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e 9. P E P E acoc yoax coc eo o x oopaooo coco ao eca ox. Oao ocaec ec, o e ax c exao eec o cocoe ay po oo pae oecee x aoc. B copeeo oeypo oe epaoe eco aae poea exaa yoao po ypoeypo ooc ooepo, pee ceo eo.

Peee o poe peycapae oyee oecex xapaepc ooc oex ace aox py coocaee x c yoa cocoe oey ea p pax ycox (eepaypa, pH, oa ca). ocoy eo oaae eepoeo pocpaceo opaae, ooc eo oex cpyypx e ye pao o co xapaep peea aya cee. poe oo, yoe oopaoe epecpo ce oey ea e oy pocxo cpay, a caac oax poopaox cee oex aox py. B oe o po ye apae epecpoa ce ocpy oey ea cece aoo cee eo oex ace o opeee eepcc cee coo. pee aece pepa oceoaex, yoao ax epecpoe ee oopaoe ee eooa (Hb). pcoeee copoa aoy eea Fe+2 po cee eo a 0,7 ococ eoo py. o epoe poopaooe ceee ypye Hb aca oceoaex epecpoe. O a ceee ca epy oey, ceee cye c epecpoo cce oopox ce. p o eec oopa cax, - cye. oce ocea epx yx,cye oeaec pcoeee ceyx oey copoa oca cyea, cpoco oopx copoy yeaec ecoo co pa. B o coco yoao apae cc ooepax oopaox epecpoe Hb. eca pa x coco o, o epoaaoe paoece c eopao apyaec peyae aa pcoee copoa Fe+2. B oeye Hb oa ycaoc oa paoeca ocoopa, oopo ye cooecye pyoe aoe pacooee aox py. poecc oce o oeo. paoeco ocoopa pocxo epe p oceoaex ca a peaca cxoo eocop, cae epaoeco -a cpoo pcoee copoa. Heocpeceoe yee cpx ypex e oeye ea cao oo ocee o, aoap epe copeex ecx peoacx eoo paocepoco (epo apaa, ep a, ep aa-peoac, eo ece). Ocaoc pao a eco cyoc x eoo oyaeo c x oo opa.

Ocoo cepea oxo coco o, o, ya opeeee ece apaep (ecee, apaae) ceao epex o yp ea ooeypx coee, oy xapaepcy ooc opyae x cpe, . e. xapaepcy ypoeypo ooc ea.

oo ep ypoeypy ooc ea, ya, a ac o eepayp ooee acya ece eeo eo e acya o coceo ece poaa ea. p ooe aa cea ecpye oeyo o yx -epoo epexo a oye ce ypoe $ (pc. 9.1), a c oeya p o epexo ceoe oyeoe cocoe. p epexoe oyeoe cocoe aac oeaeo ep oey paopeeo oaec, a ae a pe 10-11 10-12 c pocxo cca oeaeo ep peaca a e oeaee oypo oo e caoo epooo coco $. B oyeo coco $ oeya e * = 10-8 10-9 c, oce eo oa oe o epyc a ocoo ypoe $ o c cycae aa yopece, o eyaeo, paccea eo ep epooo oye. a pe * cyecoa coco $ c epoa a ypoe $ oe e co opea a pooooy. Toa o cae apae cy ocaeoc paee capeoo c epoa. B o cyae pocxo epexo oey peoe cocoe $ T, oopo c epoo a $ 0 Typox apae (pc. 9.1). epexo ocooe cocoe T $ eep ae peye epeopea co o a aapaey. ooy epooc T $ epexoa aa, a pe coco Pc. 9.1. Cxea epexoo ey T eo o cpae c coco- ce (s s ) pe 1, e $ cocae 10-6 10-2 c (T) coco oey.

oe. C peoo ypo oeya epexo a ocoo c cycae cea ocopece. p axoe oyeo coco $ T oeye eec epec o oe, a o opyae cpe. a pe oey oyeo coco o cpe oy yce epeopepoac cooec c oe oyeoo o. o pooe, ec pe oo peaca opyae cpe oo ee pee 9* oyeoo coco (9 << 9*). Toa cooeceo ye oe epeec ypoe oyeo oey, a acy ee cepa yopece cec oooy oac. Ec e 9 >> 9*, o epeopea oe cpe e ycee poo, . e. o cyae opyee yopecpye oey ecoe e e a ooee acya ooc ee yopece. ey opa o ypoeypo ooc eo oya, ya a ye cocey yopece poaa. ooee acya eo yopece co ac o ooc oe cpe oe appoa o 30 . B coo ccee ea pe peopaa opyae poa cpe oe oe pee eo epooo $ oye (9* = 5 c), ocoeo p x eepaypax. eceo, oaaoc, o cee eepayp aaoe o 0 o 20 po cy a 5 12 , a aaoe eepayp o -20 o -90 cy a 4 9 ooe acya yopece poaa opooooy copoy cepa. o oop o aopaa e eoo ape aoceyo oac. Bcyee e e Pc. 9.2. Paceee epeecx ypoe epoa (pooa) ao oe (H).

a x cepax co, o ceecye o eoxooc pcyc cpyype ea o oecee eo ooc.

Ccea eo oa aepae a ea poaa. Ec o eo oee ocopecpye e (apep, pooe oa), o a cocoo oo oea oee e xapaepe peea cpyypx epecpoe (o 1 c). Oaaoc, o yox cox eox apooey pocxo eee e 9p = 1 c, a oee oepxocx cox e cyeceo cpee:

9p = 10-3 c. Hao co oa, o aee peea xapaepy ooc oo aeo poopye ecpyeo xpooopa e oy pacpocpac a c apooeyy. co eca oaa ax ecpyx eo ee ac x o xecx ocoeoce o xapaepa aoec c eo pya.

a a opao eo epooo apaaoo peoaca (P) epoo aoo peoaca (MP). ece oco x eoo ocaoo co opoo oe ceax pyoocax yeax. ec pao ocaoc a ex opocax, oope eoxo oa x pee oe. a epo, a pa aoo oaa coce a oeo, co. Ec ccey ax co oec ocooe eee aoe oe H, o c yy opepoac o o. epeec ypoe pacec a a ypo. ep epoa co co S ye eep ace o oo, apaeo (epx ypoe) aapaeo ( ypoe) apae o H pacooe c (pc. 9.2). Cooeceo ypoe ay pa pooa (c 1/2 c aapae, a epx ypoe c apae o H apaee co (pc. 9.2).

Paoc epeecx ypoe cocae ey E E = E = g-H. (9.1) 2 1 B opye (9.1) g ocoa ea, a aae g aop epoa pa, oop coooo epoa pae 2,0023, a pa pooa 5,58. Bea - aeo opa, pa epoa = 10-21 p/c, ep aeo -N = 5b10-24 p/c.

Ha e ypoe E aceeoc (N1) ac oe, e a epxe (N2), pe, ooee aceeoce ac o paoc ep E = E E :

2 N= egH k T = eE k T. (9.2) NHao eep a y ccey oo ocooo H epeeoe aoe oe c acoo, epeypoe ocooy o. Toa ccee yy ypoac yee epexo ey y ypo: N N N N. Ho ocoy cxoo 1 2 2 N > N, o co epexoo c eo ypo a epx N N pe1 2 1 c co opax epexoo. N N. B peyae ye pocxo 2 peoacoe ooee ep epeeoo o p yco h = g H. (9.3) H p ee eeo o = 104 c peoaca acoa coooo epoa paa = 2,81010 c-1, a poooo epoo e peoaca oa aoo ee: H = 2,26107 c-1. Ha pc. 9.3 opae ooe epeeoo o ee epa pooa (ca P) acoc o e ocooo aoo o H.

Oo ycaaa ocoy acoy epeeoo o, a ae ao e eee ocooe oe o oce ex. ae, p oopx aaec peoacoe ooee (9.3).

H a o pc. 9.3, ca P oaae e yo e, a ooco ooe c opeeeo po. o a, o a cao ee ca epeece ypo cooo coco ecoo pa, . e. oaa opeeeo po. Ocoa pa oo coco o, o aoece c e a o e ec ece poecco oea epe ccee opepoax co.

Oa e opoaa, a aoecye ae c opyae cpeo, epeaa co ep co cpe peee. o poecc T pecye paa aceeoce N N o 1 ece epeeoo o.

Cyecy pye poecc oea epe Pc. 9.3. ooe CB cao ccee co, ooo (a) ee epa pooa () pe py a pya e ep cox coco. C-coe aoec coa ooee oae ae o ecax pacooe cocex co e ca e cpooe ycoe peoaca (9.3), yp oy ooe. poecca c-cooo aoec cooecye pe T, eee oopoo coxpaec oocea ep aoo cooo coco. Oeo, pe T coxpae cooo coco e oe, e ee ccooe aoece. Ocae peacaoe poecc pacaa cxox cox coco po oy, o ooee epeecoo ypo co caoc ecoo eopeee xapaepyec po.

B aoo exae c ey peee cyecoa aoo coco po eo ooo epeecoo ypo (E ) aec coooee eopeeeoce ep, (9.4) e ocoa aa h, eea a 2 ( = h/2 ). Ta opao, coe ooee epeecoo ypo (E ) coco epoa ccee c peee peaca T oe opeeeo o ooe peoaca c ooc o T E. p T pa 0 ep E axoc oo. B oe cyae pa peoaca opeeec a H. (9.5) T T coox paao T >> T pa P ac 1 ocoo o pee T :

H. (9.6) T Hac epecye opoc, a opao caa pa c xapaepo ypoeypo a cceyeo opae Ec oc opae aa, o a ce cpx oeypx e ae co ycea ycpec p ooe epeeoo o. B o cyae peoac aaec p ycpeeo c yeeo po. Haoopo, aopaae pacopa yeee eo oc o ae oeype e. Toa p ooe ep epeeoo o c ycea oycoa e pax oax oe coe poopye, o ye pe T coxpae cooo coco oe ypee oe peoaca. Ta opao, ep py ooe, oo oy ae o xapaepe ypoeypx e poopye coo ac (paa, poo). B eoe cox eo yoao pye ea pcoe coo paa, a ca P. Xapaepc caa P c oaaee ooc poopye oo paaa.

Haoee yo poce e, coepae cooopaay pyy N O, e ecape epo aec eoaoa ey aoa N O. Ca P o e ee opeeey cpyypy, oopa oycoea e aoo oea pa aoa a ecape epo apy c ece a eo eeo aoo o. Bpaee pocoo paaa ooceo apae eeo o ee cpyypy caa P. Cyecy eo pacea, oope oo o apaepa caa P oe xapaepoe pe 9 pae e. Oaaoc, o pe c pae e ac o y ee opye cox eoo oy. B apyo oo coe ae 9 coca 10-11 10-10 c.

c oepxoce co xapaepyc ae 9 = 10-10 10-8 c , c aoe, yox cox ooo poooo pa oy 9 = l0c 10-7 c. o oapyeo ae peoe yeee epeao aoc cyex peapao peaox epo oocea p x yae, oopoe oppepye c oopee aee ae 9 c-e. o oop o ee aecoo coc co oopeeo oe ypoeypo ooc yoao aoc ea.

yee a eox cpyyp eoo MP ocoao a epe pee peaca T T o pe 1 peoaca. Ha ocoe x ax yaec a ae 9 ep, a c oopx aaec peoac.

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