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tranche 5 6,52% 6,71% 6,52% 5,87% 5,7% tranche 6 4,91% 4,92% 4,78% 4,25% 4,0% tranche 7 7,31% 7,68% 7,63% 6,90% 6,7% tranche 8 5,41% 5,49% 5,33% 4,87% 4,5% Yield to maturity Eurobonds at the end of month ( % per year ):

2005 3,35% 3,39% 3,45% 3,92% 4,7% 2007 5,07% 5,28% 5,71% 5,30% 5,5% 2010 6,36% 6,52% 7,94% 6,76% 6,8% 2018 7,81% 7,87% 8,02% 7,60% 7,6% USD/EURO 01.09.01.10.31.10.30.11.30.12.29.01.28.02.29.03.28.04.28.05.27.06.27.07.26.08.25.09.Month May June July August Sep.

2028 8,22% 8,29% 8,53% 8,22% 8,0% 2030 8,00% 8,09% 8,08% 7,23% 7,1% -MIACR overnight rate (% per year at month 21,18% 11,38% 4,96% 9,86% 6,0% end ).

Official USD/RUR exchange rate at month end 28,9850 29,0274 29,1019 29,2447 29,(ruble /US dollar).

Official EUR/RUR exchange rate at month end 35,6052 35,2915 35,0532 35,1463 35,(ruble /Euro).

Monthly increase in official USD/RUR exchange 0,35% 0,15% 0,26% 0,49% -0,09% rate (%).

Monthly increase in official EUR/RUR exchange 4,28% -0,88% -0,68% 0,27% 2,40% rate (%).

Monthly market turnover of the RTS (ml US dol- 419,36 482,07 368,25 277,15 lars, by shares included into the list of the RTS index calculation ).

RTS-1 index value at month end. 581,47 584,63 540,27 584,65 Monthly changes in the RTS-1 index (%). -8,37% 0,54% -7,59% 8,21% 8,6% Estimation D. Polevoi The state of the market of non-state pensions This year, the pension reform, which has started a few years earlier, enters a new stage: the system of mandatory pension insurance is complemented with non-state pension funds (NSPF). Seventy seven of such funds have been already registered in accordance with the legislation currently in force and started the campaign aimed at the attraction of participants wishing to invest their pension savings in NSPF. This campaign should be completed on October 1. According to the preliminary data, it is expected that this year the activity of the population, as concerns the transfer of pension savings in NSPF, would be even lower than in 2003, when 700 thousand persons submitted applications about the choice of investment portfolios offered by private management companies. Nevertheless, in the future it may be expected that a significant part of the employed population may become clients of NSPF investing their mandatory pension insurance funds in these organizations. In this connection, the present state of the market of NSPF services should be analyzed in more detail.

The present number of NSPF is close to 300 (after this number declined to 257 in 2001 in 2001 due to the cancellation of more than 50 licenses, since 2002 this number has been increasing).

The number of NSPF participants makes 5.6 million persons (8 per cent of the total number of employed), not less than 0.5 million of which receive payments from the funds.

Both employees and employers are eligible to make contributions to NSPF. Accordingly, by this criterion NSPF are classified as so called - corporate funds, where principle contributors are employing enterprises (in this category there are also certain branch funds, for instance those pertaining to electrical power engineering or railroads);

- regional, where principal contributors are local administrations;

- open funds, which are oriented towards retail businesses and where contributors are primarily individuals.

There are relatively few funds oriented towards operations with individuals. Judging by the amount of contributions registered in the first six months of 2004, three fourths or more of the total amount of contributions were made by individuals in only 51 funds. At the same time, on the average the sizes of these funds are 4 times less than funds oriented towards operations with legal entities.

Non-state pension funds offer both schemes based on the principle of fixed payments, and fixed contributions. The state regulation in this sphere is primarily oriented towards the system of fixed payments. Thus, a mandatory condition of implementation of a funds pension scheme is that the insured person receives a pension not less than 0.5 of the minimal state old age pension granted in the case the total registered length of service of such a person is equal to the respective number of years required for granting of the full pension set by the legislation of the Russian Federation at the moment the pension agreement is made.

At present, the average amount of the pension paid by NSPF makes 37 per cent of the average state labor pensions paid in the end of 2003. However, in the case it is taken into account that in fact payments were made by less than 200 funds, in 2003 the average amount of payments per one beneficiary made about Rub. 1277 per month, what makes 78 per cent of the average state pension.

By the end of 2003, the aggregate amount of pension reserves of non-state pension funds made Rub.

91.7 billion (US $ 3 million). As it is shown in Fig. 1, pension reserves have rapidly increased over several years and over 4 years (in 2000 through 2003) their amount in US $ terms grew almost times. However, this value remains insignificant in comparison with GDP (less than 1 per cent).

The average amount of pension reserves of a fund made Rub. 349 million (less than US $ 12 million) by the end of 2003. In these terms, funds differ from zero to Rub. 45 billion.

Given the small amount of financial reserves at the disposal of the average NSPF, the structure of the branch market is characterized by a very high level of concentration. As in the end of 2003, the share of the largest NSPF made about the half of the total amount of pension reserves. The next four funds make 19 per cent of the total amount, therefore, 5 largest NSPF concentrated about 70 per cent of voluntary pension contributions. At the same time, the largest NSPF in terms of pension reserves (Gazfond) was five times above the respective indicator of the second largest fund. All five leading NSPF are in the category of corporate funds.

US $ mil.

% 3,5 0,1 3 0,2,5 0,2 0,1,5 0,1 0,0,5 0,0 1999 2000 2001 2002 1 Pension reserves as at the end of the year (left axis) 2 Pension reserves in per cent of GDP (right axis) Fig. 1. Pension reserves of NSPF.

Sources: Inspection of Non-State Pension Funds, the Federal Service of State Statistics.

The geographical structure of the market is also characterized by a high level of concentration, what is typical for the Russian financial market. Almost half of all funds, which presented their accounting data for year 2003 in the Inspection of NSPF was registered in Moscow. At the same time, the share of Moscow based funds made more than 80 per cent of the total amount of pension reserves. The picture will remain similar in the case the Gazfond is not taken into account: the share of the funds based in the capital remains very high (more than 70 per cent). At the same time, the branch network of NSPF is underdeveloped. In the case the NSPF of Sberbank, which may use the branch network of is parent bank for promotion of its products, is not taken into account, the NSPF Elektroenergetiki (19 offices) and Blagosostoyaniye (18 offices) are among the leaders.

Besides, in order to assess the real position of non-state pension funds on financial markets, it is necessary to take into account the fact that a significant share of financial resources at their disposal are not pension reserves, but constitute the property designated for carrying out of authorized activities of the funds. This indicator may be most correctly defined as capital. The funds receive these means from their founders. However, according to the legislation, founders should have no ownership rights as concerns these means, since these rights belong to NSPF.On the average, the indicator of property designated for carrying out of authorized activities makes 25 per cent across funds, and 36 per cent without the NSPF Gazfond. These means should be invested separately from the pension reserves and do not depend on respective restrictions.

By the end of 2003, investment of NSPF made Rub. 116.5 billion (US $ 4 billion). On the average, this indicator makes Rub. 453 million (US $ 15.4 million) per fund. According to this criterion, funds vary from zero to Rub. 47 billion. Similarly to the amount of pension reserves, Gazfond was the leader in terms of invested financial resources, however, the gap between the first and second places in terms of this indicator was significantly more narrow than in terms of pension reserves: the share of the leader of the market made 40.6 per cent, while the share of the second fund made 18 per cent; at the same time the share of 5 largest funds in terms of investment made 72.3 per cent. All top five of NSPF are classified as corporate funds, while the level of concentration in terms of the amount of investment is close to the level of concentration in the case of pension reserves.

It has proved impossible to single out and evaluate the assets, where there were invested pension reserves per se; therefore, above are presented the data characterizing the total amount of NSPF investment. The increase in the means invested by NSPF in the few last years occurred at a very high rate, however, only in the last 2 years they outpaced the rates of growth in pension reserves (see Fig. 2).

According to the data presented by the Inspection of NSPF as in the middle of 2003, the investment in shares made 52 per cent, government bonds (Federal and subfederal) made 9 per cent, bank deposits made 15 per cent, promissory notes made 15 per cent, real estate made 1 per cent, and other investments made 8 per cent.

% Pension reserves Investment 2000 2001 2002 Fig. 2. Growth in pension reserves and investments of NSPF (in US $ terms) Source: Inspection of Non-State Pension Funds.

L. I. Sychova, L. V. Mikhailov, O. S. Tochikina The same is true as concerns pension reserves. In accordance to the legislation, they are own property of NSPF.

Foreign investment in the Russia's economy In the first six months of 2004, the foreign investment in Russian economy increased in comparison with the figures registered in the respective period of the preceding year by 49.9 per cent and made about US $ 19 billion. As on July 1, 2004, the accumulated amount of foreign investment in Russia, including investment from CIS member countries were at US $ 66.1 billion.

Dynamics of the amount of foreign investment in the Russian economy (without monetary regulation and banking sector) 20000 0 Received amount Accumulated amount (by the end of the period) Source: Federal Service of State Statistics.

In spite of the growth in foreign investment in the Russian economy, in the first six months of this year, an amount exceeding 52 per cent of received foreign investment was withdrawn as transferred abroad earnings of foreign investors, payments pertaining to the interest on credits, and repayment of credits (as compared with 57.3 per cent registered in the first six months of 2003). The most significant outflow of capital, similarly to preceding years, was observed in the 1st quarter.

Table Foreign investment in the Russian economy in 2001 through 2004.

Foreign invest- Foreign invest- Accumulated by Ratio between the received ment, received ment, withdrawn the end of the period and withdrawn investment Q 1, 2001 2718 2830 31893 104,1% Q 2, 2001 3966 2020 33839 50,9% Q 3, 2001 3037 2060 34816 67,8% Q 4, 2001 4537 3729 35624 82,2% Q 1, 2002 3789 4977 34436 131,4% Q 2, 2002 4579 865 38150 18,9% Q 3, 2002 4537 2885 39802 63,6% Q 4, 2002 6875 3749 42928 54,5% Q 1, 2003 6268 6165 43031 98,4% Q 2, 2003 6394 1084 48341 17,0% Q 3, 2003 8237 2983 53595 36,2% Q 4, 2003 8800 5381 57014 61,1% Q 1, 2004 6171 6121 57064 99,2% Q 2, 2004 12812 3781 66095 29,5% Source: Federal Service of State Statistics.

The increase in the amount of withdrawn capital is a direct consequence of the growth in the amounts of other investments subject to repayment. Over the last few years, other investment have made the largest share of investment.

Receipts (US $ million) Accumulation (US $ million) 1998 .

1998 .

1999 .

1999 .

2000 .

2000 .

2001 .

2001 .

2002 .

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2004 .

1st half year 2nd half year 1st half year 2nd half year 1st half year 2nd half year 1st half year 2nd half year 1st half year 2nd half year 1st half year 2nd half year 1st half year Structure of foreign investment in the Russian economy in 2001 through Structure of foreign investment in the Russian economy in 2001 through 90% 6% 80% 5% 70% 60% 4% 50% 3% 40% 30% 2% 20% 1% 10% 0% 0% Direct investment Other investment Portfolio investment Source: Federal Service of State Statistics.

By the end of the six months of 2004, the structure of foreign capital invested in the Russian economy has changed. In spite of the growth in the absolute values of all components, the lower rates of growth in direct investments in comparison with the respective indicator of aggregate foreign investment resulted in the fact that the share of other investment in the total amount of investment registered in the first six months of 2004 made 81.3 per cent (first six months of 2003 79.7 per cent), while the share of direct investment declined and made 18 per cent (20 per cent in the first six months of 2003).

Table Structure of foreign investment in the Russian economy in the first six months of 2001 through 2004.

US $ mil. In % of the figures registered in the preceding year Total Direct Portfolio Other Total Direct Portfolio Other 2001 6684 2509 238 3937 39,9 40,5 3,7 33,2002 8368 1872 199 6297 25,2 -25,4 -16,4 59,2003 12662 2533 38 10091 51,3 35,3 -80,9 60,2004 18983 3427 129 15427 49,9 35,3 3,4 52,Source: Federal Service of State Statistics.

The high level of oil prices facilitated the attraction of investment in fuel industry, what resulted in an increase in the share of industry in the branch structure of foreign investment by 1.6 times.

Table The branch structure of foreign investment in industry in the Russian economy in the first six months of 2001 through 2004.

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