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poe x oooecx po cyecy ee ope cacece ae o acoax oe aoo aocooo ocaa epo oceoaeoc , - eeax opo cpyyp. C oo pecx pa yaec pepo ooe cyae pecaa, aoa ye opa cpyypa ea p aao epo oceoaeoc. Pae eox cpyyp coca cpyypy (pc. 8.6) epapx, oopa, o - oy, opaae oceoaeoc ca copaa ea epo oeo e. e a cax pax cax copaa paepyo e opayc, - yac opo cpyyp a ce oax aoec. ae yac capyc peyae ec poox c, oopox ce oex aoec c py yaca e c opaoae ye peo cpyyp. Caocopa cpyyp ea oc apae ooepa xapaep. Oa poeae epe opeeeoe co poeyox ca, a e ye epeopa cex oox apao ya o oce aoo o ep coco.

Ha ao "cacec" coco copaa opeoaoc pe eepo oee, e peaoe pe copaa eoo oy (ecoo cey).

Boe oepeece coco oc cpay a pax aax copaa eox yacax e, ax a p ocaa, a cpee ae aoec x e oo e "op", o capy. pecae oo cooa oo, o ypoc eo pacea oepeeco oopa ea. Beco oo o ac cpay a ay o ep oopa ce e, axo aae oepeece coco eo. Hoepeece op peo peca coo oa oepeecx op cex eo, o ec peyao coacoaoc p ex aoec. oopao aa oee cox ooeo pooc eoo oceoaeoo yee e a o ocao. Bao, o oe aoec, oae p ye e, capy pae e apya ye coxc aoec oepeecx op. B acoee pe ao oypec eo pacea ae oooc opee pocpacey cpyypy ocaoo cox oeo, ax o co ocao. Hapep, a paccaa cpyypa oey eo apeaecoo pcooo opa, ae 58 aocox ocao c aao epo oceoaeoc. Oao pace oee cox oeo opey pee ye eacx cepecx peooe o ooo cpyype ea.

M ye oop, o oa ooo eoo oy opeeec poo aoec, oope e co epoaecy ppoy. Heope yeoopo papya ecy cpyypy o, o po oe po ( S > 0) , ceoaeo, yee cooo ep cce F = U T S, e S > 0.

Oao papyee cpyyp o apyae ccey oopox ce ey oeya o. Beco oopox ce yeoopo coco opaoa oo oee cae a-ep-aaco c c oo. o po yee ae U > 0, oope o acoo ee pea opae po a eee F, . e. U > |T S|. ooy eo F oaec, o epeec eoo, po aa yeoopoo oo a. pooe aoec eo capy apooey, xo eaa apa aoec c oo peeax apooey aeo coee. Ca oey o pacpeee oye eoopoo. Capy oy ec oae ope ep paa, e oey o cee ca o cpae c oo pao oooo a oepxoc oy. B eo ooo oepxoc ea oe yepac o 2 3 coe o.

poe oo, eec pa poo cao o, oopa cpyec a cooecyx aoox eeax eoo cpyyp.

Be o a oopaoy ep eo cyeceo e ee ooe epeecx yo a oopaoo ape. Boa oe oaa coe e a caoc oex oopaox yaco e ca a ypoeypy ooc ea. eco, o p yee cee paa cyex peapao epeo yeee x aoc pocxo peo yo aaoe yee ca oey o (10 20) a oy oeyy ea. B o oac pocxo pacopaae opeeex ypoeypx ceee coo, yx oecee epeao aoc. Moo paccapa ccey eo oa a ey ooepay ccey, e ee coco a pacope, a ea oc aoca xapaep.

eo oaae opeeeo oo cpyypo, oopa opayec epo aocoo oceoaeoc peyae coacoaoo xapaepa x ax aoec. B o cce cpyypa ea yaa.

Boae opoc, ao cee epa oceoaeoc ooao opeee ooo yoae coca eoo oy eco, o e, oe oaoe y pax opaax, oac o coe epo oceoaeoc (apep, oxpo). Oao pee cpyyp y x cxo. Ho ec e, oaae cxo pe cpyypa, o oe pae y. Oaaoc ae, o cocooc oppoa yac c epep poo oepxoc oaa e oo ppoe, o cyae aocoe oceoaeoc opx eopx py. Ta opao, oye oo yao ea e eoxooc acoo ooao aaa eo epy oceoaeoc, xo yoae coca ea opeec cpaeo eo co ax py. ec ye cya coepeo a. B ao epe ea (epea), e ec, a pao, 5 6 ocao, e ae ooo x e apye yoax coc. ooy oa eaex ocao ao epe ea oa ocpooc coepeo ooao p oaeo coxpae ox oopaecx ep oypo pocpaceo cpyyp.

Teep, oyc opya eop opa (6.2 6.3), oo oe epooc cyaoo ooaoo cea ea.

Baae ae oeco opa, coepaec ao epe c aoco ocaa, co oopx n=5 6. Oee co cocoo W, oop ocpypy ao a ep, pa 20 aoco ye a 5 6, cocae, oeo, W = = 205206. B ao epe coepc oeco opa, paoe I = log W:

I = log 20 = 4,3 N = 2030 .

Oeo, o caoe aoe oeco opa, eoxooe cea ea. Ha cao ee eae ee ae oee eo xapaepe yac, oope coepa, a pao, e eee N=2025 aoco. Toa oeco ooec yao opa ee ye ye oe. Oo coca ey I =l og 20N 4,3 N 90100 .

Bepooc cyaoo ooaoo cea ao cpyyp oe aa:

P = = 2I = 2(90100) ~ 1030.

W o a, o coae eo opaoo cce ea e oo poo o a, a ocyecec oceeo c oae apeee cepoax eeo cpyyp poeccax ocpoee.

B oe o eo cpyypa H oee caa. Teoe yya e po papy oopox ce e e eococe pacco ey ocoa. B oex ecoc cy oco apaepo. oa cpa H oaae oe ecoc o e cpa oopeeo opae co paaex ceee coo opy ex xecx ce.

Bce oopa H oocc o A , o B opa. B cyae B op oc cpa poxo epe ap ocoa x epa ec, a A ope epe ocaec oepce ooo 4 E, a ocoa oece epep oey. Ocoa pyoc ooo oca epeec papeex oopa ox cpae coco peao oo aope cex cpyypx apao.

oopa ooepa yeoo co aaec oopae caxapoo oa, ypa ya pae opy ex ce caxapoocao e o yo x, opee opea ocoa ooceo caxapoo oa. Pae A B op coco o, o y A op oac ae Pc. 8.7. op cpa H: epe aoee ycoe oopa caxapoo oa yeoe ya x ya oopoa 9 ey coce apa, a ae oe ae pacco D ap o oc cpa (pc. 8.7). poe oo, aepaa eoep caxapoo oa y A B op opeeec e, ao aoo yepoa y ococ caxapoo oa.

Hae co ooo ca ypex ceee coo ooe paccapa poecc ee oopa oo cpa a epep. Oao oo opac "pay" aoooe ap ocoa. Toa oaaec, o peypo cpa cyecye oo opaeoe co oopa caxapoocaoo ocoa. Pace oaa, o ep A op eo e, a pa epeeco ye, e y B op. o ec cece oo, o paccoe ey ooeo ape ocaa oo o e e pepo a 1E opoe A opax. o ye cex aoec oaae, o B opa ec eceo ycoo opo H.

B ocee o oye ae o cyecoa a aaeo z op H, oopo cpa c aapae apyea eo, a oopac ea coep e o, a a yeoa.

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