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This fact, from our point of view, has become a major reason for the onset of a fierce fight against the SSE. Remaining reasons - insufficiently qualified preparation of control and measuring materials, corruption, etc. – would not have aroused support of parents and pedagogical community in the fight against the SSE. A lawsuit has been filed against the SSE to the Supreme Court. Signatures were collected in support of calling off the SSE (in the Kemerovo oblast, for example, more that 40 thousand signatures have been collected), a draft law has Procedure does not specify in what way issue of a secondary school diploma and the SSE score is connected with the results showed during the course of secondary education.
Official data of the Russian Federal Service of Supervision in the Sphere of Education and Science.
RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks been prepared which envisaged strictly voluntary character of the SSE for the school leavers as well as acceptance by higher educational institution of its results. In the wake of the global economic crisis opposition to the SSE was careful on the part of the government bodies in charge of education management. They became aware of the fact that in the event when 2530% of school leavers were unable to pass the SSE, there would be a threat of mass youth unemployment, criminalization of young people, increase in the number of drag addicts, etc. In the wake of the crisis shortfall of significant number of students (up to 200 thousand persons) would have led higher educational institutions to negative economic and social results, taking into consideration decrease in extrabudgetary revenues and a reduction in teaching staff.
At the same time, the SSE remains a sole symbol of educational reform in Russia. (In addition to the Standard state examination to key reforms in the sphere of education one may attribute introduction of per capita financing in the system of general education and the implementation of the new wage system. However, implementation of these measures has not been completed yet in the wake of the reduction of budgetary expenditure is loosing its meaning, first of all it is true of the stimulating role of the salary).
In 2009 the SSE results may be considered as a significant, however, not definite, defeat of the standard state examination. Only 2.76 and 3.04% of low grades in the Russian language and Maths were posted by the school leavers in 2009. This fact testifies not to the improved situation in general education but to a sharp decline in requirements to the examinee, especially if we compare this results with dynamics of those who got low grades in USE (according to traditional five-grade scale) on these subjects within last four years (Table 19).
Table The Share of School Leavers Who Got in the SSE Compulsory Subjects a Low Grade According to Five-grade Scale in 2006–2009, in % Number of those who got low grade (according to five-grade scale) Subject 2006 2007 2008 The Russian language 7.91 8.81 11.21 2.Maths 19.99 21.14 23.48 3.In the meantime, one may not reject the SSE without grounds. This mechanism for certification of school leavers which corresponds to the present stage of development of Russian higher education – transition to universal higher education when 80% of school leavers enroll in higher educational institutions. However, this mechanism needs improvement so that the society stops mistrusting it. Many negative issues regarding the SSE could have been eliminated at the test stage.
One of the negative issues is sending the SSE results to an unlimited number of higher educational institutions which resulted in a mess during the enrollment in higher educational institutions. Sometimes, higher educational institutions were loosing rather strong would-be students and were forced to enroll less knowledgeable ones. This issue became obvious at the stage of experiment. At present the examinee can not send his/her SSE results to more than higher educational institutions.
On the whole, one can draw a conclusion: although an experiment with the SSE has ended, its approbation and adaptation to real conditions carries on.
Section Social Sphere 4. 3. 2. Healt h Care in The year 2009 is noted for an improvement in the demographic indices: the birth rate went up from 12.1 per 1,000 (2008) to 12.4, and the mortality rate fell from 14.6 per 1,000 in 2007– 2008 down to 14.2 (Fig. ). The trend in the fall of mortality was noted since 2006 and is attributed by the government to its concerted efforts in the field of public health, as well as its growing funding, and to the implementation of the National Project “Health” together with the program of medication supply. Healthcare remains a priority in the budget policy, expansion of the state programs implemented in the field of public health, obviously, have a bearing on the life span of the population. Reduction in the number of deaths from cardio-vascular diseases by 56 thousand (from 1,186 thousand in 2008 down to 1,130 thousand) have mainly contributed to the decline in the mortality rate (from 2,076 thousand in 2008 down to 2,014 thousand). If we observe relative figures of the fall of mortality due to natural causes, then the most positive indicators in reduction of the number of deaths were posted by accidental alcohol poisoning – down by 32% compared to 2008 and by road accidents – down by 15%. These results can be rightfully attributed to the implemented measures of the government control over alcohol production, as well as strengthening administrative responsibility for violation of Highway Code since 2009. At the same time, the number of deaths from tumors (second largest to cardiovascular diseases) went up by 2%, despite introduced in the National Project measures aimed at the improvement of medical assistance to oncological patients.
17 16,16,16,16 16 15,7 15,15,4 15,15 15 14,14,14,2 14,14,14 13,13,14,13,13 12,12,12,12 11,3 12,11,11 10,11,10,4 10,10,2 10,10 9,9,9,9,9 9 8,8,8,8,8,8 7 Mortality per 1,000 of population Birth rate per 1,000 of population Source: the Rosstat.
Fig. 1. Birth Rate and Mortality in Russia from 1990 to In 2009 in spite of the economic crisis, the federal budget expenditure on public health went up in the nominal terms by 25% - from Rb231.4 bn to Rb289.5 bn. Expenditure from the RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks budgets of the Subjects of the Russian Federation remained practically untouched: Rb518.7 bn against Rb520.1 bn in 2008. Taking into account contributions to compulsory medical insurance (CMI) made by economically active population, state financing of the health care system went up in 2009 by 5.6% (2.9% in real terms) and reached Rb1, 060 bn. (Fig.2).
100 100 84 81 74 74 Source: calculations according to Rosstat data and the Federal Fund of CMI by using GDP indices-deflators.
Fig. 2. Dynamics of Government Expenditure on Public Health in Real Terms (1991 = 100%) Source: Public opinion-2009. Мoscow: Levada-Center, 2009. p. 66.
Fig. 3. Dynamics of People’s Evaluation of Accessibility of Medical Assistance (according to surveys by Levada-Center) Section Social Sphere In spite of these circumstances, people’s evaluation of the accessibility of high quality medical assistance was less promising (Fig. 3). Obviously, this was due to a reduction in the ability of the population to pay for required medical assistance: the volume of provision of paid medical services to the population declined in real terms (Fig. 4). In reference to the expenditure on medicine and pharmaceutical products, there was no data available regarding volumes of retail sales for the time of this article. According to estimates, they went up in real terms; the economic crisis has solely slowed down growth rates of these expenses. This distinguishes situation from 1998 crisis when both the government expenditure on public health and people’s expenses on pharmaceutical products and medication plummeted.
17,8 19,16,16 13,14 11,10,8,10 7,6,5,5,4,6 3,3,3,2,5,5,1 5,4,2 4,4,3,3,3,3,0 2,2,2 2,1,1,0,1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Expenses of the population on medication and drugs Expenses of the population on paid medical services Source: calculation on Rosstat data; Expenditure of population on medicine and pharmaceutical products in 2009 – estimation on the DSM Group forecast (http://www.dsm.ru/marketnews/1061_24.11.2009) Fig. 4. Expenses of the Population on Drugs and Paid Medical Services in 1994–2009 in 1994 prices.
In 2009 as during three previous years (2006-2008) government policy in the field of public health focused on the implementation of the priority National Project “Health”.
The National Project “Health” At the beginning of 2009 the government took a decision to continue implementation of the National Project “Health” up to 2012. Its financing is provided from the federal budget and from extrabudgetary funds: Federal Fund of Compulsory Medical Insurance and the Fund of Social Insurance. Despite the economic crisis and associated with it significant contraction of government expenditures, outlays for the national project “Health” were not only subjected to reduction but were increased by 20.2% compared with 2008. This goes to prove that the government gave this national project a priority status in its budget policy.
Since 2009 the project was supplemented with measures aimed at formation of healthy way of life, tuberculoses screening of the population, preventive control aimed at improving medical assistance to oncological patients, improving network of perinatal centers, prophylactic medical examination of orphans and children who live in difficult situations and who stay in permanent establishments of the healthcare system, of education system and social security system.
In 2009 the project comprised 4 components:
RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks • Formation of healthy way of life;
• Development of basic medical and sanitary aid and improvement of disease prevention;
• Increase of accessibility and quality of specialized including hi-tech medical assistance;
• Improvement of provision of medical attendance to mothers and children.
In 2009 the national project’s expenditure structure has undergone a series of significant adjustments. Expenses on basic medical and sanitary aid and improvement of disease prevention substantially fell in absolute and relative terms: the share of this component in the overall expenditures of the project decreased from 54.5% to 38.4%. In the first year of the project implementation (2006) this component was a major one: it accounted for 82.6% of the overall expenditure. However, recently the Ministry of Public Health and Social Development invariably placed a priority on the provision of the population with hi-tech medical assistance. The share of expenditure on this component went up from 16.5% in 2006 to 42% in 2009. We should take note of an increase in expenditure on the improvement of medical assistance to mothers and children: the share of these expenses in the project’s budget went up from 11.9% to 17.4%.
In 2010 expenditure on the national project as a whole and on its main components remained at approximately the same level as in the previous year.
Distribution of expenditure across the project’s directions and undertakings in 2006-2010 is presented in Table 1.
Table Expenditure on the Implementation of the Priority National Project “Health”, Rb bn.
Directions of the national project, types of expenditure 2006 2007 2008 and sources of funds (plan) Total expenditure, in % of GDP 0.29 0.42 0.29 0.Overall expenditure, Rb bn.
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