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C. B. APTEMOBA ATECTBO TT Mcepco opaoa Poccco eepa Taoc ocyapce exec yepce C. B. APTEMOBA HOPMATA ac I Oopeo MO oac aoa, epo aece yeoo oco cyeo, oyaxc o apae 5511 ceaoc 2008 2005 Tao aeco TT 2001 681.3 (075) 8173-1 A86 Peee:

oop eaoecx ay, aey oeo eop eo oye opae cya oeo cpeeo opaoa PAO, poeccop C. A. eeo, aa execx ay, oe T . epaa H. B. yua Apeoa C. B.

A86 opaa: eoe ocoe. . 1. Tao: -o Ta. oc. ex. y-a, 2001 . 160 c ISBN 5-8265-0063-8 BBEEHE opamua: aya, yaa ao eo aoe, epea opao opa c oo BM;

poooe oe, oxaaee ce eoeeco eeoc, cae c peee BM.

opaa a yaeaa aya caa c ocoe epe yee o opa a oeayo aeop eope oa; aeao, epe oe aeaeco oe, aeaeco o eope aopo; c co; cceoexo; epeo ayo o ypae, c epepaoe opa.

B oco paccapac ceye pae, yaee opae:

1) aeaecoe oepoae;

2) oee ceoo cepea;

3) aopa;

4) popapoa cooo ypo;

5) popapoae a pepe yx aopecx o C aca.

eep coe poeccoao eeoc yceoo cooa BM oe a oooc execx cpec execoo oecee BM, ye oac c ao, o aoe o oe ye opypoa aa, papaaa aop, x pee, aca aop a e, oo BM oo x o oye peyao.

CTOP PABT TA BO OMTEPOB Ee poo ee e oca ece e, oope opeec y coco: 0 1. Tae oc aeaec aapa oeppoa oo cceo cce yea aepa.

opeaee epo ceo a, peo 1823 . cpyypy aoaecoo ce, caec ac aea ap , a ep popaco Aa aec.

Cpyypy ce coca e e ocoe ycpoca, o cpyypy copeex oepo.

peaa oepa e xaao oo eeo a.

oee epoo-ayyo a ooo peop peaoc e coa ceo a, oopa oac 1946 . CA oya aae ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator (epo ce epaop ayop). epa oeecea BM MCM (aa epoa cea aa) a coaa 1951 . o pyooco aaea C. A. eeea.

B aee o BM opeeac pae epo, oee ox eeo po ec, .e. pae eeo a.

B acoee pe acaec epe ooe BM. o ooee oa ce oe BM, papaoae pa ocpyopc oea, o ocpoee a ox ex e ayx execx pax. pee pay xapaepcy aoo ooe.

epoe nooeue: (1946 cepea 50-x oo).

eea aa: epoo-ayye a. B aece accx eeo coyc pecop oecaop.

aap: poae a, aae cea a a.

cpoece: 10 20 c. oepa ceyy.

cyaa: coa. a aco xo cpo. Tpeyc coe eoe cce.

popapoae: Tpeyec eocpeceoe ae cex oa BM.

Cpyypa: ao oae cooecye co oeca cxea, oea a epoaax.

Bmopoe nooeue: (cepea 50-x cepea 60-x oo).

eea aa: oypoooe pop (pacop, o ..). B aece accx eeo coyc pecop oecaop.

aap: Co e eoeecoo poca.

cpoece: 100 c.- 600 c. oepa ceyy.

cyaa: e epepea. p ecpaoc ae eo ay.

popapoae: oc aopece .

Cpyypa: oc popopa coco ypae. Coeee o pee pao pax ycpoc.

Tpeme nooeue: (cepea 60-x cepea 70-x oo).

eea aa: epae cxe (C).

aap: cyeceo yec. e co eoeecoo poca.

cpoece: o 1 . oepa ceyy.

cyaa: oee oepa peo.

popapoae: oxoe a 2-e ooee.

Cpyypa: coyc p oyoc acpaa. ee oe a.

emepmoe nooeue: (cepea 70-x a ).

eea aa: oe epae cxe. Mpopoeccop.

aap: epcoae BM.

cpoece: o 1 . oepa ceyy o coe apo.

cop epcoax oepo (), oyx aoe pooe pacpocpaee acoee pe, oee opoa. Baee peoco oe c yc 1971 . po Intel MC i4004. o ep popoeccop, yoao aao epaoy poeccopy BM, o aeo ycya ey o ooc.

ep Altair 8800 ye po MITS 1975 ocoa a 8-oo popoeccope (M) i8080. a oceoa pyx p.

Ho ao ycexa ooac Apple II p Apple Computer. a papaoa a aeo cee oaa coe yae oy, o oep Apple II oaa oyo ocpye, o ooo eo opoa eo aee.

cex p Apple ca ooo ecooca opopa IBM. B 1981 IBM ycae oe IBM PC (Personal Computer), papaoay eoo pyo ceaco o pyooco oa cpa.

a apa a papaoy IBM PC ocpoe a ocoe opo apxeyp. IBM PC copac oye, poox pa pa.

To, o ocoy ooo ooe oee o 16-pap M i8088, a ae opa apxeypa, oo eo eo cpe pyx . Peyao opo apxeyp oc oee eco 1982 pyx p, coecx c IBM PC a popao aapao ypoe. Heoope x ae peocxo o ooc oce oee a i8088 IBM PC XT (eXtended Technology).

B 1984 IBM papaoaa o a ae i80286, oy aae IBM PC AT, oy pee IBM PC coece poo ye ooo 50 oa.

B aee oceoao aoopaoe oee cpoca a IBM PC-coece . B acoee pe IBM PC-coece aa oee 80 % pa .

1 OHTE HOPMA, OA XAPATEPCTA POECCOB COPA, EPEA, OPAOT HAOEH HOPMA o e o p a Teop opa a caocoea ca, caa c ocpe, epeae epepaoo, xpaee cooae opa, a ocoaa aepac ye . eoo oe 40-x . XX . peoea eoo eop ocoaac a yaeao o oeceo ep eopeeeoc mponuu caoo c e o oeca opa. Oa paye opa, a cpeco, "caee eopeeeoc" (po) co oea oa. py aopo caoe eop opa cao ocoae oo, o oce opa ca ee cyay ppoy.

Cua ec poecc, e opaooe aee. B opae o yopeec cce "o poecc, ecy opa". oco xapaepc cao opaox cceax oocc:

1 Copocm coau uopauu H po coa, oecea ee pee n H = - Pi Pi, i = e H oeco opa, n oeco oox co, Pi epooc oex co. yc oeao oe ocyecc eoopoe oeco co n, aoe oopx oe poo c eoopo epooc Pi, .e. cyecye eopeeeoc. peoo, o oo co pooo, eopeeeoc yeac, .e. acya oa opeeeoc, ooy oeco opa H ec epo yee eopeeeoc.

2 Copocm nepeau uopauu R oeco opa, epeaaeoe o aay c ey pee (apep, R = 20 /c).

3 moocm coco cao, cocoee o, o a ee caa ece opa ee, e oe ec oeao, apep, co eca. ooc oeaec o opye n - n r = n e n eya a (co coo) caa, n0 a caa p acao opaoo apye (aa a).

p ocyc oex ooc pea. Oa cae copoc epea o aay c, yeae peye oe a p aoa yeae co oepap opaoe p.).

4 ponyca cnocoocm aaa cu C acaa copoc epea opa: C = maxR. pe cyxa eoea C 5 /c.

Beo ppoe opa oopaa c opaee. o 3- poa ocaa (ep, eeco). By o opae oa cooe, oope ac epecy.

B eop c aop coo, oa e ccooo coepa.

opa-oopaee eeo pa c oo ao cao (opaeoo ooopa).

C o c a o p a 1 Oeoc (e oa ace o cyeoo e).

2 ooa (ee oo ocaoo p pee).

3 Ayaoc (aoc eoxooc ope oe).

4 ooc.

5 oeoc.

6 ocoepoc opaee peaoo ooe e.

eoe ocpae opa epe yceoe oae, oopoe poeae ceyx ocox opax:

1 Oyee, oaee p eocpeceo oec oea a opa yc.

2 Bocpe opaa peea p eocpeceo oec eo a opa yc.

3 pecaee opaa peea coa eoea, oa oece a opa yc ocycye.

opoeoe oopaee peaoo pa coa eoea ec ae, ceoaeo, opa o ppaee a cyea o oeo yaeoo oea.

B ceoee (aya o aax aox cceax) paccapaec ceya acca cao acoc o cocoo oopae:

1 Ca ec (poee ececex coc peeo oeo ya, ce,...), 2 Ca o (ocpoo e opy opaex oeo oo, ce ox, oea ae), 3 coe a, ca.

Oc o e o o c p y y p e, p a x p a o o e p a Oc oe p pa o o e pa onmep o execoe cpeco peopaoa opa, ocoy pao oopoo aoe e e p opao epecx cao, o o epoo ycpoce:

1) xoa opa, pecaea pa ec poecca, a epeco, a eepeco ppo (ya, pa, yo caa ..), peopayec epec ca;

2) ca opaaac oe opao;

3) c oo peopaoae xox cao opaoae ca peopayc eepece ca (opaee a pae).

Haaee oepa opaoa paoo poa opa pecaee ee yoo eoea e.

C o yoaoo aae oep o ccea, cocoa 4-x ocox ycpoc, ox opeeee y: aoaeo ycpoca a, oopa paeec a oepay ocoy, apeo-oecoo ycpoca (A), ycpoca ypae () ycpoca oa-oa (BB).

Paccop x po aaee.

aoaee ycpoco (a) peaaaec xpae opa oa popa BM.

opa, oopa xpac a, pecae coo aopoae c oo 0 1 ca, co, coa, oa, apeca ...

o ac ca a oa paeee oo ca ee o yaaoy apecy xpaee eo a o op o oae popa. peya opa, axoac ao ee, epeacaec. p popapoa, apep, a e aca C, apec e ca c ee epeeo, oopoe pecaec oae y p, paex popaco.

o cae ca a oa opy ca e c yaa apeco. p o o ca epeaec a peyeoe ycpoco, a cao co ocaec ee.

epeca opa oaae, o opa aec oo e acaec pyy.

Apec e oppyec ycpoce ypae (), ae ocyae ycpoco op apeca, oopoe opae opao aa oae yy ey.

ca, co, oa xpac a a paopax aaax e o o e opa. H a, caoo oepa e ee ae ax. T paac oo p opaoe ax popao.

y, papoc, e opeee oeco ox papo (o). a oe coepa 1 0.

B copeex oepax a e paa 8 a epec aax. Maa a e, oopo oo coppoa apec, paa 1 ay, cocoeo 8 .

xapaepc a coyc ceye apaep:

1) eoc a acaoe oeco xpao opa aax;

2) cpoece a pe opae a, opeeeoe peee ca peee ac opa.

Apeo-oecoe ycpoco (A). poo apeece oece ec.

Ceye oe, o y apeecy oepa oo peaoa c cooae oepa coe.

Coa oeca aaa pacaaec a oee poce aa, e ocaoo aapoa oo a ypo:

A HET.

cpoco ypae (). pae ce xoo ceoo oecoo poecca oepe, .e.

oe y "peypoa e" opa. ae oay, pacpoae ee oae eoxoe e ee oe. Cae ceye oa pocxo aoaec.

aec oe cey ec:

1) oppoae apeca oepeo oa;

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