Russian Encyclopedic Dictionary. http://enc.mail.ru/article/ In general the problem of identifying small and medium entities is essential for all sectors of the national economy. To simplify the sorting out of such entities, provisions of the law regarding structure of authorized capital or share fund should be clarified. To reduce costs associated with search of information about entities’ founders (needed for determining whether they can be qualified as small or medium ones) it will be rational to introduce a declaration to be filled with the respective data. At the municipal level one should keep registers of not only entities-recipients of state support but also of all small and medium entities. They can be based on both the data of legal bodies’ registers (provided by entities at the moment of registration) and the state statistical data on their performance. This will help not only to estimate their number but also to project staff of the committees and the budget needed for support of small and medium business. To solve the problem associated with the “number of employees” criterion (used for qualifying an entity as a small or medium one) in production cooperatives it will be rational to replace the term “number of employees” with the term “number of employed in production activity”. In this case the determining of production cooperatives’ status can be done with regard to the actual number of their members.
To estimate the extent of small business’ involvement in support programs one should monitor changes in the structure of entities by size and other parameters and for this purpose the statistical forms for agricultural entities should be brought into compliance with classification given in the law.
The same criteria should be used for classifying agricultural entities whose performance was recorded in the course of 2006 Agricultural Census.
Taking into account that a sizable share of commodity output in agriculture is produced by individual (family) plots whose owners do not meet the criteria enabling to regard them as entrepreneurs, some amendments to the law need to be made. The suggestion to register individuals as entrepreneurs in case they systematically sell output from their plots seems to be ill-considered. It’s not rational, as registration will entail high transaction costs of submitting regular reports. The effective system doesn’t take into account the specific social and demographic structure of individuals – producers of over of the total commodity agricultural output, their location, inaccessibility of tax inspection and pension fund offices for many of them. To legalize their activities one has to set criteria for sorting out commodity individual (family) farms36, to introduce patents on producing commercial output on individual plots, to establish the method of calculating the patent’s cost regarding local taxes and deductions to the pension fund, to launch a system of selling patents through the post service, etc.
These measures will help to facilitate identification of small and medium entities in agriculture and to improve the efficiency of their state support. The understanding of the fact that agricultural output is primarily produced by micro and small entities should determine special methods of working with them and a special mechanism of supporting them.
An overall assessment of the military-economic potential of regular forces and of the mobilization reserve (resource)V. Tsymbal The author analyses the military aspects of the accomplished and planned measures in militarypersonnel policy with regard of both regular forces and the mobilization resource (reserve). The analyses includes the major principles which form the basis for such estimates and the results of the quantitative assessment of the military efficiency indicators of the various possible variants of reforming the system of manning of Russia’s military organization.
The present publication is concerned with the adoption of the new federal target program (FTP) for the period until the year 2015. The aim of the program is to facilitate the transfer all the NCOs and all the seafaring personnel of the Navy to the contractual basis. Also, the program establishes a certain For instance, farms earning over 5 minimal wages [the rate of which is set by legislators – ed.] per family member. The patent would be a form of declaration of earning a certain income. Families with high incomes could buy one or several patents.
The author has used the results of the research carried out within the framework of RGNF Project No 08-0200038a.
concept of the new system of training and accumulating the mobilization manpower resources38. However, although the issue of manning the armed forces is important not only for the State but for society and its citizens as well, there was no public discussion of the FTP project, of the new concept, and of the advantages of this very way of further developing the reform of the manning system. So, willynilly we have to do this after the event.
In the foreword to the estimates we should mention that previously, in a number of the IET’s publications, we have already expounded the methodological bases of applying the index known as the “effective numerical strength” (ENS) of NCOs and other ranks. In the July 2008 IET issue39, this index was used for assessing the results of the completed stage of military reform in the RF, the results of the previous FTP, and the potential variants of its continuation from the point of view of the combat readiness of regular forces. In the present case, the sphere of application of this index has been widened. It is now also used in appraising the effective numerical strength of the mobilization resource (MR), and in particular the resource of the 1st category (MR1) composed of the persons listed as NCOs and other ranks, under the age of 35, who have already served in the armed forces. This index is also applicable in the event when a special reserve of servicemen is to be created in the RF (as is already practiced in a number of states).
The major economic discrepancy between the systems of maintaining reservists and the systems of maintaining the military-trained manpower resources is as follows. The cost of presence of a person in reserve, or more precisely – his or her voluntary military service in reserve – is regularly covered by the State, while the State’s expenditures on the upkeep of persons included in the mobilization resource are limited to the compensational payments to them at the time of their retraining. The mobilization resource is cheaper than the reserve. But, correspondingly, the maintained level of combat readiness – the major military indicator – should also be higher among the reservists. Unfortunately, the published works authored by specialists from the RF Ministry of Defense contain rather lopsided appraisals of the efficiency of various methods for resolving the problems of mobilization40.
In our estimates, we should proceed from the fact that any personnel policy (PP) is characterized by the two indicators reflecting its military effectiveness: the effective numerical strength of regular forces (ESrf) and the effective numerical strength of the mobilization resource or reserve (ESrf).
However, as the use of two indicators is inconvenient, we are going to apply a single indicator characterizing the overall military efficiency of NCOs and other ranks in the military organization of the State. To do so, it is important to have the quantitative assessments of military threats and risks41. The aim is to transform the qualitative appraisals expressed by experts into the quantitative probability estimates (Pm ) of risks, threats and dangers developing into wars and military conflicts, which would require mobilization of resources and the involvement of reservists. In the event of mobilization, the absolute numerical strength of peace-time regular forces, S, is increased by the value of the numerical strength of the mobilization resource, M. Correspondingly, as a result, the effective numerical strength of the armed forces will also rise – potentially, to the maximum total value: EScr= ESrf + ESmr.
But it will be incorrect to limit our consideration of this indicator from the point of view of military economics alone. The thing is, that if the level of military threats is low, the probability of mobiliza V. Odrinskii. Novaia sistema podgotovki i nakopleniia voennoobuchennykh grazhdan, prebyvaiushchikh v zapase, i nakhozhdenie ikh v reserve (The new system of retraining and accumulating the military-trained manpower composed of citizens-reservists, and their presence in the Reserve) // Voennaia mysl’ (Military Thought), 2008, No 9, pp. 43-47.
V. Tsymbal. Voenno-ekonomicheskaia otsenka boesposobnosti regularnykh voisk RF (The economical and political appraisal of the combat readiness of the RF’s regular forces) 2008 – July. Pp. 45-49:
http://www.iet.ru/files/text/trends/06-08.pdf D. Ziganshin. Podgotovka mobilizatsionnykh liudskikh ressursov: metodika ekonomicheskogo obosnovaniia (Training of mobilization manpower resources: the methodology of economic substantiation) // Voennaia mysl’, 2006, No 12, pp. 2-7.
Such assessments were made, for example, in a research ordered by the RF Security Council and carried out in the 1990s. The corresponding assessments of threats were then partially published. See Efremov, A; Tsymbal, V.;
Shunin, O. Metodicheskii podhod i nekotorye rezul’taty kachestvenno-kolichestvennoi otsenki pokazatelei voennoi bezopasnosti Rossi i ATR (The methodological approach and some results of the qualitative and quantitative assessment of the indices of military security of Russia and the Asia-Pacific Region) / Vostok i Rossiia na rubezhe XXI veka (The Orient and Russia on the eve of the 21st century). Moscow, Institut vostokovedeniia RAN, 1998, pp. 41-46.
tion, Pm, during this period is also low, and therefore any expenditures on maintaining a mobilization resource, not to mention a reserve, seem to be unnecessary. Thus, there emerges the need to assess the potentially increasing numerical strength of the armed forces, with the necessity to take into account also the existing level of threats. In order to obtain such a comprehensive evaluation of the effectiveness of manning the armed forces and maintaining a military-trained manpower resource (reserve), it is suggested that the comprehensive effective numerical strength of the NCOs and other ranks’ contingent should be expressed by the value ESc= ESrf * (1- Pm) + (ESrf + ESmr) * Pm = ESrf + ESmr * Pm.
This value can be treated as the average value of the numerical strength of the contingent of military-trained citizens being prepared by the state for fulfilling all the military tasks:
• in time of peace (its probability is equal to 1-Pm, while the effective numerical strength of military personnel fulfilling the tasks typical of time of peace is equal to ESrf), • in time of war (correspondingly, its probability is Pm, while its effective numerical strength equals ESrf+ ESmr)..
Let us illustrate this evaluation with regard to the previously published (see the July IET issue) estimated cases pertaining to several variants of personnel policy. At first, we will consider the “unadulterated” policies of manning the NCOs and other ranks contingent:
a) exclusively on the basis of a draft for 2 or 1.5 years, or for 1 or 0.5 year of active service (AS);
b) exclusively under a contract (voluntarily), with several types of its realization tabulated below in Table 1.
Table The assessed variants of personnel policy in case of military service under contracts PP-1 Citizens are enlisted on a voluntary basis; as a rule, they serve in the armed forces in various positions, including those of NCOs and other ranks, until pension age; the drop-out rate during service is negligible PP-2 Citizens are enlisted on a voluntary basis, but further on the personnel policy being implemented by the authorities envisages that after the expiry of a contract almost one half of servicemen should leave, while the other half should continue their service; this is true of all the positions in the NCOs and other ranks’ contingent, without any age limitations PP-3 Citizens are enlisted on a voluntary basis, but further on, as in the case of PP-2, the number of those continuing their service (after the first and second terms of service under a contract) diminishes; however, after 10 years of service those who remain in the ranks become professionals and continue to serve, as in the case of PP-1, but not in positions of NCOs and other ranks, but as warrant officers (ensigns) and sergeants of top ranks It should be noted that the previously discussed negative policy of the enforced signing of contracts is no longer considered by us, because the authorities have officially stated that it would be discontinued.
Below, Table 2 shows the estimated values of the effective numerical strength, presented as shares of the total number of NCOs and other ranks serving in regular forces, while Table 3 presents the decoding of the rated parameters’ values. The values of the combat-efficiency coefficient, c, and of the ESrf evaluations (the third and fourth columns of Table 2) were explained in our previous publications on to the issue under consideration.
Under the lines PP-2 and PP-3 which characterize, in Table 2, the indicators relating to these personnel policies “on the whole”, one can find their decoding, “including” for the groups of servicemen who have completed their first, second, third, etc. terms of service under a contract; for the sake of convenience, all the contracts are deemed to be of a three-year duration. Unlike PP-1, these two variants of personnel policy make it possible to do without a specially organized reserve, although they do not rule out its creation and maintenance in addition to the mobilization resource.
An analysis of the data presented in Table 2 makes it clear that voluntary military service under a contract sharply reduces the absolute (and therefore the effective) numerical strength of the mobilization resource, because the latter consists of former servicemen alone. The summary indicator of the combat efficiency of the armed forces also goes down.