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Mcepco opaoa Poccco eepa Taoc ocyapce exec yepce CTOP OTEECTBEHHX CPECTB MACCOBO HOPMA (XVIII - aao XX .) Meoece papao cyeo ceaoc 022000 "C c oeceoc" Tao N ATECTBO TT N 2001 46 73 5 83 epeo peaoo-aec coeo yepcea Peee aa copecx ay B Opoa 83 cop oeecex cpec accoo opa: Meo. papa. / Coc. O. .

poacoa. Tao: -o Ta. oc. ex. y-a, 2001. 12 c.

Meoece papao coepa ecoo paeo: e aa yeoo ypca, pa oop pycco ypac, oo epoecx a, a cop eypoo aooaeca, a ae paepy a yeoo ypca cco epayp o ea. ae oae paecy oo e oo cyea ooo oee ceaoc "C c oeceoc", o ce epecyc cope Pocc pycco yyp.

46 73 5 Taoc ocyapce exec yepce (TT), 2001 E AA CH, EE MECTO B EHOM POECCE e peoaa c "cop oeecex cpec accoo opa" ec oppoae y cyeo yepcea eocoo pecae o cop oeeceo ypac oe oece cop Pocc. yee peea oo paccope ocoeoc pa pycco ypac, aee pycco ea yypo ace pooo, ee po eo-oeco epaypo ope pax ox, ee oce a aop apooo pocee yypo cpa.

Pacpa aooepoc pa oeeceo ea, ocea apaee coepae aex epoecx a XVIII - aaa XX ., ooaa ae ao cop ea, a ypc oao cyeo c eeoc epayp acepco axc pyccx yco, o oo cococoa oe poeccoaoo ypo yyx ypaco.

yee ao c apaeo a peee ceyx aa:

N a ocoe cee cop oeeceo ypac oeceooeco Pocc (XVIII - aao XX .);

N coppoa a caocoeo pao c epaypo o paea popa ypca;

N paoa y cyeo cocooc caocoeoo aaa oe aex co oeco yxoo coya pae ox cop cpa;

N cococoa oppoa eocoo poope eea, yca yepcea.

PAT CTOPEC OOP epoeca ea oa Pocc c aaa XVIII . Oa cpo poca oeceo (o cy a), epepoaac (o a a) popeaa aoe aee oeceo-yypo . ypa, ae, opeee cop, yee py ac aa ce opacaee eco eao poy Pocc. ypaca pocxoe e ee opa ca ocoaac a coeopaa oeca apea. B ce 1840 . B.. oy B.. ec ca: "ypaca ae pe ce:

y, ee, ca ee ypac. ypa co aep".

epee epoeco ea Pocc "Beooc" - aea, aaa xo Moce c eap 1702 . B eee epo eep oceaaoo ea a aea a ece pycc opee ae. B 1728 . p Aae ay caa xo aea "Ca-eepypce eooc". a poe e oc "copece, eeaoece eopaece pea "Beoocx" (1728 - 1742) - ep pycc epayp ayo-oyp ypa.

O epx "Beooce" o 1800 . eo o yeo 119 epoecx a. C 1801 o 1861 . oeeo oee 595 ox epoecx opao, a c 1862 o 1894 . acaec 1680 ax a. Ceoaeo, a o ec XIX. oeeo epoecx a, oa a a XVIII . oo 119.

oco epoecx a eooe. Cpe ooeoc oeoo a pycco epo a pe c 1703 o 1900 . - 9,3 oa. Heoe opa cyecoa ooy. o , a opao, oae cpaoe a, ycooc oopx oeceaac cyc a.

epoaao c pycca epoa paeaa ae. ypaca Pocc, a aao Epoe (e caa pa coxpaxc o ax e eax eeex ae oocc 1609 .) oa ocyapceo opeoc eyapoo opa. epe pycce pyoce ae "Becoe ca" ("Bec"), "ypa" peaaaac ypeeo opee - a x ap y py eo pex.

C oee eax "Beooce" epoece a ca opao oeceoo oec. ep I capac cea co opao oo poaaco cox peopaoa. C oee 1759 . eeeca A.. Cyapooa "Tpyoa ea" aaec cop aco epo Pocc.

Bc pycca epoa epe oce ece coeo pa a cocpeooea coax - Moce Ca-eepype. a x pee oa a c 1786 ., oa pocae ca aac ep pycc poa ypa "ee oexoe".

B cop poao ea aoe aee e paecee pee 30-x .

XIX . o a ecx ae o aae "yepce eooc". Bcope ae "Beooc" ca ycac oce yep Epoeco Pocc, a ae Cp.

epoa ec a a ax a - aea ypa. aea - opeeoe ae, xoee aco, a pao, eeeo, eee a opao aay cooe ec o eyx cox eaa ooeoo opaooo aepaa. ypa opeeoe ae, xoee e ae paa ee, a pao, eeeco, e c paoopa oec, ay, epayp aepao.

Opa epo oo pae:

N o epooc;

N o eppopaoy pay (ea coa, epaa, poaa);

N o y (pycce ae ypa, oe ae ypa);

N o ae (ea oaa - paecea, eocea, aca oecex opaa);

N o ooe eype (oeypa, eaa ea, oa pycca apyea ea. Heeao eao epo Pocc o 1861 . e o);

N o coepa copec coc paooc epo: a) ypa ae epaypo-oecee; ) oao-eocee; ) aye ceae; ) opacee; ) capece; e) cppoae.

B pycco epoe ye o 1861 . cooc ecoo ycox apo: oep, eeo, oop ea, peca ca, pee, co pea, epoo, oee.

yx ax o epo ypa ye opao ye ae. epaypa o cop oeeceo ea, a pao, acaec ypao o e apaae ae.

ae aepa, eoxoe ye ao epo, oo oe a epe py: 1) oe ypao ae; 2) apx eypx pyx ypee, eax ea; 3) apxe o pea aec epoecx opao, e apxe o ypaco, aee, caee, yex, eeo yacoax epoe; 4) oyoae eyap, e, epeca, oocec cop ea.

ceo a opoco ye oeeceo ypac ec cop eyp, ee ypee, ycao ocaoe, oceeo eypo pa.

a pa eypoo aooaeca opaa oeceo-oece yco cyecoa poccco ea.

ep Pocc o "ca o eype" a 1804 . O yao peapey eypy cex a. aeoae eypo o opyeo Mcepcy apooo pocee. B o epax aa Aecapa I ooee ea o ocaoo coo.

B 1811 . p Mcepce o ypee Oco oe "eypo pe" ycaex epoecx a cpooo aopa a eopa. Te ca eypa Mcepca apooo pocee a oea aopy Mcepca o.

p Hoae I eyp yca 1804 . cee o cao o eype 1826 ., oop copee poa "yy". B 1828 . oc o ca - oee ca, ypoa eyp aapa poxoee epe eo pyoce, o o cy coe eaeo ye o peyeo. ca 1828 . paec e ee cyecoa o o . paa, a o pe cepx ycaa o yeo oeco peca pacope ooceo eyp.

1855 - 1861 . xapaepo aeoe cee o ooe ea. B o o papeeo ae ox ox ypao ae. Oao c c poco ooox (paax) acpoe, oec "oo" a eppop paeco yeo o o yc opo a ea - pooo "opx" e. ooo ap aoee ecx ooox a - ypao "Copee" "Pyccoe coo" cao oepeoe oyee a Aecapa II, pepoe . apaoo.

o acaec aooaeca, o ac pcy epecopy eypx opo c 1857 . peoee 1862 . "Bpeee paa o ea" yepe 6 ape 1865 . Bc opao oeo pyooca eypo cao aoe ypaee o ea ea, cocoee ccee Mcepca ypex e. Ey oc oe ypee ocpao eyp pyex opoax Poccco ep. Coaco Bpee paa, paaac peapea eypa ccea acpax ca, aaaex a a, oope ocooe o peapeo eyp. B cyae apye aooaeca o ea oe (aop, peaop, ae, ae opa, opoa) peac cyeo oeceoc. "Bpeee paa" peycapa epoecx opao acpae ep ca:

peocepeee, peea pocaoa a (a cpo o ec ece), pepaee (ape).

oa ac coepa "Bpeex pa o ea" a ea ec ooo eypoo ycaa 1876 . Bce ae pacope yaoe o ea o eype, oec oce 1876 ., ee a eypoo ycaa, xoe 1886 1890 . oce oo o 1905 . coo-y aex epee oac eyp e o. paecea e oa ooe ea pooac cooec c ocpoo copeco ocao cocoe oeca.

Bo opo ooe XIX coe eyee ooee epoe cpa paeao "oc" ypaa-eeeca. oy ea o "ocx" ypao oece eeee ypaa a "H", "Ooa", "Po" eeeo aac aea, oope yoeop cpo pacye opeoc acee oepao, opoo ocyo (o oe o ee) opa.

opeopey ypacy oo ycoo oe a oy opacey. Haoee aee opa oe ypac co a pax oecx ox. o oy pep o paec a ecoo py: ypa ocepaoo xapaepa (a aaea oxpaea pecca), epae a, paoo-eopaece (a paooc xapaepa 60 - 70-x .) a eopaaoo apae, cpe oopx aeoe eco aa apccce peooo-apoece eae opa.

Opacea ypaca pecaea ocoo oao-eoce a, oope oce opeee opac ooeco, yypo, acpao-oeco , e oac a eeoc, oe aya. O, a pao, opepoac a opeeee aece py (ypa e, ee, "apoa", coa, cecx xoe, opoe poeo, oxoo, ececocaee ..) Cpe ax ee aeo ec ceye:

ooece ypa, acpao-oece pece opa, ypaca o opoca pocee yyp, copece ypa, epaype, xyoecee, eapae, yae ypa, oee ypa, capece opcece opa, a ae epoe peoe epoece a.

C pae ex opaecoo pooca poca oeceo aeceo cppoaa epoa. o ocoo oe eeeee ypa, xoe, a pao, o ocpece coepae oo paecoo aepaa, ooex ooex pepoy. Ta o ce, o o o ape apayp.

Cpe a oooo a aoy oypoc y y cca "Ha", "Poa", "Ooe", "Bopy cea" p. ep e opeope oao cppoa ypao, oy pooe pae, caa "Bcepa cpa" - ypa, oopoy a yaae pcyo.

Coepae c (e eox paecx a).

I PCCA PHACTA XVIII - epo oo XIX.

Tea 1 cop oeeceo ypac a caocoea aya ca (2 aca) epoeca ea ee aee oeceo-oeco yypo cpa. C cop CM c cope yyp oeca.

Ocoe pycco opeooo ypace. Oae oooe, epae paao-peooe apae ea.

Tooecoe ee aeo-ypax op. Tpa oeeceo ea.

Tea 2 Booee pae oeeceo ea.

epe epoece a (2 aca) epoca oxa ee yypo-copece ocoeoc. p co ooe epoeco ea.

Pyoca aea XVII . "ypa" "Co". co opa, eooeca apaeoc, xapaep, ccece ocoeoc ocee co.

"Beooc" (1702 - 1727) - epa pycca eaa aea. apoee aex apo.

Po "Beooce" pa pyccoo epaypoo a. epe ypacpoeccoa.

Tea 3 Pae ypac o opo eep XVIII . (2 aca) Bypoeca ocaoa cpae oce cep epa 1. Opaa p Aae ay ae "Ca-eepypce eooc" (1727). eeoc AH ee oceee aee. yceca peaopca eeoc M. B. ooocoa.

"Beooc" a copec co. Haao ayo-oypo epaypo ypac.

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