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There are no age limitations Age limitations (70 years) are intro- There are no age limitations for governfor governing positions. duced for all governing positions in ing positions.

the Academy Sources: Charter of the Russian Academy of Science 1992; Model Charter of the government academy of science; the Charter of the Russian Academy of Science approved by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation from 19.11.2007 No 785.

Besides, program financing of fundamental research expands. It is planned that to manage the program of fundamental research the coordination board will be created from the representatives of the government academies of science and institutions concerned19. Creation of such a board can be the first step to expand the program of fundamental research, including other organizations of government sector of science as well as higher education institutions in it.

Shorthand record of the meeting of the Committee on science, technology and education from 30 November http://kremlin.ru/text/appears/2007/11/152987.shtml At the same time from now on the institutions of the Russian Academy of Science will be responsible for their liabilities by monetary funds and property purchased at the expense of means, obtained from the profitable activity. Monetary funds and property purchased at the expense of means obtained from the profitable activity being insufficient at the institution, it is the Russian Academy of Science that holds subsidiary liability by the obligations of these institutions.

All these changes come into effect from 1 January 2009, and in 2008 the Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Finance should come to agreement as to the mechanism of subsidies allocation, the personnel of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Science should be reorganized and a number of other administrative and management transformations should take place.

When elaborating the Charter of the Russian Academy of Science a number of statements has been discussed that were reasonable to be introduced but that were not adopted. For instance, the Charter does not introduce the age limitation for governing positions in dependent scientific organizations. Taking into account that one of the significant factors influencing negatively the demographic situation in science is absence of opportunities and conditions for career for young scientists, this statement complicates the staff problem solution at academic institution. At the same time age structure of the Russian Academy of Science is already one of the gravest problems in the government sector of science.

One more suggestion that was declined in the final version of the Charter was the limitation for holding main administrative positions in the Academy for more than two terms. Thus the idea of replacement of Russian Academy of Science governing bodies was not adopted that is somewhat of a threat for full realization of new principles of Russian Academy of Science functioning, since flexible forms of financing and administration are introduced to the structure where outdated management practice prevails.

Nearly simultaneously with the approval of new Charter of the Russian Academy of Science the law regulating the condition of science and education integration was finally adopted20. It gives to the scientific organizations the right to train according to the programs of post-graduate education as well as additional professional education. The law allows the education and scientific institutions to use staff and material resources to carry out both scientific and educational activity together. Higher educational institutions and scientific organizations also obtain the right to give to each other basing on contract, also free of charge, movable or immovable property of their ownership, as well as to create integration structures chairs, laboratories.

Up to present moment integration of science and education was complicated due to many regulatory and legal problems that are eliminated by the adopted law. However legislative securing of necessary conditions for integration was developed and coordinated for a time too long and at the moment the integration could be complicated not by administrative obstacles but due to increased inequality of parties that could integrate. It consists in the fact that the average level of research in the higher education institutions is lower than in academic and other scientific organizations, it is especially true for natural sciences and technical subjects21.

One of the reasons is insufficient financing of science in the higher education institutions. In 2007 only 3.8% of the federal budget funds for civil science22 was directed to higher education institutions whereas Russian Academy of Science receives about 35% of expenditures of federal budget for civil science.

Low intensity of research and development work in the higher education institutions is testified by the number of higher education institutions conducting research and by the data on the proportion of professors and tutors involved in it. There being 1071 higher education institutions, of which 662 are governmental institutions, 406 higher education institutions conduct research and development work23. The number of research workers in higher education institutions in recent years was no more than 8% of the total number of research workers throughout the country24. In this case the statistics does not take into account the faculty Federal Law On making changes to some legislative acts of the Russian Federation concerning the issue of science and education integration from 01.12.2007, No308-.

The exception is Moscow State University that receives funds for research and development work directly from the budget.

A. Khlunov, head of the department for government scientific, technical and educational policy of the Ministry for Education and Science of the Russian Federation, from the speech at the round-table conference Science in higher education institutions: present situation and prospects for development, 14.09.2007, Center Transparent economy Scientific indicators 2007. Statistics collection. Edited by the State University High School of Economics, 2007, p.20; Education indicators 2007. Statistics collection. Edited by the State University High School of Economics, 2006, p. 74.

Scientific indicator 2007. Statistics collection. Edited by the State University High School of Economics, 2007, pp.

28, 189.

combing tutoring and research work. Such a calculation is not easy to make since the majority of tutors do research unsystematically and often very little. According to the data of sociological surveys25, only 17.1% of the tutors of higher education institutions do research work. Among them 15.8% do fundamental research that is either textbooks preparation or PhD theses writing26. Disproportions in the volume and level of research and development work conducted in academic and higher educational institution sectors of science are the obstacle for equal integration.

At the same time there is potential and readiness for integration in the education field. According to estimations, 34% of research workers in the institutes of the Russian Academy of Science are tutoring already.

Academic institutes are interested in new staff inflow. Upon cooperation with higher education institutions scientific institutes get the access to students and PhD students that can be included in the number of research projects executors. In higher education institutions in their turn there is a certain shortage of scientific topics for PhD students during the work on their theses. For instance, if at the beginning of 90-ies 70% of PhD students and 30% of undergraduates were involved in research in higher education institutions, at the moment the figures are 3-4 times lower27.

Meetings of the Government of the Russian Federation in December M. Goldin In December at the meetings of the Government of the Russian Federation the following issues were discussed among others: fulfillment of federal targeted programs and federal target investment program over months of 2007, project of the plan for actions of the Government of the Russian Federation to fulfill main statutes of the Program for social and economic development for middle-term prospect (2006-2008) in 2008, as well as the project of the plan for legislative activity of the Government for 2008.

*** On 6 December at the meeting of the Government of the Russian Federation the issue on the course of fulfillment the federal target programs and federal targeted investment program over 9 months of 2007 was discussed. This issue is traditionally considered at the end of the year in accordance with the Plan for the meetings of the Government of the Russian Federation for June-December 2007. The report of the Ministry for Trade and Economic Development on this issue included the data on the course of federal target programs fulfillment as to every program and the data for FTIP realization including its non-program part and suggestions to improve work at FTP and FTIP. The report also contained information on the work of government customers at the preparation of the concept projects and federal target programs, suggested for financing at the expense of the federal budget funds, starting with 2008.

The following facts were voiced in the report. Some decrease in the number of target programs and subprograms financed has taken place. Thus, over 9 months of 2007, 46 federal target programs and 36 subprograms included in the open part of the federal budget were being fulfilled. In 2006 there were 51 programs and 50 subprograms financed, correspondingly.

At the same time as compared with the previous year the volume of federal target programs financing has considerably increased. The total volume of federal target programs financing for 2007 at the expense of federal budget funds taking into account changes made to the federal law on the federal budget for 2007 up to 1 October 2007 was equal to RUR 522.3 bln, including government investments of RUR 312.6 bln, for research and development of RUR 49.2 bln, for expenditures for other uses of RUR 160.5 bln. In these indices were equal to: the total volume of federal target programs financing RUR 363.6 bln, government investments - RUR 204.6 bln; research and development RUR 37.6 bln, other needs RUR 124.1 bln.

Considered as a whole over 9 months of 2007 in order to fulfill program measures there were government contracts, including contracts of previous years, signed at the sum of RUR 472.41 bln or 90.5% of the budget limits. For reference, over 9 months of 2006 the corresponding figure was equal to RUR 276.1 bln or The survey was conducted in 2005 by the order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation in 501 organizations, representative for academic, higher educational institutions science and dependent institutions, located in 24 regions of Russia. Source: Sheregi F. E., Strikhanov M. N. // Science in Russia, sociological analysis (Nauka v Rossii: sociologicheskii analis) published by Centre for Sociology Programs, 2006.

Sheregi F. E., Strikhanov M. N. // Science in Russia, sociological analysis (Nauka v Rossii: sociologicheskii analis) published by Centre for Sociology Programs, 2006, p282.

Analytical report on higher education in the Russian Federation. Ed. Larionova M. V., Meshkova N. A. Published by State University- High School of Economics publishing house, 2007, p. 138.

75.9% of the budget allotments. However the level of financing of federal target programs was rather low, on average being 52.7%. For instance, the sums for which government contracts were signed and the real figures for their financing by the following programs were equal correspondingly to:

Transfer to the completion of the positions of a number of military formations and units by servicemen, making service by contracts 71.4 % and 71.14 %;

Development of judicial system 63.0 % and 52.5 %;

Nations of the North 78.3% and 47.6%;

Russian language 80.7 % and 45 %;

Civil aviation 81.2% and 37.4%;

Improvement of road safety 76.0% and 23.5%;

Socially important diseases prevention and treatment 76.2% and 16.4%;

Social support of the disabled 47.6% and 17.3%;

Electronic Russia - 43.1% and 13.0%.

Thus, it would be correct to say that the budget execution is delayed because of the customers of the federal target programs and its dependent organization faults.

In 2007 the attraction of funds from the budgets of subjects of the Russian Federation and municipal formation, as well as off-budget sources to fulfill 35 programs of the total sum of RUR 833.74 bln is envisaged, of which RUR 274.41 bln are at the expense of the regional budgets and RUR 559.33 bln at the expense of off-budget sources.

Actual co-financing of programs over 9 months of 2007 was equal to RUR 363.77bln or 43.6% of the amount envisaged for the year, of which: RUR 135.61 bln (49.4%) from the funds of the budgets of the subjects of the Russian Federation and local budgets and RUR 228.16 bln (40.8%) from off-budget funds.

For reference, over 9 months of 2006 there were funds from the budgets of the Russian Federation and off-budget sources at the sum of RUR 269.71 RUR attracted to the realization of federal target programs by the government customers, which comprised 32.8% of the year allotments. Thus, over 9 months of government customers attracted 10.8 per cent more funds than in the corresponding period of the previous year.

According to the estimation of the Ministry for Trade and Economic Development the work of the government customers on 9 federal target programs can be considered effective, on 30 programs satisfactory and on 6 programs as low effective.

The following programs were referred to as low effective: Social support of the disabled for 20062010(Ministry for Health Care and Social Development of Russia); Improvement of road safety in 20062012 (Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia; Electronic Russia (2002-2010) (Ministry of Information and Communication of Russia); Complex measures to counter fight drug addiction and their illegal traffic in 2005 (Federal Service for Drugs Control); Development of civil aviation equipment in Russia in 20022010 and for the period up to 2015 (Ministry for Industry and Energy of Russia); Industrial utilization of weapons and military equipment (2005-2010) (Ministry for Industry and Energy of Russia).

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