There was started a review of instruments and measures, which showed that many elements of the innovation system are in place, but communication is not developed, and there are significant gaps between various components. In general, it became obvious that the innovative system is ineffective in each of its components. Therefore, a trend to the use of existing mechanisms after appropriate adjustments is correct, but it cannot be attributed to the rapid response measures.
As a result, there did not appear such trends of scientific policy, which could be interpreted as a anti-crisis ones. Measure of the pre-crisis period were continued. Among the main directions of the government the following ones should be highlighted: support of science in universities, assignment of "status" to organizations and joint structures (federal universities, former industrial associations of industrial and academic research institutes, facilitation of obtaining the status of the State Scientific Center);
• HR policy: measures to attract the Russian scientific diaspora in keeping young people in science;
• support to innovation small business and development of the relevant infrastructure;
• Improvement of tax incentive measures for R & D.
Before the estimation of the effectiveness of the measures imposed, it is important to consider, what was the economic crisis impact on the overall situation in the field of science and technological innovation.
4. 4. 2. Crisis Impact on t he St at e of Research and Development The impact of crisis in the sphere of science and innovation was evident in the first place in the reduction of private sector spending for research and development and reduction of the number of employees in R & D departments of companies. By the end of December 2008, ex Policy Responses to the Economic Crisis to Restore Long-Term Growth: Results of the OECD Questionnaire.
OECD: DSTI/IND/STP/ICCP(2009)1/ADD. February 20. 2009.
Section Social Sphere penses of private companies to implement innovative projects declined by nearly 80% since the beginning of the crisis, business angels – by 50%, venture capital funds - by 40%1.
For projects performed in the framework of the Federal Target Program "Research and development on priority trends of scientific-technological complex of Russia in 2007-2012”, the companies began to violate their financial liabilities, what has led to the termination of some contracts that were carried out in cooperation with academic institutions (universities). According to the Ministry of Education and Science, in 2009 commitments to extrabudgetary funding of R & D projects in the framework of the federal program were implemented by 6070%2.
It is indicative, that the reduction in their own R & D departments in companies has not led to more active cooperation of companies with public scientific organizations. In the crisis situation, when optimization of resources spending is required, the existing problems of interaction become more acute. Companies generally negatively assess their experience with public sector scientific organizations3. The arguments against cooperation is weak human resource capacity of research institutes and universities, the virtual absence of scientists of the most productive working age (35-50 years), the slow rates of performing orders for research and development.
The problem in many cases is unclear allocation of intellectual property rights, as well as the quality and the form of results. As a result, when the need arises in outsourcing, the companies prefer to deal with individual professionals, rather than organizations.
In general, according to the estimates of Russian Science Agency (Rosnauki), by September 2009 the share of innovation-active enterprises has decreased by 1 / 3 as compared to 2005, and the number of small innovative companies has decreased by half.4 Many small firms were working on the principle of outsourcing, performing R&D works for large and medium-size companies. The latter in response to the crisis considerably reduced the volume of R & D orders. In turn, banks have stopped lending to small high-tech companies, as the least stable in their development. All this has created a serious threat of losing a “critical mass” of small innovative enterprises.
As a second feature of the crisis one can consider changes in the staffing situation, characterized by sharply increased outflow from science, among both, researchers and other categories of employees. If in 2006-2007 the outflow of personnel from the science was rather insignificant (0.7% per year), and the number of researchers even increased from time to time (for example, in 2006 compared with 2005, the growth amounted to 1.7% of researchers), then in 2008, as compared with the previous year, the number of researchers has decreased by 4.2%, while the total number of employees engaged in research and development reduced by 5%.
Therefore, there was no temporary overflow of personnel to the sector research and development, as it was during the 1998-1999 crisis. Herewith, this sharp decline in the number of employees in R & D can not be explained by the reduction of funding for science, since these National Association of Innovations and Development of Information Technology Assessment (NAIRU). Source: In the hope of government support // Expert, Siberia. December 22, 2008. http://inno.ru/press/news/document33157/ We are doing everything possible. http://strf.ru/material.aspxd_no=19500&CatalogId=221&print=1 April 29, 2009.
Based on the results of interviews conducted by the author of this section in June - July 2009 in a number of high-tech companies of Moscow.
From the report of I. Bilenkina, Deputy Head of Federal Agency for Science and Innovation, presented at the X-th Russian Venture Fair. Moscow, September 24, 2009. Estimated data: Science, Technology and Innovation of Russia: 2009. Short publication. M.: INRA Sciences, 2009. P. 12-13.
RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks processes started in 2009 and will grow in 2010. Most likely, the current HR situation is the result of the low efficiency of government scientific policy.
The third sign of the crisis was the reduction of the public budget funding for research and development. The share of budgetary R & D expenditure in 2009 amounted to an average of 30%, varying depending on the agency, specific program and activities performed within the programs. In 2010, it is planned to reduce the costs further - at 7.5 billion rubles, as compared with 2009, when the reduction in funding for basic research amounted to 3 billion rubles, for applied research - by 4.5 billion rubles; financing of the RAS and its regional branches was decreased by to 5.6 billion rubles.Reductions will be uneven - funding priorities will be grants and awards to young scientists (presidential and government ones) and grants for the support of leading scientific schools.
However, the number of such grants will be reduced (with some increase in their amount). In terms of expenditure the Ministry of Finance of Russia has decided not sequester the so-called norms of costs for wages. Therefore, the level funding for wages, scholarships and allowances for the ranks of full members and corresponding members of the state academies of sciences will be maintained. In this regard, for example, in the RAS other cost items decreased by 4050%,2 including expenses for utilities, maintenance of equipment, purchase of consumables.
The new positions will be suspended.
Financial support of a number of federal targeted programs will be also significantly reduced. In the first turn, the Federal Program "Research and development on priority directions of scientific-technological complex of Russia for 2007-2012" and the Federal Program "Development of infrastructure of the nanotechnology industry in 2008-2010”. There will be no new tenders for this programs in 2010, and funding will be provided only for the concluded contracts.Herewith, in 2009 the cost of some contracts have already been reduced by 10-15%, while maintaining the originally approved scope of works. However, funding for the Federal Program "Scientific and scientific-pedagogical staff for innovation Russia for 2009-2013" remains at the planned level. Under this program, financing is provided, in particular, for the scientific and educational centers, collaborative projects with domestic scientists, and various academic events and conferences. Financing for public research funds will be reduced by at least 10%. In this regard, for example, Russian Public Research Fund already faced with significantly increased competition for projects. It reached the level of 1:10, while in the previous 15 years it did not exceed 1:54.
Therefore, the reaction to the crisis was the reduction of the national budget financing, with its simultaneous redistribution in favor of certain items (directions). Priority was conservative support of personnel, including scientific schools, and the reduction of those programs, in the framework of which research on priority areas of science and technology are financed.
The next is the less. Research budget will be reduced / / Poisk. No. 1-2, January 15, 2010, P. 3.
For one salary. RAS budget funds for research are getting less / / Poisk. No. 5. January 29, 2010, P. 3.
Congratulations with the new grant! What does Rosnauka offer to the scientists in the coming year / / Poisk.
N0. 3-4. January 22, 2010, p. 4.
From distress to inspiration// Poisk.No. 48. November 27, 2009. P. 4.
Section Social Sphere 4. 4. 3. Measures t o Support t he Best Universit ies and Organizat ions t hat Perform Research and Development Works:
"Progressive Inequalit y" Development In 2009, one of the main priorities was to support university research, in particular, by giving special status (rank) to the selected universities. There appeared so many statuses, that no one can immediately tell the differences between them. At the present time, there are federal, national research universities, there are also universities - participants of innovative educational programs and, finally, Moscow and St. Petersburg State University (MSU and SPSU), which in 2009 there was established the status of "unique scientific and educational complexes"1.
MSU and SPSU (along with the N.E. Bauman MSTU) can now set up their own educational standards and requirements for the educational programs, implemented by themselves.In fact, the selection of the best universities began in 2006 when the Government has initiated an innovative educational program (IEP) in the framework of the national project "Education". As a result of the tender, there were selected 57 high schools, which within two years received a substantial budget financing. The aim was to increase support to the high-quality educational and research activities through the purchase of new equipment, staff development, development of new training materials and manuals. This was the first major experience of universities’ training in project management, selection of development priorities, as well as the skills of procurement in cases of force majeure, because the budgetary funds were late and time was short for the correct execution of all formal procedures. IEP can be regarded as a first step in the policy of raising the status of higher education institutions – in public opinion, universities, which won the tender, are considered the strongest one in the country.
Then, in 2006 there was formed two federal universities - Siberian Federal and South Federal (SFU and YuFU). They were created by joining several different-profile schools, thus becoming the largest in the country. The federal universities have regional relevance: according to official documents of the universities, they were created to improve the competitiveness of leading industries in the regions. Giving the status of "federal" is accompanied by a significant budgetary financing, which can be spent for certain (but not all) issues. Herewith, Southern Federal University identifies itself also as "research university", which is essentially true. The federal universities, in contrast to the objectives outlined in the IEP, should pay considerable attention to the development of science and its integration with education, in particular, by inviting foreign teachers and researchers, increasing the share of undergraduate and graduate students from abroad and other activities. For all these trends there approved target indicators for universities towards which they should aspire to. Since the initiative to give a "federal" status actually involves the creation of entirely new organizations, this status is permanent.
Moreover, in early 2010, federal universities moved to the new organizational and legal form of an autonomous institution.3 For them, a transitional three-year period is established, during which the government will provide support to the universities in various forms, including the Federal Law No.259-FZ of November 10, 2009 "On the Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov and University and St. Petersburg State University”.
The list of federal government educational institutions of higher professional education, self-setting educational standards and requirements for ongoing educational programs of higher professional education. Presidential Decree No.732 of July 1, 2009.
Regulation of the RF Government Prime Minister, dated January 16, 2010 No. 12-p.
http://government.ru/gov/results/9056/ RUSSIAN ECONOMY IN trends and outlooks possible provision of the equalization grant, which will cover the funding gap the state targeted financing.
A completely different picture is typical for the research universities - the third initiative, which is started in pilot mode in late 2008. In 2009 a tender was announced, and 12 schools were selected, which received this status.Many of these schools have previously been involved in the IEP and the experience of crisis management was not in vain: the results of the tender for research universities were assessed at the beginning of October, and the allocated to the universities annual amount of funding was to be spent by 15 December. Research universities will be supported from the budget within years, and they have to implement their development programs by 2018. Herewith funding from the budget is rather significant - thanks to it, the budgets of universities actually doubled.
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