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ypoe aa aocx eeepo (pc-eeepo), ocyecx oey; cee x oooeoc cooa copeeoo aeaecoo cacecoo aapaa poee ao oe;

execo popao ocaeoc acox eeepo (pc-eeepo), oooc cooa copeex oepx exoo poee ao oe;

oooc pee oee cox aocx pco apoax cepo p.

Meo oe pca oo opee ey aocx pco, a pay oey. O paoc opa eoa oe pca ac paoc oe poopyex oep. B copeeo aoco pae coc p ocox cocoa pacea pco: cacec, cep aaec.

Cy cmamucmuecoo cnocoa aaec o, o pacea epooce ooe oep aapyc ce cacece ae, acaec peyaoc ocyece ao paccapaex oepa. p o oe ooc paceo coy ocaoo oy cacecy opy.

acoa ooe ypo oep axoc o opye P(x) = m/n, e m co cyae acye opeoo ypo oep; n oee co cyae ope.

Bepooc (acoa) ec oecea xapaepca cee oooc acye co.

ao epooc oep cea cac cooece cpoo opeeeoe aee cxoa. Cya c pco xapaepyec pacpeeee epooce, o ooe ycao epooc ooe o oaeoo oxoa. Pacpeeee epooce opaae ce ooe cya, oope oy oy peyae p pee, ocaee cooece opee ae epooce.

p opeee aco ooe eoopoo ypo oep ceye a ee aee a oo oe ce oe, .e. p pax ycox oep. oca oe oc oe o pca. o oo (oac) pca oa oy, paax oopo oep e pea aoo-o opeeeoo ypo.

Ha pc. 7 oaa ocoe oac pca, oope o pac o ae ooca.

Oac, oopo oep e oac, aaec epucoo oo, e cooecy yee oep opaee (peee p).

Oac onycmuoo puca xapaepyec ypoe oep, e pea paep paceo p.

B o oac ee ooo ocyecee aoo a aocx oepa, ocoy a pcye oo e, o peyae coe eeoc o xye cyae poco e oy p, a ce poocee apa yy oye.

apapoa Booe aoce oep aoc peya Bpaepe Bpaepe Bpaepe Bpaepe cy paceo cy paceo cy paceo cy coceoo p p oxoa aaa oa oa oa aacepcoa oycoo pecoo poecoo oa pca pca pca Pc. 7 Xapaepca ocox o aocx pco Oac pumuecoo puca xapaepyec ypoe oep, ea oopx peae paep paceo p, o e oe oeo paepa paceo py. Tao ypoe pca eoyc, a a a oepaec oacoc oep c co pyy o ao oepa, a o ye oaa, o o poe ecccee apa e oo pee, o eex cpec.

Oac amacmpouecoo puca xapaepye ooe oep, oope oy cpac c eo cocex cpec aa, a o ee apocy aa.

Haoee ooe pecaee o pce ae a aaea pa pacpeee epooce oep paecoe opaee acoc epooc oep o x ypo, oaaee, acoo epoo ooee ex x oep (pc. 8).

Bepooc opeeex ypoe oep c a oaae, oo caa cyee o oaeo pce eo peeoc, ooy ay py oo aa puo puca.

Cnoco cnepmx oeo aec oaec o cacecoo eoo copa opa. O peayec ye opao e ox ceaco.

Haoee eaeo, o cep a co oe epooce ooe opeeex ypoe oep, o oop ae oo o a cpeee aee cepx oeo c x oo ocpo pa po pacpeee epooce.

Pacemo-aaumuecu cnoco ocpoe po epooce oep oe a o ocoe aocoo pca apyec a pax aeaecx eoax. Oao paa eop pca xopoo papaoaa oo peeo cpaxooy pooy pca. ee eop p, pe, pe o ce a aocoo pca, o pae aeaece eo oeox paceo acooo, peoo pyx pco a ocoe eop p oa e papaoa. B c c paceo-aaec coco aaa pco aoco pae paec e coyec.

Toa Toa oo aaa eoxooc eo p eyooc Toa oo pacpaceo p Toa ao Toa apoca c oepe ceococeBepooc ooe aoo ypo oep p oa oa oa oycoo pecoo aacpoecoo pca pca pca Booe oep p aa 0 p oxo aa Pc. 8 Ta pa pacpeee epooce ooe opeeeoo ypo oep p aa ao aae ypae aoc pca ec opeeee oycoc opeeeoc oo oo pca p eeeoo paecoo pee.

o opee cee oycoc oeo paepa pca aa eoxoo ypee pc coppepoa a ee. B peyae oy ceyy pacey opyy oeo pca aa:

P1+ P2 + P3 + + Pn H = E, K e H cee oycoc oeo pca aa; P pc aa o i- oepa eee c yeo pca a (i = 1, 2,..., n); E pc cpa; aa aa.

B ocoy oe ceye pep:

H = 0 5 ypoe pca, H = 5 10 cpe ypoe pca, H = 10 co ypoe pca.

oaae oeo pca opaae acao oycy cee pca aa a opeee epo, oce eo ceye pax aa, ec H > 10. Ec, apep, H = 2, o a eoopoe pe oe e opopoa co pc, a opa ae a oee eecoopaoe ocpoee ooe c ea, a ae a pace pca peoa opeoo aea.

Too oae ooeco ppo aocx pco eo oecea oea e oo eeepa eo ypa ao. Heoxoo pe coco eo eocpeceoo oec a ypoe pca c e eo acaoo ce, oe eoacoc acoo ycooc oepecoo aa. Haoe ocoe oxo coco ypaeecoo oec, peee a pae.

B ccee eoo ypae aoc pca ocoa po pae ype exaa x epaa.

Bypee exa epaa aocx pco peca coo ccey eoo a x eax ocec, paex ocyecex paax caoo aa.

Ccea ypex exao epaa aocx pco peycapae cooae ceyx ocox eoo:

1 eae pca. o apaee epaa pco ec aoee paa. Oo aaec papaoe ax epop ypeeo xapaepa, oope ooc ca ope aocoo pca.

Hapep, cy ocox ax ep oocc: oa o ocyece aocx oepa, ypoe pca o oop peepo co; oa o cooa cox oeax coceoo aaa; oa o peepoo cooa peex cpec. epecee pye op ea aocoo pca ecop a co paa oepe oex x o ae a ooex coo oppoa p, a cooeceo e a e eo ooecoo pa eoc cooa coceoo aaa.

ooy ccee ypex exao epaa pco x eae oo ocyecc oe eeo p ceyx ocox ycox:

- ec oa o ooo aocoo pca e ee ooe pyoo pca oee cooo ooaoo ypo;

- ec ypoe pca ecooca c ypoe oxooc aoco oepa o ae "oxooc pc";

- ec aoce oep o aoy y pca pea oooc x oee a ce cocex cpec aa;

- ec paep oxoa o oepa, eeppye opeeee pca, ecyecee, .e. aae eoy ye ec oppyeo ooeo eeo ooe aa;

- ec aoce oepa e xapaep eeoc aa, oc oao xapaep o ocycye opaoa aa, eoxoa opeee ypo aocx pco p cooecyx ypaeecx pee.

2 poae pca. Mexa poa aocx pco coyec oo o e x a, oope xo a pee oycoo x ypo, .e. o aoc oepa, ocyece oe pecoo aacpoecoo pca. B xoe eye eeoc aa papaaac yae a opaeo aa (a o a, a o acc oepa), a ae eye o ce a o aa, apaee a opaee pox pco, oepaoe , opeee ooo pyooee copyo aa p ocyece opex oepa. poae ec a peo ce cee pca.

3 Xepoae. a exa pecae coo aacpyy paca, aeey a a pca. Tpaca, xepye oee o aaca, aac poxepoae, a ypye ec aac aa apoxepoae. B ex cyax, oa oop cpyeo xepoa ocyecec paax aacoo o (apep, oop ao acco o eoc) eo xepoa caec ecece. Ceece eo xepoa peoaa cooae eaacox o eeoc.

4 epca. Mexa epca coyec, pee ceo, epaa eax aocx ocec ecceaecx (ypex) o pco. p ec exaa epca ocoa a paee pco, pecye x oepa. epca o pacceae aocoo pca.

Oao oa e oe ce pc o y. o cao c e, o a eeoc aa oaa e ee aop, oope e ca c opo opex oeo oe pee aaa, ceoaeo, a x e e epca. ooy cooae oo exaa oc ae opae xapaep.

epca ec aoee oocoa ooceo eee epoe cocoo ce cee aocoo pca.

5 Pacpeeee pca. a exa ocoa a aco x epeae apepa o oe aoc oepa a opao, o ooe oep aoo yaca ooceo ee. Cee pacpeee pco, a ceoaeo ypoe epaa x eax aocx ocec ec peeo opax epeoopo aa c apepa, oaex coacoa c yco cooecyx opao.

6 Caocpaxoae. Mexa oo apae epaa aocx pco ocoa a peeppoa ao ac aocx pecypco, ooe peooe eae ocec o e aoc oepa. Oco opa oo apae c oppoae peepx, cpaxox pyx oo.

Ocoa aaa caocpaxoa aaec oepao peooe peex apye aoco eeoc. coy a exa, eoxoo e y, o cpaxoe peep o cex x opax, xo oo cpo oec oecee pepe acoe oep, "aopaa" cooae ocaoo oyo cy aocx cpec. B peyae oo caec eoc cooa coceoo aaa aa, ycaec eo acoc o ex coo acpoa. o opeee eoxooc oa cy peeppyex aocx cpec c o pecoeo x cooa epaa oex o aocx pco.

Be paccope ocoe ypee exa epaa aocx pco. O oy cyeceo ooe c yeo ce eeoc aa opeoo cocaa ope eo pco.

Bee co epaa aocx pco opayea cpaxoae. Cpaxoae aocx pco pecae coo ay yecex epeco aa p acye cpaxooo co (cpaxooo cya) cea cpaxo oa (cpaxoa) a ce eex oo, oppyex ye oye o cpaxoaee cpaxox pe (cpaxox oco). Cyoc cpaxoa paaec o, o a oo oaac o ac cox oxoo, o ea pca, .e. o oo aa a cee cee pca o y.

Cey a ypae aoc pca opo pca. oopa ee aa opo ypo pca eecoopao ooo ce eopay o oe opo pco coa oe, coco pyoox paoo aepecoax oeo. B oce ao popaa eoo opo pco ae ceye ooe:

- aa aa oe opoc eoacoc;

- oeceee eoacoc e aa o ecacx cyae, oxe axaa aoo, papaoa poeyp a pae cya opc-aopx ocoec;

- coxpaee coceoc epop o ae coceoc aa o ecoo yepa;

- opo poecca opao opa oepaooo epa oeceee oeaoc, cpo eoooc pao;

- peypeee oapyee oeax oep o ypex ex pecye;

- opo oaec o opaa coae pece ocya o yco opaa (c yeo exc yco), cceaec oop opao;

- papaoa poeyp xoa ceoox pcx cya, a cepy opao opa;

- opo pox pco.

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