Х Results for Citizens Х Does the analysis of costs, risks and benefits provide a compelling business case for the initiative Х Is the impact on service consistent with the needs, expectations and priorities of citizens Х Will the new arrangement increase organizational effectiveness Citizen centred Service Х Does the relationship between co deliverers ensure ease of access for citizens to a wide range of government services Х Will all those interested or potentially affected be informed of the initiative Is a consultation process required How will this be un dertaken Х Is there a communication plan to make sure that key stakeholders and citizens in general receive complete and timely information about proposed changes Х Are measures in place to ensure continuous measurement and im provement of citizen and client satisfaction over time Х Is there appropriate provision for access to information, preserva tion of government memory and the privacy of citizens Х Responsible Spending Х Will a framework be in place to guarantee that citizens receive value for money and that accountability for the expenditure of public funds and responsibility to Parliament are retained Values Х Will the proposed arrangement promote values and an organiza tional culture that are consistent with public sector values and eth ics Х Is there confidence that the expected organizational culture (includ ing a framework of values and ethics) will materialise Х Have human resource issues been thoroughly considered, including public servant mobility, union considerations, employee successor rights, continued employment offers, recall rights (in the event that employees are terminated), compensation, and pension Х Will the initiative contribute to federal government identity and visi bility Х What will the impact be on the Public Service of the government as a coherent national institution Annex 2:
The eight steps of the Уnext stepsФ In the UK УNext StepsФ process, agencies go through a life cycle that typically consists of eight steps130.
Candidate Status: An entity or activity is designated a candidate to become an agency. This stage lasts three to nine months, during which an assessment is made of the appropriateness of this form of organization.
Prior Options: A formal review is undertaken consisting of the en tityТs mission and alternative ways of performing it.
Ministry Agency Relationships: These are clarified, including matters on which the agency will be authorized to govern itself.
See Allen Schick. Agencies in Search of Principles, 33 34.
A Framework Document: This document formally spells out the agencyТs objectives, operating conditions, responsibilities of the chief executive, relationships with the parent department, and various finan cial and personnel arrangements.
A Chief Executive: A chief executive is recruited in open competi tion and employed under a term contract that specifies the working conditions and performance expectation.
Performance Targets: These are set and published each year, giv ing the agency explicit notices of how its performance will be assessed.
Annual Reports: These reports compare actual and targeted per formance and include audited financial statements.
Periodic Reviews: These are conducted at least every five years to evaluate how the agency has performed and to consider changes in its operating charter.
Business case components for alterative service de livery options The following components can help build a strong business case for alternative service delivery options:
Х Description of the current program and services as baseline;
Х Definition of anticipated program objectives/performance;
Х Evaluation of the range of alternative delivery structures against de fined objectives;
Х Detailed analysis of the selected/feasible options in terms of bene fits, cost and risk;
Х Recommendation; and Х Implementation plan.
Proponents of ASD initiatives should define their results commit ments for each of the elements of the business case (cost, benefit and risk), within the Case Analysis, where appropriate.
Summarized from Treasury Board of Canada, Alternative Service Delivery Policy Guide.
http://www.tbs sct.gc.ca/pubs_pol/opepubs/TB_B4pg gs/pg gs 1_e.asp Official Languages Have appropriate provisions been made for respecting the nationТs official languages policy Decision makers must understand how a specific ASD initiative might affect official language minority communities and determine the impact of policies and programs established by the government to pro tect official language rights.
ASD initiatives that affect government transformations and are not subject to official language legislation may require separate analysis.
Management of Human Resources Have human resource issues been thoroughly considered, including public servant mobility, union issues, employee successor rights, con tinued employment offers, recall rights (in the event that employees are terminated), compensation, and pension Where appropriate, proponents of ASD initiatives should elaborate results commitments for managing the transition of human resources, including:
Х Fair and equitable treatment of employees, and;
Х Capacity to assume a new human resources framework.
A strategic human resource transition plan is critical when ASD initiatives entail the creation of a new organisational form.
Human resources considerations are critical to the success of an al ternative service delivery (ASD) initiative, but they in themselves do not lead the decision making process. The organisational form chosen to support the service or program mandate will set the overall boundaries around the range of options available in terms of human resources re gimes.
An ASD initiative can affect almost every employee in an organiza tion. Some employees will see their workload or work environment change, and some will take their careers in new directions within or out side the public service. Human resources issues generally relate to staffing, recourse, employee successor rights, classification, terms and conditions, pensions, human resources policies and representation.
Decision makers should be made aware of the amount of work and costs associated with the creation of a new classification system, of a new staffing regime, of new recourse mechanisms or with the need to build the capacity to establish and conduct effective labour relation programs.
Human Resources Planning the Transition ASD initiatives should clearly define the mandate and purpose of the program, the desired accountability framework, expected reporting re lationships, and sources of funding. These provide the foundation for human resources strategic planning and assist in determining which labour relations regime will apply, e.g. which labour jurisdiction will es tablish the minimum standards governing the way the new organisation will deal with its employees.
A Human Resources Plan is essential to ensure a smooth transition to the new ASD environment, particularly where there is a change in employer. This plan should cover the whole spectrum of human re sources issues, from addressing the human resources regime to ensur ing proper authority in legislation.
The Human Resources Plan should include estimates of the new employerТs needs, capacity or willingness to continue the current em ployeesТ jobs, and should discuss:
Х Identification of mechanisms for public service employees who will be offered positions in the new organisations;
Х Ease of adjustment for employees affected by the initiative, both those moving to the new employer and those remaining within the public service;
Х Estimated administrative costs for transfer, termination, pension and pay;
Х Detailed information obtained on the skills of the existing workforce;
Х Identification of significant stakeholders who need to be involved;
Х Likely transition scenarios; and Х Employee successor rights considerations.
The following values should be reflected when managing human re sources in ASD initiatives:
Х Fair and reasonable treatment of employees;
Х Value for money and affordability; and Х Maximization of employment opportunities for public service em ployees.
The extent to which these values can be realized will depend on the objectives of the initiative, the business case, and the uniqueness or marketability of the workforce. For example, the government has the greatest opportunity to maintain employment continuity where it is establishing a new service agency within the federal sphere, or where it is offering unique resources that can be very profitable to the private sector. Where the objective is to harmonize activities between levels of government (e.g., federal, provincial and municipal) or to purchase products or services from an existing private sector supplier, there may be fewer opportunities for employment continuity.
Legislative Framework The legislative framework for human resources is critical to the successful development and implementation of ASD options.
For example, in Canada, the Treasury Board is the Employer of fed eral departments and the portion of the public service specified in Part I of Schedule I of The Financial Administration Act (FAA), the Public Ser vice Staff Relations Act (PSSRA) and the Public Service Employment Act (PSEA) as well other legislation. Some ASD initiatives will result in moving away from this regime into one of three regimes:
Х the PSSRA, Schedule I, Part II applies;
Х the Canada Labour Code applies, or;
Х the provincial labour codes or provincial public service labour codes apply.
Х In such instances, the new ASD entity will have all the rights and re sponsibilities that the Treasury Board now has under the FAA (e.g., designing and implementing human resources policies, negotiating collective agreements, etc.). Human resources planning is there fore critical to the success of an ASD initiative.
Work Force Adjustment Agreements Work Force Adjustment agreements, which are negotiated between unions and the employer, ensure that all public service employees are treated fairly no matter what form the ASD initiative may take.
These agreements should cover those employees who are invited to join a new employer, those remaining in the public service, and those for whom no continuing employment is available.
Employee Successor Rights When a cohesive business or function is sold, transferred or other wise divested, employee successor rights may apply. Successor rights are labour code provisions that allow a bargaining agent to continue to represent employees in a bargaining unit, thus providing the continua tion of collective agreements until their terms expire.
When successor rights apply, the new employer becomes responsi ble for its predecessorТs rights, privileges and obligations towards the employees covered under the collective agreement in effect at the time of the transition.
Organizational Effectiveness Does the arrangement represent an appropriate balance between the flexibility required for high organizational performance and sound governance Where appropriate, the proponents of ASD initiatives should identify the results commitments for organisational effectiveness, such as:
Х Linkages between strategies and capacity to perform;
Х Awareness and ownership of organisational directions; and Х Leveraging through partnerships.
ASD initiatives often lead to profound changes to the organisational frameworks supporting program and service delivery. These changes bring to light the importance of strong leadership and a need to focus on employees and partners.
Х Leadership: the mandate, mission and strategic direction of the or ganisation is often defined or redefined with an ASD initiative. Lead ers should demonstrate a clear understanding of their various stakeholders and the differing requirements of these groups when establishing a mission and objectives for the organisation.
Х Once established, the clarified mission and objectives must be communicated to all levels of the organization and an accountability framework put in place. The organization should ensure that people at all levels in the organization understand and are committed to the new strategic direction, and are involved in the change process with suggestions and ideas encouraged and implemented.
Х Human resources focus: with changes to the organizationТs goals and objectives, it may be necessary to create a new human re sources plan and determine staff training and development needs.
Х Partner focus: in many instances, ASD involves the search for part ners or collaborators. These relationships with other levels of gov ernment or with other sectors (private, not for profit, volunteer) should be compatible with the strategic direction of the government and advance delivery objectives in a mutually beneficial manner.
Capable suppliers or service providers should be chosen through appropriate information and criteria, and the organization may want to establish co operative working relationships, share information, and involve partners or suppliers in the development of new services and/or programs.
For example, in Canada, the National Quality Institute (NQI) and Treasury Board Secretariat, assisted by departments, public sector or ganisations, and quality councils, developed and adopted a framework for effective public service organisations in 1997.
Proponents of ASD initiatives should consider the National Quality Institute (NQI) organisational effectiveness principles when managing change to the organizational framework ensuing from an ASD initiative.
See Canadian Quality for the Public Sector (http://publiservice.tbs sct.gc.ca/pubs_pol/opepubs/otherpubs/cqcps_e.htm) Service Improvement Is the impact on service consistent with the needs, expectations and priorities of citizens Does the relationship between co deliverers ensure ease of access for citizens to a wide range of government services A key driver of an ASD initiative is to make programs and services more citizen centred. This means organising the delivery of services from the client/citizen perspective. This can be achieved by partnering to provide clusters of services; by setting up a stakeholder board, or; by providing organisations with increased authority to make them more responsive to citizens and clients.
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