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Principal conclusions - The results of the IETs poll recorded the estimates offered by enterprises in regard of the existing restrictions to their development as of the moment of onset of financial crisis. Thus, these results represent a useful baseline for monitoring further development of the situation involving the barriers in the way of growth during the impending period of crisis.

- On the whole, the economic environment can be characterized as moderately satisfactory. Resource-linked (labor, energy) and macroeconomic (inflation, lack of policy stability) factor are perceived by enterprises as key restrictions to growth. Most of the administrative barriers (including corruption) are not regarded by enterprises as serious obstacles to their development.

- There are grounds to believe that, by comparison with the earlier half of this decade, the administrative obstacles to the development of enterprises have become weaker. At least, operating enterprise shaver learned how to effectively deal with them. However, this improvement does not apply equally to all the groups of enterprises. Small-sized enterprises have a higher level of complaints concerning their economic environment. Besides, the polls results have provided no grounds for a statement that there are presently less barriers in the way of new enterprises entry into business.

Resource-linked restrictions Cost of attraction of financial resources difficult to estimate Complicated procedures of access to financial resources no obstacle Labor resources (availability, qualification, insignificant remuneration) obstacle significant obstacle Quality and cost of communications services Quality and cost of transport services Power supply and cost of energy resources 0,0 10,0 20,0 30,0 40,0 50,0 60,0 70,% Administrative restrictions Necessity for and size of informal deductions for benefit of officials Actions undertaken by other enterprises in order to eliminate competition Procedures for obtaining construction permits difficult to estimate Procedures of registration and liquidation of enterprises no obstacle Licensing procedures insignificant obstacle Procedures of lease or acquisition of land plot significant Labor legislation obstacle Activity of customs agencies Activity of law enforcement agencies Activity of judicial agencies Supervision and audits by tax agencies Tax burden level 0,0 10,0 20,0 30,0 40,0 50,0 60,0 70,% Macroeconomic restrictions Unpredictability of government economic policy difficult to estimate Inflation (rapid growth of domestic prices) no obstacle insignificant Rubles exchange rate obstacle significant obstacle Unpredictability of government economic policy 0,0 10,0 20,0 30,0 40,0 50,0 60,0 70,0 80,% Fig. 1. Restrictions to production development, as % of the number of enterprises participating in the poll Table Results of the poll concerning restrictions to production development Distribution of answers across groups, as % of sample:

% of enterHow serious, at present, as obprises that stacles for development of entersignificant insignificant difficult to have answered no obstacle prise are:

obstacle obstacle estimate this questions Power supply and cost of 55.0 28.1 14.3 0.7 98.energy resources Quality and cost of transport 31.6 45.1 18.5 2.4 97.services Quality and cost of commu7.2 42.2 45.3 2.8 97.nications services Labor resources (availability, 59.1 24.6 13.4 1.8 98.qualification, remuneration) Complicated procedures of 28.6 31.7 24.4 12.1 96.access to financial resources Cost of attraction of financial 41.8 27.5 13.9 14.1 97.resources Tax burden level 66.6 24.0 5.1 2.4 98.Supervision and audits by 28.1 47.9 17.8 4.0 97.tax agencies Activity of judicial agencies 13.6 33.8 34.7 15.8 97.Activity of law enforcement 10.3 26.4 44.2 16.5 97.agencies Activity of customs agencies 12.8 32.7 40.9 11.2 97.Labor legislation 6.4 30.5 57.1 3.3 97.Procedures of lease or ac21.5 22.8 42.4 10.6 97.quisition of land plot Licensing procedures 24.0 33.2 30.5 10.3 98.Procedures of registration 7.2 16.5 46.1 25.7 95.and liquidation of enterprises Procedures for obtaining 22.6 16.5 30.6 24.2 93.construction permits Actions undertaken by other enterprises in order to eliminate 23.5 19.6 22.2 30.1 95.competition Necessity for and size of informal deductions for benefit of 10.8 24.2 26.2 33.2 94.officials Competition with cheap im45.3 22.4 21.7 8.4 97.ports Rubles exchange rate 19.4 32.8 27.3 16.1 95.Inflation (rapid growth of 73.4 20.2 2.2 3.1 98.domestic prices) Unpredictability of govern53.2 25.0 5.0 14.1 97.ment economic policy Resource-linked restrictions Administrative restrictions strictions Macroeconomic reBalance of answers (as to the seriousness of obstacles for enterprises development, by separate components, as % Inflation (rapid growth of domestic prices) Unpredictability of government economic policy Competition with cheap imports Rubles exchange rate Tax burden level Supervision and audits by tax agencies Actions undertaken by other enterprises in order to eliminate competition Licensing procedures Procedures for obtaining construction permits Necessity for and size of informal deductions for benefit of officials Procedures of lease or acquisition of land plot Activity of judicial agencies Activity of customs agencies Activity of law enforcement agencies Procedures of registration and liquidation of enterprises Labor legislation Labor resources (availability, qualification, remuneration) Power supply and cost of energy resources Cost of attraction of financial resources Quality and cost of transport services Complicated procedures of access to financial resources Quality and cost of communications services -60,0 -40,0 -20,0 0,0 20,0 40,0 60,0 80,No negative effect Negative effect Fig. 2. Balance of answers (difference between answers significant obstacle and no obstacle) demonstrates the levels of seriousness of obstacles for the development of enterprises by separate components, as % Table Distribution of answers depending on prospects of increasing outputSignificant obBalance of stacle, as % of No obstacle, as Significance answers, as % sample % of sample of differences of sample How serious, at present, as obstacles for development of enterprise, are:

Power supply and cost of energy re- 53. 39. 37. 0.4 0.52.47 12.96 16.sources 45 51 07 1 37. 4.9 18. - 0.Quality and cost of transport services 32 27.16 22.22 18.07 4 10 3.54 Quality and cost of communications 10. - - - 0.8.02 49.38 45.services 34 41.36 35.34 1.01 Labor resources (availability, qualifica- 51. 50. 36. 2.2 0.61.73 11.73 15.tion, remuneration) 72 00 21 8 Complicated procedures of access to 33. 6.7 9.4 - 0.28.40 21.60 24.financial resources 62 9 8 0.82 43. 29. 31. - 0.Cost of attraction of financial resources 40.74 11.11 12.97 63 03 0.25 68. 59. 61. - 0.Tax burden level 63.58 3.70 7.97 88 21 0.22 30. 10. 12. - 0.Supervision and audits by tax agencies 24.69 14.20 18.17 49 07 0.41 12. - - 1.1 0.Activity of judicial agencies 11.73 32.72 39.93 20.99 26.72 1 8.6 - - - 0.Activity of law enforcement agencies 7.41 45.68 45.2 38.27 37.07 0.20 12. - - 0.5 0.Activity of customs agencies 8.64 40.12 47.93 31.48 34.48 3 6.0 - - 1.5 0.Labor legislation 8.02 53.09 60.3 45.06 54.31 2 Procedures of lease or acquisition of 25. - - - 0.19.14 41.36 42.land plot 00 22.22 17.24 1.02 19. - - 0.6 0.Licensing procedures 24.07 35.19 33.83 11.11 13.79 7 Procedures of registration and liquida- 6.9 - - 0.2 0.6.17 47.53 50.tion of enterprises 0 41.36 43.10 9 Procedures for obtaining construction 26. - - - 0.22.22 32.10 28.permits 72 9.88 1.72 2.72 Actions undertaken by other enter- 25. - 8.6 - 0.17.28 28.40 16.prises in order to eliminate competition 00 11.11 2 5.39 Necessity for and size of informal de- 10. - - 0.3 0.9.88 29.01 31.ductions for benefit of officials 34 19.14 20.69 2 47. 16. 21. - 0.Competition with cheap imports 40.12 24.07 25.41 05 55 1.17 22. - - 0.8 0.Rubles exchange rate 18.52 25.93 32.41 7.41 10.34 6 Inflation (rapid growth of domestic 73. 70. 72. - 0.74.07 3.70 0.prices) 28 37 41 0.37 Unpredictability of government eco- 62. 43. 59. - 0.49.38 6.17 3.nomic policy 93 21 48 2.68 Answers were received from 162 enterprises expecting increase in their output and from 116 enterprises expecting drop in their output.

Hereinafter the rows are marked where differences are significant for two groups of enterprises.

zexpect expect expect expect expect expect p-value output output output output output output statistics declining declining declining increase in increase in increase in tions Resource-linked restricAdministrative restrictions strictions Macroeconomic reTable Distribution of answers depending on enterprises form of ownershipSignificant obBalance of stacle, as % of No obstacle, as Significance answers, as % sample % of sample of differences of sample How serious, at present, as obstacles for development of enterprise are:

Power supply and cost of energy re- 56. 15. 42. - 0.34.38 18.75 14.sources 34 63 30 2.98 31. - 14. - 0.Quality and cost of transport services 25.00 31.25 17.97 6.25 23 3.26 Quality and cost of communications 7.2 - - 0.4 0.6.25 40.63 45.services 1 34.38 38.40 5 Labor resources (availability, qualifica- 59. 28. 46. - 0.46.88 18.75 12.tion, remuneration) 84 13 98 2.08 Complicated procedures of access to 28. 9.3 3.9 1.4 0.34.38 25.00 24.financial resources 27 8 0 9 42. 21. 28. - 0.Cost of attraction of financial resources 37.50 15.63 13.11 88 27 0.78 66. 59. 61. - 0.Tax burden level 65.63 6.25 5.67 38 60 0.25 28. - 11. - 0.Supervision and audits by tax agencies 18.75 21.88 17.65 3.13 11 2.53 13. - - - 0.Activity of judicial agencies 12.50 50.00 33.65 37.50 20.08 2.34 10. - - - 0.Activity of law enforcement agencies 6.25 59.38 43.53 53.13 32.75 2.36 13. - - - 0.Activity of customs agencies 0.00 59.38 39.65 59.38 26.12 4.06 6.8 - - - 0.Labor legislation 0.00 75.00 55.2 75.00 48.93 2.86 Procedures of lease or acquisition of 22. - - - 0.12.50 56.25 41.land plot 03 43.75 19.30 3.31 24. - - - 0.Licensing procedures 21.88 40.63 29.17 18.75 5.46 3.02 Procedures of registration and liquida- 7.0 - - 1.2 0.9.38 37.50 46.tion of enterprises 2 28.13 39.57 9 Procedures for obtaining construction 23. - - - 0.15.63 43.75 29.permits 00 28.13 6.82 4.29 Actions undertaken by other enter- 23. 0.0 1.3 - 0.25.00 25.00 22.prises in order to eliminate competition 39 0 6 0.67 Necessity for and size of informal de- 11. - - - 0.3.13 21.88 26.ductions for benefit of officials 31 18.75 15.20 0.54 45. 12. 24. - 0.Competition with cheap imports 46.88 34.38 20.03 50 17 1.51 19. - - 0.3 0.Rubles exchange rate 18.75 25.00 27.49 6.25 7.99 5 Inflation (rapid growth of domestic 73. 62. 71. - 0.65.63 3.13 2.prices) 88 50 73 1.12 Unpredictability of government eco- 54. 25. 49. - 0.34.38 9.38 4.nomic policy 19 00 51 2.69 Answers were received from 32 state-owned and 513 private companies.

nies nies nies p-value z-statistics State-owned State-owned State-owned companies companies companies Private compaPrivate compaPrivate compations Resource-linked restricAdministrative restrictions strictions Macroeconomic reTable Distribution of answers depending on enterprises size Significant obBalance of stacle, as % of No obstacle, as Significance answers, as % sample % of sample of differences of sample How serious, at present, as obstacles for development of enterprise, are:

Power supply and cost of energy re- 54. 55. 40. 1.6 0.65.52 10.34 14.sources 56 17 00 2 31. 17. 12. 0.6 0.Quality and cost of transport services 31.03 13.79 18.65 24 82 9 Quality and cost of communications 6.9 - - 1.2 0.10.34 37.93 45.services 9 27.59 38.83 1 Labor resources (availability, qualifica- 59. 31. 46. - 0.48.28 17.24 13.tion, remuneration) 81 03 80 1.66 Complicated procedures of access to 28. 13. 3.6 2.6 0.37.93 24.14 24.financial resources 16 79 9 3 42. 24. 28. - 0.Cost of attraction of financial resources 37.93 13.79 13.14 14 16 0.47 68. 37. 62. - 0.Tax burden level 41.38 3.45 5.16 93 91 2.69 28. 0.0 10. - 0.Supervision and audits by tax agencies 24.14 24.14 17.35 0 87 1.87 13. - - 0.5 0.Activity of judicial agencies 17.24 34.48 34.40 17.24 21.36 3 10. - - 1.1 0.Activity of law enforcement agencies 13.79 37.93 44.10 24.14 34.56 5 13. - - - 0.Activity of customs agencies 10.34 44.83 40.01 34.48 27.77 0.78 6.2 - - - 0.Labor legislation 10.34 65.52 56.1 55.17 50.29 0.51 Procedures of lease or acquisition of 21. - - 0.4 0.20.69 37.93 42.land plot 55 17.24 20.97 8 23. 13. - 4.1 0.Licensing procedures 37.93 24.14 30.30 79 7.38 6 Procedures of registration and liquida- 6.9 - - 0.5 0.10.34 44.83 46.tion of enterprises 9 34.48 39.22 1 Procedures for obtaining construction 22. 3.4 - 2.2 0.27.59 24.14 31.permits 33 5 8.74 9 Actions undertaken by other enter- 23. 3.4 1.1 1.0 0.20.69 17.24 22.prises in order to eliminate competition 69 5 7 6 Necessity for and size of informal de- 11. - - 1.8 0.6.90 10.34 27.ductions for benefit of officials 07 3.45 16.12 4 44. 62. 21. 5.0 0.Competition with cheap imports 65.52 3.45 22.08 07 36 3 20. - - 0.9 0.Rubles exchange rate 10.34 13.79 28.00 3.45 8.16 1 Inflation (rapid growth of domestic 73. 72. 71. 0.1 0.72.41 0.00 2.prices) 59 41 26 3 Unpredictability of government eco- 52. 72. 46. 2.6 0.72.41 0.00 5.nomic policy 04 41 80 9 Answers were received from 29 enterprises with personnel of no more than 100 persons and from 515 enterprises with personnel of more than 100 persons.

p-value personnel personnel personnel personnel personnel personnel z-statistics number number number tions Resource-linked restricAdministrative restrictions strictions Macroeconomic reTable Distribution of answers depending of enterprises types of activity Significant obBalance of stacle, as % of No obstacle, as Significance answers, as % sample % of sample of differences of sample How serious, at present, as obstacles for development of enterprise, are:

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