Conclusion Just as in the previous projects involving an analysis of the political and economic problems characteristic of the early 2000s (Mau, Yanovskiy, Zhavoronkov 2001; Mau, Yanovskiy, 2002), we must admit here that the main causes of “local stoppages” of the active reforming being launched by the federal center lie in the specificity of federal, and not regional, institutions. The only different feature of the presently ex isting situation is that the institute of federal center itself has now be come a factor responsible for such stoppages.
The indisputable success noted, in particular, in our overview of the implementation of national projects, can be explained, regretfully, only by the huge amount of resources being poured into them, and there fore is of a temporary, unstable and irreproducible character.
Regional factors proper (at least those that have been analyzed, however formally) have been found to be insignificant, as well as the situation in respect to changes in the investment climate.
When decisions are made from a single center, it is impossible to solve those tasks that can be solvable only by society and the market.
This conclusion has been drawn from the whole economic history of mankind, and not just on the basis of our brief overview of the practices of supplies of mixed social benefits (“social policy”) in Russia.
As for the institutions capable of reproducing and further developing the achievements made so far in the spheres of quality public health care, education, culture, support of disabled persons, etc., they are now, perhaps, even more vulnerable than they used to be five years ago.
Sources Legislative acts The RF Constitution.
Federal Law of 10 January 2006, No. 18 FZ, “On the introduction of amendments to some legislative acts of the Russian Federation”.
Federal Law of 18 July 2006, No. 113 FZ, concerning the introduction of amendments to Articles 12 and 20 of the Federal Law “On higher and postgraduate professional education”.
Federal Law of 27 July 2006, No. 148 FZ, concerning the introduction of amendments to Articles 1 and 15 of the Federal Law “On countermeasures against extremist activity”.
Federal Law of 3 November 2006, No. 174 FZ, “On autonomous institutions”.
Federal Law of 3 November 2006, No. 175 FZ, concerning the introduction of amendments to the legislative acts of the Russian Federation in connection with the adoption of the Federal Law “On autonomous institutions”, as well as for purposes of making more precise the legal abilities of state and municipal institutions.
Draft laws (see www.akdi.ru ) “On the procedure for the formation and use of the target capital of not for profit organizations” (submitted by deputies of the State Duma P. V. Krashennikov, V. S. Gruzdev, and others).
“On the introduction of amendments to some legislative acts of the Russian Federation as a result of the adoption of the Law “On the procedure for the formation and use of the target capital of not for profit organizations”.
Books and articles Alexeeva N. “Lennon byl by dovolen. Dmitry Medvedev nashel obrazec dlya vyshego obrazovania” (“Lennon would be satisfied. Dmitry Medvedev has found pattern for tertiary education”) // “Izvestia” December, 27, 2006 “National Projects”.
Chervkov A. “The Governor refuses from the money” // Kommersant December, 26, 2006.
Danilin P. “Nacproekty – novy CUP Rossii” (“National Projects – new Spaceship control center for Russia”) // “Delovaia Gazeta ‘Vzgliad” (Business newspaper “Outlook”) December, 7 2006.
Dobrynina E. “The Head above the roof” // “Rossiyskaya gazeta” November 30, 2006.
Gefter V., Djybladze Yu., Levinson L. The Bulletin “Legislative the bill making process in the State’s Duma”. http://www.memo.ru/ hr/gosduma/index.htm.
President’s representative in the Privoljskiy Federal District Alexander Konovalov interview // “Vedomosty” December, 25, 2006.
“Za chuzhoi schiot. Predvybornyi populizm tsentra oplatiat regiony” [“At somebody else’s expense. The pre electoral populism of the center will be paid for by the regions”] “Kommersant”. No. 234 (No.
3565) of 14 December 2006.
V. Mau, K. Yanovskiy, S. Zhavoronkov, O. Fomichiov, L. Lederman.
Politicheskie i pravovye istochniki investitsionnykh riskov v rossiiskikh regionakh [Political and legal sources of investment risks in Russian regions. – M.: IET, 2002.
V. Mau, K., V. Novikov, K. Yanovskiy, G. Kovalev, «The problems of Russian Federation integration in the united European area” IET papers No. 71. – Ì.: IET, 2003.
Mau V., Yanovskiy K. “Political and Legal Factors of Economic Growth in Russian Regions” “Post Communist Studies”, Vol. 14, No. 3, 2002.
Spencer J. “Men versus the State” (1884), M., “Sotsium”, 2007.
Interviews British Columbia Teachers Federation Larry Kuehn, Director of Research and Technology February 22, 2007, Vancouver.
Vancouver School Board Laurie Anderson, Associate Superintendent, February 23, 2007, Vancouver.
Partnerships BC Tera Nelson, Senior Communications Consultant;
Grant Main, Partnership Services, February 19, 2007, Victoria, British Columbia.
Internet Resources and Information Agencies Highest Priority National Projects – official web site http://www.rost.ru.
“Regnum” information agency http://www.regnum.ru.
http://www.sm.ee/eng/pages/index.html – Republic of Estonia Ministry for Social Affairs official web site.
http://www.pozytek.gov.pl – Governmental portal of NGO’s of Poland http://www.mpips.gov.pl Ministry for Social Policy and Labor of Poland official web site.
http://www.memo.ru/hr/index.htm Human rights defense and charitable NGO “Memorial” web site.
http://www.hro.org Human Rights activists and organizations of Russian Federation Portal.
Annex Statistical Analysis Data • Social and demographic statistics data of Federal service of states’ statistics;
• Institutional indicators based on the data collected for the “Federal Reform. Outcome: Influence of Modified Institutions on the Invest ment Climate in the Regions” project (CEPRA research program 2006–2007).
Basic Results A big number of dependencies (regressions) between intuitional variables on one side and the indicators of public health and education on other side appeared to be statistically insignificant on actual data.
Very few relatively weak dependencies could be interpreted as an indicator of indirect dependencies presence. So, basic outcome of the “Federal Reform Outcome: Influence of Modified Institutions on the In vestment Climate in the Regions” statistical analysis proved for social statistics data: interregional institutional unification makes insignificant regional component of respective public goods supply outcomes and influence on the public health and education.
Very few statistically significant dependencies presented below:
1. Negative dependence of heart diseases caused mortality on sala ries level in the regions could reflects “the stock” of previous regional authorities activities. The rich regions could afford more advanced spe cialized services and facilities financing during 1990–2000 ties. The negative dependence of unemployment on this kind of mortality needs more data about which group of population exactly suffers more of heart diseases (for example businessmen significant mortality in the regions of clearly registered unemployment could reflect better re gion’s adaptation to the market conditions and, respectively, higher percentage of businessmen and their personnel better paid than state hired personel, but more vulnerable for business and respective admin istrative caused risks in the population).
Dependent Variable: _DEATHRATE_HEART Method: Least Squares Date: 12/25/Sample (adjusted): 1 Included observations: 79 after adjustments White Heteroskedasticity Consistent Standard Errors & Covariance Variable Coefficient Std. Error t Statistic Prob.
_SALARY_BRUTT05 –0.02471 0.006773 –3.64846 0._UNEMPL2005 –3608.7 694.0554 –5.19945 C 1182.806 66.69563 17.73439 R squared 0.471629 Mean dependent var 820.Adjusted R squared 0.457724 S.D. dependent var 225.S.E. of regression 166.2322 Akaike info criterion 13.Sum squared resid 2100119 Schwarz criterion 13.Log likelihood –514.524 F statistic 33.Durbin Watson stat 1.637879 Prob (F statistic) 2. The positive dependence between infant mortality and unem ployment exists, but weak and, so, poor interpretable.
Dependent Variable: _INF_MORTALITYMethod: Least Squares Date: 12/25/Sample (adjusted): 1 Included observations: 79 after adjustments White Heteroskedasticity Consistent Standard Errors & Covariance Variable Coefficient Std. Error t Statistic Prob.
_UNEMPL2005 30.57162 16.95384 1.803226 0.C 10.67216 0.749284 14.24314 R squared 0.18899 Mean dependent var 12.Adjusted R squared 0.178457 S.D. dependent var 2.S.E. of regression 2.611198 Akaike info criterion 4.Sum squared resid 525.0133 Schwarz criterion 4.Log likelihood –186.908 F statistic 17.Durbin Watson stat 1.750492 Prob (F statistic) 0.3. Negative dependence of infant mortality on small business em ployment could be easily interpreted as better choice of medical ser vices for the mothers and babies of well paid population, but the de pendency is just slightly stronger than previous one, so this conclusion needs to be tested additionally.
Model Summary Adjusted R Std. Error of the Esti Model R R Square Square mate 1 0.295(a) 0.087 0.075 2.a Predictors: (Constant), smb_all_2004_p ANOVA(b) Sum of Mean Model df F Sig.
Squares Square Regression 34.884 1 34.884 7.040 0.010(a) Residual 366.678 74 4.Total 401.562 a Predictors: (Constant), smb_all_2004_p b Dependent Variable: Inf_mortalityCoefficients(a) Stan Unstandardized Coeffi dardized cients Coeffi t statistics Sig.
cients Model B Std. Error Beta (Constant) 12.972 0.491 26.441 0.smb_all_2004_p –2.269E 02 0.009 –0.295 –2.653 0.a Dependent Variable: Inf_mortalityAnnex An overview of the provisions of Federal Law of 10 January 2006, No. 18 FZ, “On the introduction of amendments to some legislative acts of the Russian Federation” (changes and amendments introduced into Law of the Russian Fed eration of 14 July 1992, No. 3297 1, on a close administrative territorial formation”, into Federal Law of 19 May 1995, No. 82 FZ, “On public unions”, into Federal Law of 12 January 1996, No. 7 FZ, “On non commercial organizations”).
The changes and amendments that have been introduced into the legislative acts regulating the creation and activity of public unions and not for profit organizations are for most part sufficiently logical and well substantiated. During the consideration by the State Duma, the most radical provisions of the draft law, which had caused justified an ger in society, – a ban on the activity of affiliations of foreign non government unions in any form except that of a public organizations, as well as a ban on the activity of an unregistered public union), were ex cluded from the draft. Nevertheless, the Law contains a number of pro visions that objectively make less favorable the conditions for the activ ity of public unions.
The following features of the Law can be characterized as positive.
Firstly, no restrictions are imposed on the activity of an unregistered public union (with the exception of structural subdivisions of foreign not for profit organizations; however, the advising procedure had ex isted even before the amendments were introduced). Registration is necessary only for obtaining the status of a juridical person and the re lated privileges (the right to separate property, the right to act in a court of justice in its own name, the right to the protection of an organiza tion’s name). In this connection, registration is effectuated on general terms for all juridical persons, without any additional procedural com plexities.
Secondly, the grounds for a denial of registration are quite formal, distinct and adequate. The registration of a public union may be denied in the following situations:
1) if the charter of a public union contradicts the Constitution of the Russian Federation and legislation of the Russian Federation;
2) if the documents necessary for State registration and envisaged by this Federal Law are submitted incomplete, or are not formalized in the appropriate procedure, or are submitted to an inappropriate body;
3) if the person acting as the founder of a public union cannot be founder in accordance with federal laws;
4) if a previously registered public union with the same name is oper ating within the borders of the same territory;
5) if it is established that the constitutive documents of a public union contain false information;
6) if the name of a public union is offensive to moral or to national or religious feelings of citizens.
In this connection, no denial of State registration of a public union on the grounds of its unfeasibility is allowed. In an event of a denial of State registration of a public union, the applicant is notified thereof in writing, with the exact reference to those provisions of the Constitution of the Russian Federation and legislation of the Russian Federation, the viola tion of which has led to the denial of State registration of a given union.
The denial of State registration of a public union, as well as the avoidance of such registration, may be appealed against to a superior body of to a court of justice.
The denial of State registration of a public union cannot be an obsta cle to a repeated submission of documents for State registration on condition that the grounds on which the registration was denied have been eliminated.
Thus, no completely unjustified restriction to registration can be no ticed here.
Thirdly, there still exists the possibility for foreign organizations to act through any of their structural subdivisions, including affiliations and representative offices.
Some doubts have been given rise to by the expansion of the list of persons that cannot act as a founder, member, or participant in a pub lic union. Now these also include the following ones:
1) a foreign citizen of a person without citizenship, in respect to which, in the procedure established by legislation of the Russian Federa tion, a decision was made concerning the undesirability of their presence (or residence) in the Russian Federation;