py pc caee yco.

Cocaee eco, oope cac a cox ocax, opyaoc caaa ecopa - ooc a, ea aca cye ea. ae copa opa ca pee ocyapceoo aaeca. Ec cee o o, o aepa x a copa cea o coco cao.

Paoa ec aao o ceae c.

Hapy c pyoco ypaco c peoc cyecoaa yca opa epea opa, yca aea. B Moce ooc pac aaa a aoco oa (oca ecoe paee "pa a c aocy"). B epa opa paoc poe apc, ya, oopx aa aa. aco o caa co cooe e oeap. B A ooc oeac oex, a e, oope epeaa opa, aa .

Bo pa x oe aac yeca. O copac a yax oax apa caaa poco oeac ooc, a oo cea o coe poecce, ae ceaoe po, e paoa opa oax apa poax aao.

Aaoe po ooce, oope poopaa copeex pea, oc epa, a pyx cpaax. O aac "oae poae aepecoa cee o opox eax, pax oax cyax, o eoacoc opo oecx cox".

Hapy c co peopepco oeaopco e peeceo ypac, oe oo ee o eoce-copo, yex oypaopo, o peox pooeo, yaco-poceee, epaopo-yco. eeoc ca eocpece opao a apoee oppoae ypacco poecc, a ee y po. Bce o oppoa poeccoa ypa.

Ho o e oo c o pao oop oo c oo oea, oa ypaca caa oee eee accoo. o pooo oce opee oao yeepo cepee XV coe eaoo caa oe epx eax a Epoe XVII . (xo eco, o opee ee VIII . ocy c eax oco ec).

Pa accooo ypaa cococoao pacpee poocex, ooecx oecx ooe, peooee cpeeeoo ayoc, aopeoc coa, opeoc e opa o cocex xocax, oacx, cpaax, o c pacpc oepaa opa caoac ce oee eoxoo.

poecc ypaca opaaoe op ooeppoa ypaco oopoa o ex oppecoeo, cooax ooc co xoea epe opopa copyo, aaxc poae ooce aoea, o copeeoo opyca ypaco, paoo CM, ooo ox opaox cyo, oop ceac aa "eepo ac".

C pae aacecx ooe, cooo pepaeca poo pacpocpaac poaa ea. ae ca acpoac e oa ypee, a pee, a ac aao, ca ceac oepec pep. ec peae oe. oc accoe a, poco co yapx ae, paccax a eco yc oae. Cooeceo paaac ypaca, oop yc oe yoeop, ypaca eo, yapo pecc.

Copy pea aco oeoac cyax e, oope ca aee apaoa. "Cyaec y cyaeo e, o ooe eo caea; ocac eoe e eca - o e aey aae po peopae. Ty cpee eyaa peeo ayaeoc cyea oopa, exaeo po ccepa, ocaoo oepa, eo aepa, paopeoc yaceya; po c , eycoo opo, cpee e e oo coex, o po ex, oope oo ppac peopae, a ca ea peopaa oe oxoy ca" ("Pycca c", 1906).

a, poecc opaopo apoac capoae peea, oa o ypace ee e o pe, ooy o e o e opa. o e acaec coceo pa ypacco poecc, o oa oopoaa o apo, ypac yoo pya, accoo, o epcoao oeo, oa pea ca oo ooyoa opaa; o acao (a. "oc"), e opa epeaaac o oc oc, peao (a. "ce", "peea"), .e. apecoao pa co pya oeca. y ypac epo eooeco apecc, o cea caoc c epoa oaapa. O cec epeopoa , a eoopoe pe, ocaee eooeco eyp paac cooa, o ce, cooo coa, oa pecca eopapoaac.

epo ypaco pecc, eoypeo, cpoo, oope cec epoa eccca, payaoc, poaoc. poecc ypaca acoee pe o oepapyec, o caaec o ce.

Oopeeo ypaca caa paoopaee, ceee, epecee, e ayop. ypa a poecc ceapyec. oc ( opoc) oe ceaa: pa oppecoe, apaec oppecoe, eeo oye, oepaop, oe peopep, ceac o eyapo oa, peac, pao cy o c c oeceoc, ypac, ceapyc a cecax, aoax ex oe pye. o, paa, c oo copo, ooaae poecc, c pyo - aco cae ee ypoe opae pep.

1 PCCA PHACTA XVIII - HAAA XX .

POEHE OTEECTBEHHO PHACT.

EPBA POCCCA AETA B Pocc, a pyx epoecx cpaax, opaa eao ae peecoaa aea pyoca o aae "Bec" "ypa" ("ypa" ey). Cape ep "Bece-ypao" oocc 1621 .

aoe coepae o pyoco ae - oece ec, cooee oca, cea aea, opoa, e epoecx ae. Topoe ooece ooc aa a eca cpooe eco, o oc p opaee ooeco epaoc cpa, ee peyeceo aypaoe xoco ee e ae ce aeo a poo pe.

B "Becx-ypaax" oa eaac "paccpoce pe", .e. oaa ex x , px Pocc -a pa. Cpe ocpae axoc oxo oca ococ pa - Mcepco ocpax e oo pee - ooc a opeeeoe oapaee. ooac ococ pa x ycya, ycao ceac pyo, oao ec eoope ea epeoo, oox aepa "Bece-ypao", - Mxa Caxapo, a o, oa o p.

a "aea" e peaaaac pooo pacpocpae. Ee coepae o ocoe pae epxy. "Bec-ypa" xpa a cee oe o oce x e opoa, e axoc ap. Ha oex epax coxpac ac "ocyap eo", "Beoy ocyap eo oae, a ope cya epee", "ocyap eo opa".

eopa oecx ooce a ooo poa. Ta, 1638 . "Becxypaax" axoc cooe e, oa, pa, Caco, o pyx cpa.

Bee "Bec" peca coo e ooc (co) ya cocac oo-yx epax.

"Bec-ypa" pocyecoa o o aaa XVIII ., ao e co xapaep.

Too epoce peopaoa a oee eao, po yo, ae Pocc.

B eape 1702 . ep Be a ya o eaa ae " ee o o apax ypex pocecx". xo ap pacopc eaa "ypa", epa pycca aea a aaa oee o pyccoy ae coo "Beooc".

"Beooc" o paao "poaa p", .e. aea a a pee apco ooa.

ep oe o ac oep "Beooce" apoa 2 ap 1703 . Oee oepa oc aae "Beooc Mococoo ocyapca", "Beooc ococe".

Coepae "Beooce" o eca paoopao. ec oceac opoc ee o, ooeca cpa, cooe c eapa oex ec, opoc pocee yyp. Ho aoe - o oea opa, aa poaaa epocx peopaoa, pocaee c pyccoo opy ocyapca.

e epo oepe oee cooe o pooce ye, o aeaeco ypaco oe, o ppoce acee Moc, o oapax coo ocyap pyccoy caoepy, o op e eo py a pee Coy .. B oceyx oepax cooaoc o cax oeax pycco ap Ceepo oe, oex poex, o ocpoe opae, pa opo c ocpa ocyapca, paax p.

Cepeoe oe epocx "Beooce" o epe oax ocpax ae - x ocyapceo, oeaoao xapaepe. epe eae a a pae oce coe ac, po peyeceo oepec, aea. Bece c e epoce "Beooc" - o e oo oec opa ocyapca. ae epo ococo ae oc py ao coa pycco aoao yyp. B aee o ocyeceo ypoee cacca pyccoo a ee paac p eco epoocacoo. "Beooc"" oc opao xapaep. Ho c epoo oepa copae ooc x oepac cpooy oopy peapoa. opa "Beooce" cyyo eeoa, cy eo aea oo coa ocoe y poaaca, opaaopa copoo epocx peopaoa. opa ee yaa oepe yaee ocyapcy, eo ooeco, oeco, oeo o. Oa peypeaa, o ap ye ec opy co co poa e cpa.

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