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2) ee oa a ee pacpoa;

3) oee oa.

B copeex oepax y A oe oo ycpoco, aaeoe epa poeccopo.

C c e c c e o e p a C oo oepa oce e oaeo aaec a-o pacea. oep ooe a paoa c eca, paec opae, yo. popa, oope coye oo, epeo a oa cee cpy epaoo poeccopa, a oee ec poeccopa oe a opa. o o p pao oepa, a ao oee opoo paccope poecc opao ax epa poeccopo () x xpae a.

Ecece cocoo epea xpae epecoo caa ec ccea: "ec ca"/"e caa".

pao c a, pecae ao e, peyec ccea cce, ocoaa ceo a yx pax: "0" "1". Taa ccea aaec oo. ooae ox p peec ep "" (binary digit bit). B pye 8 yeaec 28 = 256 ex ce, aa pya oya aae a (byte).

Ooo aa ocaoo, o a yaoe 8-ooe aee ao aao cpoo ye pyccoo acoo aao, pa, aa pea eoop py coa.

Haoee pacpocpaea aa opoa coo 8-o oo aaec ASCII (American Standart Coding for Information Intercharge).

Ha oo aoco cpae yeaec ooo 2000 coo, ceoaeo, ee xpae a peyec ooo 2000 a.

oa ce e a co c o a, oeppoa c a ca caoc eyoo. ooy papaoaa ccea oee pyx e epe oeo opa, aea ea epe opa oopo 1 a.

1 a = 1 024 a 210 (oa), 1 Ma = 1 048 576 a 220 (eaa), 1 a = 1 073 741 824 a 230 (oa), 1 Ta = 1 099 511 627 776 a 240 (epaa).

B pox cex aax opa acaec e cox oo (ce). Coco pecae ce ocpeco cox ao (p) aaec cceo cce. paa ac ec a ca cceax cce, coyex poo ceo exe, opee apeece oco pox BM.

Paa a ocox a cce cce: eooe ooe. Heooe cce cce xapaepyc e, o aee ca, paaeoe cooyoc p, opeeec oo oypae pox coo. pepo eooo cce ec pca ccea cce. Haoee pacpocpaee oy ooe cce cce, oopx aee o p opeeec e oo oypae ee coo, o ecoooee oe, oopoe oa aae ce. p o o ocoae ooo cce cce q oaec oeco pax p, coyex pecae ca.

CPE OOHHX CCTEM PAAT OHOPOHE CMEAHHE CCTEM CCEH. B OHOPOHX CCTEMAX OECTBO OCTMX P BCEX O (PAPOB) CA OHAOBO. OHOPOHO OOHHO CCTEMO BETC OEPHTA ECTHA CCTEMA CCEH (Q = 10), COA AC CE ECT P OT O 9.

pepo ceao cce cce oe cy ccea ocea pee, e papax cey y coyec o 60 paa, papax aco 24 paa ..

oe eceoe co A, acaoe oopoo ooo ccee cce a A = anan- an- a a a- a- a-m oe pecaeo e cy ceeoo pa A = anqn + an- qn- + + a q + a q + a- q- + + a-mq-m (1) e q ocoae cce cce (q > = 2, eoe ooeoe co); ai p cce cce c ocoae q(ai = 0, 1, 2,..., q 1); i oep (ec) o (papa) ca. Moe peaoao ecoeoe oeco pax cce cce.

B cex aax ocoo coyc oopoe ooe cce. poe eco, BM axo pooe peee cce c ocoae q, c cee ca 2, a eo: oa, ocepa ecaaepa cce cce.

ecmua cucmea cuceu. B cooec c (1) o p ce opeee cee ca c ocoae 10, a oopoe a pa yoaec. Hanpuep, co 534,79 oo peca a 534,79 = 5,102+3,101+4,100+7,10-1+9,10-2.

B oo pape oe pecaeo ec p: o 0 o 9. paee e cape pe papa ( pe 9) oaae epeoc e cap pap, .e. ac ca 10 ox ce peyc a oee papo. co N = qn (e q ocoae cce; n eoe ooeoe co) pecaec e e cape pape c ocey n y. Hapep, N = 104 = 10 000. o pao pacpocpaec a ce oopoe ooe cce cce.

oua cucmea cuceu. Ocoae cce q = 2.

ac ce coyc e p: 0 1 (a. 1) 1 Cooece eco oo cce cce ece 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 oe 0 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 Cape po papa ec 1. ooy oo ccee 1 + 1 = 10, a a paee e cape pe aoo papa ae epeoc e cap pap.

puep apeecx ec oo ccee cce:

Coee Bae oee 0 + 0 = 0 0 0 = 0 0 0 = 0 + 1 = 1 1 0 = 1 0 1 = 1 + 0 = 1 1 -1 = 0 1 0 = 1 + 1 = 10 10 1 = 1 1 1 = p oe apeecx ec oo ccee cce ceye o, o ea ec cape aae po ooo papa. Bo aao pape ae y e, ceye a ey capeo aaeo papa, peyae eo ae pape opayc e e, oa a.

OEPA MHO EH CBOTC MHOOPATHOM CO EH CB. P BOHEH EEH COTC PABA MHO EH BTAH.

HAPMEP:

Coee Bae oee eee 1011001 100111 11011 + 11101 1001 1110110 11110 11011 11011 11110011 Bocepua cucmea cuceu. Ocoae cce q = 8. ac ce coyec oce p o 0 o 7. B cy oo, o ocoae ocepo cce ec pee cee ca 2, pecae ooo ocepoo papa peyec p aax ox papa (paa). epeo ce oo cce ce ocepy aoopo ocyecec o paa. Paee ooo ca a pa ocyecec eo pao o ao, oee ey ac ca o poo, anpuep:

1 1010 1012 = 3258 0,11012 = 0,648, 1 100 101 011,111 012 =1453,728, 247,568 =10 100 111,101 112.

Ec pae pa oyac eo, o o ooc y.

ecmaamupua cucmea cuceu. Ocoae cce q = 24 = 16. ac ce coyec ecaa p. x epe ec ece p o 0 o 9. B aece ooex p coyc aae ace y A, B, C, D, E F. epeo ce oo cce ecaapy opao ocyecec o epaa aaoo oo-ocepoy epeoy anpuep:

3FA16 = 0011 1111 10102, 10 0110 1101,1112 = 26D, E16.

Heoe epa ooc y.

B pe cyae oee oao ac yoee ooac e o ec, a ecaap pecaee ce.

O E C E OC HO B H O H PO BA H OM TEP A oua aya, yaa exy cye paccye. Pae o: aeaeca oa, opaa oa, aeeca oa.

opaa oua ca, yaa ocoeoc eoeecx cye paccye.

Mameamueca oua ca, yaa exy aeaec ox eop oaaec.

uaemueca oua oa, yaa aooepoc poecco, paaxc ppoe, oece oa.

oca o yoax, aapax popax cpec BM coyec aepa o (yea aepa), aaa o e coae.

Oc o e o a e p o yea aepa oeppye c oec epee, oope oy pa 2 ae: 1 (co) 0 (oo).

o e c e y oueco yue aopa f(x1... xn) aaec y, apye oopo oy pa oo 2 ae ca o. Oac opeee oeco y oea ac o ca oox apyeo. a oeca y oe aaa c oo a coc, eo ac oopo acac ooe ae apyeo, a pao cooecye ae y.

o c p o e e a c o c 1 He epc eee ae apyea a poooooe. pop, peay y y epop. O ee o xo o xo. Eo opaee a cxeax:

Bxo Bxo 0 1 (e o) 1 0 (e o) HE C aca Cxeoex a ! not 2 oecoe coee. pop, peay , aaec "ee "; a cxeax opaaec cey opao:

Bxo 1 Bxo 2 Bxo 0 0 0 1 1 0 1 1 C aca Aepa Cxeoex o a || or 3 o oecoe yoee. pop, peay o, aaec "ee "; a cxeax opaaec cey opao:

Bxo 1 Bxo 2 Bxo 0 0 & 0 1 1 0 1 1 C aca Aepa Cxeoex o a & && and Ha ocoe x pocex eeo coac coe epae cxe, oope axo pooe peee paoepoe.

a o a e p o B aepe o oc ceye ocoe ao, ooe poo oecee peopaoa oecx pae.

oyae ao (epeecee):

x x = x x x x = x x Accoae ao (coeaee):

x x x = x x x x x x = x x x cpye ao (pacpeeee):

x x x = x x x x cpyoc o ooceo , x x x = x x x x cpyoc ooceo o.

paa e Mopaa (eopea oceoc):

x x = x x x x = x x paa oepa c ocaa 0 1 (coca oca):

= = x = x x = x = x x = paa oepa epeeo c ee epce:

x x = x x = ao ooe:

x x x = x x x x = x ao cea =.

1 1 ao eoeoc (aoo):

x x = x x x = x ao ooo opa:

= ao poope: x x = 0.

ao caeo peeo: x x = p o e e o e c x p a e yc aa oeca y f x x x = x x x x x x x x x = pe e pacpeee ao oy:

= x x x x x x x = ao cea = x x x x = pacpeee ao = x x x x x = ao caeo peeo = x x x = coco oca = x x x oce ypoe, a pao, oyaec oa aex caa, oopx ee e oopc.

2 TEXHECE POPAMMHE CPECTBA PEAA HOPMAOHHX POECCOB A a pa oe o e c e e e ep co a o o o ep a yopoa oepa eoxoo a a oecee. o aapaoe oeceee (hardware) popaoe oeceee (software).

Paccop aapay ac epcoaoo oepa.

Oa coco :

1 poeccopa, oeo ypaee oepo;

2 aayp, ooe o co oep. o ycpoco oa;

3 Moopa, cyaeo opae eco paeco opa ycpoco oa;

4 Haoee (cooo) x ax co; aoee a ecx ax cax, ecepa.

poe oo, epcoa oepa oy oac: npumep ( oa paeco ecoo opa); (ycpoco, oeceaee o opa oep); caep (ycpoco ca paeco ecoo opa); cemeo aanmep (ae oooc o epcoa oep oay oay ce); cmpuep (ycpoco cpoo xpae ce opa, axoec a ecepe); paec ae ( oa oypx opae); nommep ( oa epee a yay).

pee o-cxey cceoo oa oepa, opaey a pc. 1.

Pc. 1 o-cxea cceoo oa O oepaa a; opoep aayp; AM aaep oopa; opoep ooex ycpoc; A aaep opo;

opoep cooo o p o e p a oo, o epcoa oep o paoa, eoxoo, o eo oepao a axoac popaa ae, ey pocxo oe. p paoe popa aco ae eoxo o opa o ooae o ee a pa. Tao oe aaec oo oo. eo ocyece ec a poeyox ea:

1 aoo eeo ycpoca eec epoa cxea, oopa ypae. Ee aa opoepo aaepo.

2 Bce opoep aaep aoecy c popoeccopo oepao a epe ccey acpa epea ax, oopy aa o. Ccea a ec aao coee popoeccopa, oepao a epax ycpoc (pc. 2). ec a axoc a aepco ae.

epepoe ycpoco a ax epa O popoeccop a apeca Pc. 2 a ax a apeca oea a c a ycpoca oa oa cya pae ooe : aoece popoeccopa c epep ycpoca e epe y ax, a apeca a pocxo p oo apeca.

a epcoaoo oepa IBM PC XT a 8-papo. ae pa IBM PC AT ea caap 16papo ISA. Bce IBM coece oep epea caap ISA. B 1987 . oac 32-x papa a IBM PS/2, oa aaac MCA. a a a ecoeca co caapo ISA. B 1989 oy oac oa 32-x papa a EISA, coeca c ISA. B acoee pe paaec oe oao , oae cpoece a ce ycao e ooeo . Ceac ca oyp caap PCI (papa). AGP-eo a paoae a acoe poeccopa.

e p a p o p o e c c o p o ooy aa popoeccopa oo coca pecaee o o, aoy accy oopyoa pae oep (a. 2).

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