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e EPE P P pee e epe paccope aoo pacopa, ocaoc a exaax poxoe oo epe epay.

ooeca epaa coep oe aa, pecae coo opoeoe oec coo cpyyp. B yx aaax (ape 3,1x5,1, ae 4,5x4,5 ) ooo oopoe ee oo, oope oy aoecoa py c pyo c oeyp pya aaa. p ocye oa aa pocxo aeee oey o pao ooo oa a ope py ooc aaa. eee cooo ep oa p epa c o oecpyec epe eo aoec c op pya aaa. B peyae oa ep oa caec, o oeae eo poxoee epe aa. Hae opx py, a ae cpoax aox epo aae po a ce x yoocx aoec c oo ce epeecoo apepa epexoa oa pacopa aa. ye ceo poxo epe aa o, oope poo cac epocaec ca c ao epo. Hapep, c eo opae ao epo oee poo oce oep pao ooo ye cac e o paepy ao Na+ o cpae c aoo +. B o e pe payc papoaoo oa Na+ oe, e +, e oep pao ooo o Na+ xye poxo epe ooceo poe op epae. Hae aae cpoax aox epo, pax ao, oeae x poxoee epe aa, ca ep oa. Ha pc. 15.1 15.2 pee epeece po Na+ + aao. Copoc poee Na+ Pc. 15.1. epeec Pc. 15.2. epeec po apeoo aaa po aeoo aaa oyx epa oyx epa 148 aaa ocae 107 oo/c. epe Na+ aa oy poxo pae opaece ao paepo e oe 3x5. B aece aooo epa oy cya ao copoa py COO. aee aa e pooe yce (> 8 ) co copo oa, oopoe oe opoac epaaoe.

oo epe aa oaae xapaep ocoeoc. Ho ooceo oo aepaec ao oeao e. o a, o opo o e oe oac ay oeay y -a epocaecoo aoec (oaa) c ye axoc a oo. epeco ey a coepac o ece eox yya. poeoe eee epecoe oe ee ep oa e ca e a epooc epecoa. Bxo aaa oa, caoo ao epo, oeaec p oe a xoe aaa pyoo oa cece x o-ooo epocaecoo oaa. poooc aaa ac o oo, acoo aoe yac "xoa" "xoa" aaa, cae o. p cox oepax epoa oa yaca ca oy aoe oa, o pee opoe aaa ace eo poooc. co, o eee ca ac aae ee epeec po aaa cece yoocx aoec. Oao oopaoe epecpo ea, oppyeo o aa, oy ae e coy epeecoo apepa peyae epeopea opx py.

epeoc oa epe epay ocyecec ae c oo pacopa ooopo (epeoco). Hooop oy opaoa oec c oo o oppoa op epae, aoee oo (aa). aooepoc x poecco ye a cox x epaax. ep oeca o-epeoc aeo e ep epapoaoo oa. oec ooopa c oo opayec a oo copoe epa, a ae epeeaec a pyy, e pocxo ocooee oa opaee ooopa. T o epeoco ec ao, oop pacoppye +. ao a xo o ype ooc aoa, pe opaoaac cpyypa capyec a ce aoec oa c 6 8 op pya CO (pc.

15.3), oope ae pay oooy oa. Ho Na+, oaa e payco, e coco eo aoecoa c copoa apox py. Moeya, aoa epeoc epe M = 104 oo/c. pyo epeoc ep opaye c oa oec, oopx oeya axoc cepyo oopa. Hep oe epeoc o H+, c cao coo. O ypye M ooecx epaax oe H+ a +.

Moeya ooopa oe opaoa oec, e oy opy. Be ac oey ope pooa, a yp aaa opae xopoo opyee py. Haoee ece a aaoopay ooop pa. Moeya paa A, coppoaa aa poo aocoa, axoc epae, copaaec cpaey cpyypy. Oa pecae coo o p o ooo 30 aepo op ooo 5 8. o aoy aay oe epeocc ooo 107 108 oo/c. p xoe oa pao aa pocxo acoe aeee o pao ooo a apoe py, opaee yp op.

oe aa oaa xapaep yya poooc cece x opa apa, o oae aay poooc o pacopa c yace epeoco. Aa x yya ooe oe cpeee pe aaa opo coco poooc oooo aaa. Oeo, o p coxaceco xapaepe opa apa aaa aee eo poooc (g) oeec ooo eoopoo cpeeo ae ( g ) co cpe apa ooee, cepce 82 = < ( g g )2 >.

Hao, o poooc (g) aaa aoo oa poopoaa eo poaeoc P oepa C Pc. 15.3. Xecoe cpoee oey aoa g ~ PC. ooopa Cacec aa yo poecco opa apa aao oaae, o cpeee aee poooc epa cao c poooc (h ) ee oooo aaa poc coooee 82 = h g.

Oca oo opee aee h oooo aaa 9 pe aaa opo coco, oopoe oe appoa o cey o cey.

Cce aoo pacopa oecea epeoc oo po paea epoxecoo oeaa coy oo ep eaoa (AT, copee oceo occaoee poecc). A pacop epx eax ocyecec Na, ATao, oaoao aaecx epaax. p ec Na, ATa coco o, o a ce ocooaec p poe AT ep e pocxo oopaoe ee, oope copooac epeoco oo Na e o eeoy cpey oopeeo + opao apae. Ha pc. 15.4 opaea cxea yopoa Na, ATa, cocoe yx oex cye (ao oo). Ha ypee copoe epa pcyc Na Mg AT pocxo ocoppoae ea opaoae oeca NaE ~P, oopo eo epea E axoc oopaoo apeo coco, epexo eo a e copoy epa. ae eocoppoae ea a ee copoe epa ee cpoco epea oa Na+ +. Teep o + ye cac c eo, o xo o e cpey, a epe epexo ooe oopaooe cocoe (KE ), e y eo cooe cpoco +. ae oec E ppye o ype cpey, e oeec +, a epe opaaec cxooe cocoe E, eep o o cyae pepae.

= Ca ocoppoa oec E P cae p oa Na+, a coco E a oa +. Ta opao, ep AT pac a coae aoo oopaooo apeoo coco= oeca Na E ~P, e cpoco Na+ oaec, a opacae cpoco +. aea o coco 3 Na+ a 2 + cae apee. Ta opao, a ce ep AT pocxo yopoeoe eee cpoca o cax epo epea aoa.

Ceee epae cye, ecyx o, ocyecec Pc. 15.4. Cxea yopoa , Na ATa peyae eox oea. Bcaaec peooee, o o caa ea epea coep oopaoy cepy c 12 aoa copoa. eco, o 4 aoa copoa oy opaoa Na+ ceecy ey, a 6 aoo copoa + ceecy ey. epepypoa x 12 aoo copoa coco, e cac 3 Na+, 4 aoa copoa K 3 oa Na+, cocoe, e ca 2 +, 6 aoo copoa K 2 oa +, peye oopaoo epecpo ea cooeceo ep AT.

K Na ATaa paoae epoeo pee, a a oe oo Na a 2 oa + coae ooey paoc oeao a epae.

B epaax cyecye ae Ca2+ aca ATaa, ea p ocoeoce, cxox c Na, ATao. Ee pao ae ae cae Ca2+ AT c opaoae oopaoo eycooo coco, oopo eec cpoco ea c oo Ca a ce ep apopeco ocao c. a cyae Na, ATa, eee cpoca ec oycoeo, o oy, eee pacooe opx py, cax Ca2+ oopaoo cepe epa epea.

A pacop H+ oe poxo o H+ aaa H+ ATa, o oop o epeocc aoy epy, e ocyecec ce po AT.

Mexa caoo epeoca H+ o oa ece. peoaaec caea epeaa pooo o ccee oopox ce, oopa copooaec a ceee oopo aeopx py.

Cpyypa epeecx apepo, opeea copoc apaee epeoca H+ H+ aae, ac o eo oopaooo coco. Cooeceo oa epeecoo po oa aae oo ocyec a ce ep AT, aa cea (H+ aa aepopooce), oceo occaoex pea.




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