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Fourth, there is observed a trend towards the actualization of delayed in time assessment in order to analyze long term effects of programs implemented by foundations. At present this aspect of work of foreign organizations and foundations is still underdeveloped, and foundations often operate by indicators of short term results and achievements.

Fifth, Western organizations plan to develop more deep and integrated forms of cooperation with Russian organizations and research teams, continuing the transition from support and assistance to equal cooperation.

Ideally, the development of cooperation shall go through the following stages: exchange of information, mutual visits and exchange of experience - grants for joint research joint projects including whole organizations standing institutional partnerships basing on the first three types of cooperation10.

Sixth, more attention is paid to spheres, where support could bring tangible practical results. Accordingly, more organizations are involved in such areas as assistance to commercialization of the results of scientific researches and projects, development of assistance programs relating to the establishment of partner ties between Russian and Western scientific organizations and Russian scientists and Western small businesses and industrial companies. INTAS, for instance, demonstrates its interest in these avenues of cooperation, similar steps are taken by the US Civilian Research and Development Fund (CRDF), which in December announced the start of its new initiative to establish offices of transfer of technologies in Russias Universities, where in the framework of the program Fundamental Research and Higher Education were created scientific and educational centers (SEC) in the sphere of natural sciences. While initially it was planned to concentrate assistance in the sphere of fundamental research (what is reflected in the name of the Funds program), as centers developed it became clear that it is necessary to make the next step and assist Universities to acquire the experience of commercialization of the products and technologies they developed.

Many problems and doubts exist in this area. Problems are related to the certain gaps in the Russian legislation (for instance those concerning objects of intellectual property), while doubts exist if the stimulating of the commercialization of the results of Russian researches abroad may facilitate the economic development of the country, or such support is primarily in the interests of donor countries. No clear answer to these questions exists at the moment, however, it is apparent that representatives of the Russian federal authorities shall participate in working out the rules of the game for such initiatives.

At last, seventh, a priority of foundations is the support of certain categories (demographic groups) of researchers. First of all, such groups and categories include young scientists, programs of support of which are initiated by the growing number of organizations and foundations. Eligibility priorities also always concern women and scientists working in regional centers. The effectiveness of implementation of such targeted programs has not had clear confirmation, and their urgency is primarily related to the political choice of foundations and their understanding of the characteristics of democratic organization of the sphere of science.

Two answers may be given to the question of results of the assistance to Russias science for donor countries themselves. First, this assistance facilitates economic stability, and in some degree the development of civil society in Russia via the support of the intellectual elite of the country. Second, there are obvious benefits for Western scientists, who engage in the joint projects with their Russian counterparts. Opinions of participants of programs run by such foundations as CRDF, INTAS, ISTC are an evidence that Western scientists learn about new ideas and, accordingly, obtain new scientific results with the help of their Russian colleagues. Benefits for the West are also apparent as concerns co-financing of commercialization of the results of Russian studies and research by foundations and foreign companies.

On the whole, the foreign support of Russias science is developing in accordance with the major trends observed at present on the international market of philanthropy, i.e. it becomes more targeted and oriented towards the final result.

Therefore, foreign programs and foundations do not curb their activities in Russia, but just change the form of their presence by joining resources, attracting Russian capital for the financing of science, improving the selectivity, and setting priorities in order to support certain disciplines, spheres, and areas of scientific and technological activities.

I. Dezhina - Temmes M., Salminen A. Transformation and Transition: An Introduction in East-West Cooperation in Public Sector Reform. IISA/EGPA, IOS Press Amsterdam, 2002.

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