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On the whole, to date attendance of 5-6 year children of the preschool education facilities remains low. This resulted in raising a question in 2004 regarding introduction of preschool education mostly for the children from low income households in order to prepare them for a comprehensive school. This measure would have allowed leveling starting conditions for pupils from different income groups, increasing the quality of instruction in basic schools. In the wake of the global economic crisis this issue has become even more acute.

Comprehensive Education The number of pupils in comprehensive schools continued falling in 2007-2008 (Table 3).

Table Number of Pupils and Teachers in State and Municipal Comprehensive Schools (as of the beginning of the school year, thousands) 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/Number of pupils in comprehensive schools 20493 19843 18850 17729 16561 15559 14727 Of which:

In cities and urban-type settlements 14389 13848 13159 12385 11591 10845 10271 In rural areas 6104 5995 5691 5344 4970 4714 4456 Of which number of pupils:

Day time comprehensive schools 20013 19363 18372 17254 16098 15113 14291 Of which:

In cities and urban-type settlements 13998 13471 12784 12017 11232 10497 9929 RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/ In rural areas 6015 5892 5588 5237 4866 4616 4362 Evening (shift-type) comprehensive schools, 480 480 478 475 463 446 425 including trained by correspondence Of which:

In cities and urban-type settlements 391 377 375 368 359 348 331 In rural areas 89 103 103 107 104 98 94 Number of teachers 1751 1718 1701 1666 1614 1575 1517 Source: the Rosstat, Russia in numbers.

Reduction in the Number of Pupils Has Led to a Fall in the Number of Schools (Table 4).

Table Number of State and Municipal Comprehensive Schools (as of the beginning of the school year, thousands) 2000/01 2001/02 2002/03 2003/04 2004/05 2005/06 2006/07 2007/Number of comprehensive schools 68.1 68.0 66.8 65.5 64.2 62.5 60.3 57.Of which:

In cities and urban-type settlements 22.7 22.8 22.6 22.4 22.2 21.8 21.4 21. In rural areas 45.4 45.2 44.2 43.1 42.0 40.7 38.9 36.Out of the total number of schools:

Daytime comprehensive schools 66.4 66.2 65.0 63.8 62.5 60.8 58.7 55.Of which:

In cities and urban-type settlements 21.3 21.3 21.2 21.1 20.9 20.4 20.1 19. In rural areas 45.1 44.9 43.8 42.7 41.6 40.4 38.6 36. Evening (shift-type) comprehensive schools 1.7 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.Of which:

In cities and urban-type settlements 1.4 1.5 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.3 1. In rural areas 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.Source: the Rosstat, Russia in numbers In spite of different measures aimed at restructuring school network and stopping the number of schools from falling (from 2000/01 through 2007/08 academic year this amount slumped by about 10.8 thousand), number of pupils per a teacher continues falling: by 2007/08 academic year it has already fallen to 9.5:1 (Fig. 1).

Thus, the system of school education remains practically uneconomical by world standards.At the same time, it should be noted that this situation to a great extent is attributed to demographic situation which was going from bat to worse all these years, and to the existing settling system, large distances and low density of roads which are essential for taking pupils to comprehensive schools.

For the period 2000-2008 the number of pupils in state and municipal comprehensive schools went down by about one third. As a result, the number of state and municipal schools significantly decreased together with the number of teachers. At the same time, it should be noted that although the number of pupils for this period went down by 31.7%, the number of state and municipal schools decreased only by 11.8%, and the number of teachers by 16.1%.

In addition to space factor which impedes a faster reduction of school network, we should bear in mind the social factor: in many Russian regions education belongs to a sector with low salaries and high employment level, thereby preventing unemployment growth. With the onset of See, for example, Education in the Countries with Transition Economies: Development Tasks. World Bank Report. Moscow, 2002.

Section Social Sphere the global economic crisis this fact has become more evident. For example, social sectors including the field of education actively exercise this function especially in single-industry cities.

Source: Calculated on the Rosstat data.

Fig. 1. Ratio Pupil: Teacher in Comprehensive Schools (number of pupils per a teacher) Age pattern of teaching staff remains unfavorable. It cannot but give rise to concern because, for example, 36.6% of teachers of 5-11 grades have worked in school for over 20 years.

In basic schools this age group constitutes about 38.4%. Where in 1995, only 54.2% of teachers in basic schools had work record exceeding 10 years, then in 2006 already 84.3%.1 Thus, inflow of young teacher to schools does not develop, teaching personnel is getting older which to a large extent hampers the new pedagogical technologies expansion, as well as promotion of institutional changes in the field of general education. In principle, this alone becomes a certain deterrent in Russias school modernization.2 It should be noted that in highly subsidized regions the level of teachers salaries in comparison with the average salaries and wages across the economy is often greater than in donor regions3 (Fig. 2).

On the whole, teachers salary differentiation across Russian subjects of Federation in constituted 5.3 fold. At that, it went up somewhat in comparison with 2006 when similar indicator constituted 5.0. At the same time, it should be born in mind that cited salary volume is nominal and not adjusted to a coefficient of price rise in the budgetary services across Russian regions.

2006 last year, which has information.

At the same time, there is a point of view that old teachers can teach something and the young teachers do not master teachers profession. One thing is paramount: in any case school continues wasting its staff potential. Its staff renewal does not take place.

PNPO has changed this situation for the better. However, the global economic crisis most likely will lead to resumption of the trend.

RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks Source: Education in the Russian Federation. ., SU-HSE, 2007.

Fig. 2. Salary in the Field of Education in Comparison with Salary in the Economy of Some Regions in 2006, in % A complex project of education modernization has been implemented in the regions starting with 2007. There the new system of labor remuneration has been introduced and the salaries of teachers went up significantly (Fig. 3).

Source: Data of IRO SU-HSE.

Fig. 3. Correlation Between the Average Monthly Salary of Teachers and the Subsistence Wage of Able-Bodied Persons and Per Capita Money Income, Thousand Rbles Section Social Sphere At the same time, the global economic crisis has put a question mark over the achievements in this field due to the fact that the regional budgets revenues have significantly dropped which led to a reduction in budget allocations including on education in a number of subjects of the Russian Federation which has been implementing a complex project of education modernization.

According to the Rosstat data, in January-September 2009 the level of average payable monthly salary in the field of education constituted 79% of its level in processing industry (January-September 2008 68%).

Basic Vocational Education Table Institutions of Basic Vocational Education Number of instituNumber of students*, Students entered*, Graduates, skilled tions (as of the end of thousands thousands labor*, thousands the school year) All institutions of basic vocational education (BVE) 2000 3893 1679 845 2001 3872 1649 837 2002 3843 1651 842 2003 3798 1649 823 2004 3686 1604 783 2005 3392 1509 688 2006 3207 1413 630 2007 3169 1253 586 Of which:

Daytime education 2743 1169 480 Of which:

Departments on the basis of main general edu2515 906 294 cation Departments on the basis of secondary (senior) 1909 157 124 general education Groups where young people do not get secon1483 106 62 dary (senior) general education diploma Evening (shift-type) and other institutions 426 84 106 * In educational institutions of basic, secondary and higher vocational education which implement a program of basic vocational education Source: the Rosstat.

In 20002007 the number of students in educational institutions of basic vocational education (BVE) went down (Table 6).

Table Number of Students in Educational Institutions of Basic Vocational Education 2000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 Number of student in basic vocational education system*, thousands 1679 1651 1649 1604 1509 1413 Number of student in basic vocational education system * per 10,000 persons 115 114 114 112 106 99 * Since 2005 including students of educational institutions of secondary and higher vocational education which implement programs of basic vocational education.

Source: the Rosstat.

RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks The basic vocational education has been recently viewed as one of the most problem-ridden fields of the national education system. Meanwhile, prior to the onset of the global economic crisis, demand for skilled labor grew consistently despite the fact that in the employment structure the share of skilled labor went up. Correspondingly the share of jobless BVE graduates of the daytime form of education in the overall number of graduates decreased. At the same time, against the background of the falling share of unemployed BVE graduates, on the whole, in the Russian Federation even prior to the onset of the crisis, this indicator marker an upward trend in a number of RF Subjects. First of all, it was linked with the difficult economic situation in such region as: the Republic of Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, the Kalmyk Republic, North Ossetia, the Tuva Republic, and the Altai Republic.

Prior to the onset of the global economic crisis, large businesses gradually began to incorporate BVE educational institutions into their structures, invest large sums of money into skilled labor training. However, this type of policy could not be implemented by medium- and smallsize business, which did not dispose of sufficient resources allocated for that purpose. At the same time, in the pre-crisis period the share of education in the consolidated budget allocated on the BVE system development was falling.

Secondary Vocational Education In 2008 according to the Rosstat data, the number of independent, state and municipal institutions of secondary vocational education was going down (Table 7). At the same time, the number of branches of the institutions of secondary vocational education went up by 25 points (by 5.9%) and constituted 449.

Table Institutions of Secondary Vocational Education (as of the beginning of the school year) Of which attended departments Number of edu- Number of stuNumber of students Daytime--by Years cational institu- dents total, By corre- External studper 10,Daytime correspondence tions thousands spondence ies (evening) All Institutions of Secondary Vocational Education 2000/01 2703 2360.8 1721.5 93.4 540.1 5.8 2001/02 2684 2470.2 1788.6 93.4 581.7 6.5 2002/03 2816 2585.5 1855.1 95.7 625.9 8.8 2003/04 2809 2612.1 1903.0 86.9 614.0 8.2 2004/05 2805 2599.6 1933.3 81.1 575.8 9.4 2005/06 2905 2590.7 1960.3 70.7 549.4 10.3 2006/07 2847 2514.0 1911.0 64.4 527.3 11.4 2007/08 2799 2408.2 1822.7 59.4 511.4 14.7 State and Municipal Institutions of Secondary Vocational Education 2000/01 2589 2308.6 1697.6 86.9 519.2 4.9 2001/02 2595 2409.8 1757.1 88.2 559.1 5.4 2002/03 2626 2488.5 1807.5 84.6 589.4 7.0 2003/04 2627 2501.6 1842.5 81.4 570.7 7.0 2004/05 2637 2503.6 1878.4 75.8 541.4 8.0 2005/06 2688 2473.0 1887.5 66.8 510.3 8.4 2006/07 2631 2388.9 1836.0 60.4 482.8 9.7 2007/08 2566 2288.5 1749.2 55.1 472.4 11.8 Non-State Institutions of Secondary Vocational Education 2000/01 114 52.2 23.9 6.5 20.9 0.9 2001/02 89 60.4 31.5 5.2 22.6 1.1 2002/03 190 97.0 47.6 11.1 36.5 1.8 Section Social Sphere Of which attended departments Number of edu- Number of stuNumber of students Daytime--by Years cational institu- dents total, By corre- External studper 10,Daytime correspondence tions thousands spondence ies (evening) 2003/04 182 110.5 60.5 5.5 43.3 1.2 2004/05 168 96.0 54.9 5.3 34.4 1.4 2005/06 217 117.7 72.8 3.9 39.1 1.9 2006/07 216 125.2 75.0 4.0 44.5 1.7 2007/08 233 119.7 73.5 4.3 39.0 2.9 Source: the Rosstat.

In 2008 admission in the state and municipal institutions of secondary vocational education (SVE) decreased by 60.3 thousands or by 8.3% in comparison with 2007. As many as 190.thousand first year students admitted in vocational technical schools under the condition of complete compensation for tuition costs or 28.4% of the total number of admitted (in there were 238.1 thousand or 32.6%, in 2006ther were 260.8 thousand or 34.5%) It should be noted that at present the secondary school (11 years) leavers have found it rather difficult to make their choice in favor of BE or SVE institutions regardless of the region they reside in (Table 8).

Table Educational Preferences of Senior Students and their Parents Depending on the Region of Residence Source: ISEPN research (author .. vramova).

As can be seen from the Table, for those who finish 11 years of school education and for their relatives the choice in favor of BVE is around 1%, for educational institutions of SVE around 10%. The fact that in the city of Ivanovo which is the center of highly subsidized region more school leavers choose higher education as a priority then even the Moscow school leavers draws much attention. One may assume that it is connected with the families aspiration to provide their children with a possibility to get out of a negative economic situation by means of obtaining higher education.

Right up to 2009 the number of unemployed graduates of the daytime form of SVE was decreasing in Russia. At the same time, we can name okrugs where thee was an upward trend:

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