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Protection of intellectual property is one of most sore points in the negotiations with the USA. The U.S. producers of audio- and video production state that bear losses of billion dollars because of dominance of pirate disks and cassettes on the Russian market. Last year they even insisted on exclusion of the RF from the General system of preferences, within the frame of which Russian products are duty free exported to the USA. Meantime, qualitative changes took place in this sphere in Russia. The law enforcement bodies facilitated measures on establishment and closure of enterprises manufacturing the pirate audio- and video production on optical disks. Only over the 10 months of 2005 the bodies of internal affairs initiated 3 860 criminal cases, including art. 146 of UK RF (infringement of copyrights and allied rights) - 2 227 cases, of them 2 122 large and specially large cases. In parallel with this, the American side insists on changing of judicial practice regarding pirates. They do not like that most of the convicted persons are passed a conditional and not real sentence.

Another controversial question, which complicates the bilateral talks, is an insistance of the American side concerning cancellation of import duties on the U.S. aviation equipment. At present, foreign aircrafts account for 60% procurements of Russian carriers, primarily of Boeing company. In this case a duty is paid in an amount of 20% of their customs cost, which is not a barrier for access to our market of imported aviation equipment. Meanwhile, Russia leaves room for lowering duties on imported aircrafts after the transitional period in joining WTO, but not a full refusal of them.

It is difficult to solve an issue of opening of foreign banks and insurance companies subsidiaries in the RF. At this juncture Russia limits the share of foreigners in the capital of banks, in the sale of big packages it is necessary to receive approval of the Central Bank of RF. Moreover, according to the legislation, the foreign credit organizations cannot open subsidiaries on the territory of the RF, and must create subsidiary banks, which fully comply with the Russian laws.

Volovik N.

Formation of the Development Strategy of National Innovation System The last variant is analyzed of the RF Strategy in the field of development of science and innovations for a period of up to 2010, its basic notions, major tasks and offered indicators of their successful solution. The strategy does not yet contain a clear determination of goals and consistent indicators of successful building of national innovation system. It is suggested to revise the system of indicators and expand strategic planning up to a period of 10-15-years.

In December 2005, the Ministry of Education and Science prepared a new variant of the RF Strategy in the field of development of science and innovations for a period up to 2010 (hereinafter Strategy). This document is being improved for more than a year already, and other conceptual documents, such as the report of the Ministry of Education and Science On raising the efficiency of the activity of the government sector of science, The program of modernization of the structure, functions and mechanisms of financing the academic sector of science were preparing on it basis. To a large extent the Strategy also forms the sections in science and innovations of the program of socio-economic development of the Russian Federation for a medium-term perspective (for 2006-2008).

During finishing and revision the Strategy became better structured, however, a number of fundamental points remained invariable. With some of them it is difficult to agree. Thus, originally, it is not quite correctly formulated a determination of what is the national innovation system (NIS) and which components it consists of. The notions NIS and the sphere of science or, as it is named in the Strategy the sector of generation of knowledge, are artificially divided.

Generally accepted, including in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries, the notion NIS includes science as one of components. It is characteristic that in August 2005 the Chairman of the RF Government approved The guidelines of politics of the Russian Federation in the field of development of the innovation system for a period up to 2010 (2473p-Pof 05.08.2005), where a classical notion NIS is taken as a basis. However, as before, in all (up to the last) variants of the Strategy the generally accepted definitions are not taken into account. This is not simply a question of terminology. The separation (from the very start) of science from innovation system leads to reassessment of technocratic factors, while with regard of science and business measures are taken that are not agreed between each other.

Another methodological problem the absence of clarity, which sector of development and research is mentioned in the Strategy. Sometimes it is specified that this is a government sector, but most often some

Abstract

science in general is mentioned in the Strategy. It should be said that the private (entrepreneurial) sector of science requires other approaches and incentives for development, than the government one, or the sector of higher education. Unfortunately, the science sector of the higher education establishments (HES) is not an object of special consideration in the Strategy, and HES are stimulated to expansion of science activities within the framework of reform of the education system. Alongside with that, there are considerable legal problems in HES science, which cannot be attributed exclusively to the sphere of education.

In the Strategy it is formulated the main system problem and, consequently, the tasks are listed, which are necessary for its solution. The main system problem was named as follows: the rates of development and the structure of the Russian sector of research and development does not meet the needs of the system of ensuring national security and the growing demand on the part of a number of segments of the entrepreneurial sector for advanced technologies. Such a problem statement appears narrow and not quite correct. In this case, first, the role is ignored of the fundamental science, which should not work purely on the market. In parallel with that, it is just the advanced growth of fundamental science that is listed in the Strategy as one of the main measures. A certain contradiction is present. Second, thus stated, the problem can easily be narrowed down to necessity of building up defensive R&D. It is characteristic here that in description of the current situation, which then is given in the Strategy, no one proof was provided that science really did not meet the needs of provision of national security. Instead of this, it is only stated a weak resource provision of science and innovative unresponsiveness of the economy.

On the whole it remains unclear, what is the main purpose of the Strategy, but one can assume, that this is after all the formation of innovation economy in the country through development of national innovation system. In such a statement of the task participation of different departments in its solution is necessary and justified. Practically just so is happening: one can see recognition of the importance of innovation development in the initiatives of not only the Ministry of Education and Science, but also the Ministry of Economic Development and Trade, Ministry of Information and Communications, Russia's Industry and Energy Ministry.

While considering that the national innovation system comprises the D&R sector, it would be more reasonable to recognize the main problem - imbalance of the national innovation system, underdevelopment or absence in the system of a number of important components, including those ensuring sensibility of the Russian business to innovations.

The basic indicators are given in the Strategy, which should evidence that the formulated goals are successfully achieved. The three of six target indicators of the Strategy implementation raise doubts.

Regretfully, the same set of indicators is repeated in the rest of conceptual documents concerning the science and innovation development. The main problem with indicators lies in the fact that exclusively statistical approach is used, with all the restrictions, that are imposed by a standard system of collection of the statistical information on science and innovations, existing in our country. A target indicator is introduced of growth of the number small enterprises in the innovation sphere up to 30 thousand by 2011. It is taken here as a reference point that roughly there exists now as many as 22 thousand of such enterprises. But this is not so in reality. The last figure relates to a branch of statistical recording Science and scientific servicing, but not to the real situation in the innovation sphere. Meanwhile there are already over 30 thousand small innovation enterprises operational in the country. This is evidenced by calculations made in the State Fund for assistance in the development of small forms of enterprises in 9the scientific-technical sphere, which supports the small innovation entrepreneurship, and thus accumulating the real data on the situation in the sphere of small business.

The second problematic aspect, from the perspective of the used indicators is orientation to raising patent activity in the country. With the existing system of patent protection and practice of commercialization of the results of R&D the growth of patenting cannot be purposed. Most of developments are realized in the form of know-how, rather than patents. The Russian patent system is not yet analogous to foreign patent systems. Patenting in Russia is not very popular with inventors who count on commercial realization of their developments. Time and again patenting is simply preservation of priority, by analogy with publication in a scientific journal. The point is that the Russian patent does not provide the international protection, while the information on substantial parameters of the invention becomes accessible. Its not by chance for this reason, according to the data of the Russian Agency on patents and trademarks, that only 35% of the total number of patents are practically operational, and their support is cease on average in 4-5 years.

In view of the aforementioned reasons, an expansion of patenting will not mean activation of the innovation activity, and would sooner create a situation, by analogy with that that was in the soviet period. At that period, increasing the number of authors certificates was important so that to win in socialist competition, and getting (on this basis) additional budgetary funds. If a purpose development of innovation economy, rather than the fact of patenting, then it would be more reasonable to use the indicators of licensing or other indicators of use of inventions.

Finally, the important problem is a personnel disbalance in the Russian science, loss of succession, low interest of the youth in scientific career. In the Strategy improvement of the situation with the staff and influx of young staffers into scientific branches is planned to estimate basing on the indicator of the proportional weight of researchers at the age up to 39. Actually, this indicator is growing from year to year, which does not testify, however, to improvement of the situation with the staff in science. The share of young scientists under 30 is increasing, while that concerning ones after 30-39 is quickly shrinking, and thus the problem of generation gap is aggravating. It will never be solved in orientation to such indicators. An indicator of well-doing in science will become the growth of the share of middle age generation, the scientists of 30-39 years old: this will mean that young people in science are no longer minions.

While the Strategy is being prepared, a number of documents were accepted that actually solve some of the problems listed in it. Among most important documents we may name the aforementioned The guidelines of politics of the Russian Federation in the field of development of the innovation system for a period up to 2010, as well as the RF Resolution On procedure of management of the rights to results of scientific-technical activity (685 of 17.11.2005). This resolution app-roves the provision on securing and transferring to economic entities of the rights to the results of the scientifictechnical activity, received out of the federal budget; as well as changes which are introduced in the resolution of the RF government of September 2, 1999. 982 On the use of results of the scientifictechnical activity. Thus, the Strategy should again be finished in a catch-up regime, with account of all the occurred changes. In this context the time interval of the Strategy up to 2010 is exclusively short. We think that the development of strategy of the innovation development of the economy of the country for a period of 10-15 years is necessary, the component part of which would be the development of science and innovative activities. It may not be so detailed as the currently existing variant, such a strategy should plan further perspectives and actually indicate the strategic goals of innovation activities.

I.Dezhina Municipal reform: the law is postponed, what is next Amendments to Law 131-FZ It was pointed out in the August review that the whole period of preparation for the full-scale adoption of municipal reform in the first half of 2005 could be divided into two stages: the regular (though not always timely) reform preparation, in accordance with the transition-related provisions stipulated in Law 131-FZ, and the crisis of summer 2005, when an amendment was introduced for the consideration of the State Duma, so as to postpone the full-scale introduction of Law 131-FZ until January 1, 2009. The new timelines for the realization of municipal reform were set by Law 129-FZ of 12.10.2005.

The amendments to Law 131-FZ envisaged the introduction of a period of transition, which was to last until January 1, 2009. At the same time, the provisions of Law 131-FZ, in the part not relating to the powers and budgets of the newly created settlements, were to be in force since January 1, 2006.

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