Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expert EUREKA Launched in 1985, EUREKA has already changed the face of pan-European cooperative research and development. It is a framework through which industry and research institutes from 26 European countries and the European Union develop and exploit the technologies crucial to global competitiveness and a better quality of life.
Official website: http://www3.eureka.be/Home/ Evaluation Encompasses a process of judging value on what an NISP has achieved particularly in relation to activities planned and overall objectives. It involves value judgment and therefore it is different from monitoring (which is observation and reporting of observations). It is important to identify the constraints or bottlenecks that hold back the NISP implementation in achieving its goals. Solutions to the constraints can then be identified and implemented.
F Future Internet Future Internet is a summarizing term for world-wide research activities dedicated to the further development of the original Internet. While the technical development of the Internet has been an extensive research topic from the beginning, an increased public awareness of several critical shortcomings in terms of performance, reliability, scalability, security and many other categories including societal, economical and business aspects, has led to Future Internet research efforts. Given the diversity of technologies related to the Internet, extended by lower and higher layers and applications, the related research topics are wide spread. The time horizon of Future Internet studies is typically considered to be long term, taking several years before significant results can be expected or corresponding deployments take place in the real world.
Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Future_Internet Framework A basic conceptual structure used to solve or address complex issues. This very broad definition has allowed the term to be used as a buzzword, especially in a software context and social sciences.
Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Framework FOSS - Free and Open Source Software Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) includes programmes whose licenses give users the freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software as well as share copies of either the original or the modified software, under the same license agreement. Free, in this context, refers to free use and not necessarily “free of charge”.
Source: Free Software Foundation, http://www.fsf.org/licensing/essays/free-sw.html G GDP Gross Domestic Product is a measure of the size of the economy of a particular territory. It is defined as the total value of all goods and services produced within that territory during a specified period (most commonly, per year).
Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gross_domestic_product Gender and ICTs In many societies, women are the most impoverished and with the least access to resources and with little control over decisions that affect their lives. For this reason, women are on the wrong side of the digital divide, with limited access to and control over ICTs. When considering the factors that contribute to these inequalities it is important to understand the ways in which ICTs are allocated between women and men (the gendered allocation of ICTs), the different opportunities that exist for men and women with respect to education, training and skills development, employment and working conditions, content development and access to power structures and decisionmaking processes. Beyond questions of access to technology and software, other major concerns may need to be addressed such as the need to break down gender and cultural barriers to women’s access to careers in technology, or absence of women in decision-making structures.
Source: GenderIT.org, http://www.genderit.org/en/beginners/whygender.htm, and APC Glossary, http://www.apc.org/en/glossary/term/Governance Governance refers to all the rules, procedures and practices affecting how powers are exercised, whether at the international or national level or within an organisation or network.
Source: Europa glossary, http://europa.eu/scadplus/glossary/governance_en.htm Government Refers to the organisation that is the governing authority of a political unit, the ruling power in a political society, and the apparatus through which a governing body functions and exercises authority.
Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Government GRefers to the group of the seven most developed industrial countries: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, and the United States.
GRefers to the group of the eight leading industrialised nations: Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, United Kingdom, and the United States.
I ICT Sector In most countries, the ICT sector is an agglomeration of the communications sector, including telecommunications providers, and the information technology sector, which ranges from small software development firms to multi-national hardware and software producers.
Source: “Growth and Innovation Framework” by the Ministry of Economic Development, New Zealand, http://www.med.govt.nz/templates/ContentTopicSummary566.aspx ICT Policy Refers to those plans of actions to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes on ICT related areas. Usually, it covers three main areas: telecommunications (especially telephone communications), broadcasting (radio and TV) and the Internet. It may be national, regional or international. Each level may have its own decision-making bodies, sometimes making different and even contradictory policies. ICT policy is formally put in place by governments, but increasingly in most contexts, different stakeholders including the private sector and civil society make inputs into the policy process, thereby affecting its outcomes.
Source: APC, www.apc.org ICT Taskforce In March 2001, the Economic and Social Council requested the Secretary-General to establish an Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) Task Force. This initiative is intended to lend a truly global dimension to the multitude of efforts to bridge the global digital divide, foster digital opportunity and thus firmly put ICT at the service of development for all. The Task Force is supported by the heads of state and governments of all UN member states who endorsed the ECOSOC Ministerial Declaration at the Millennium Summit in September 2000.
Official website: http://www.unicttaskforce.org/ In New Zealand, this group was established in response to the government's Growth and Innovation Framework. It has four related goals, which are to enhance the existing innovation framework, develop skills and talent, increase global connectedness and focus effort for maximum gain. The Taskforce comprised a tightly focused group of New Zealand ICT business leaders with relevant commercial experience. It reported into the growth potential of New Zealand ICT and identified the collective private sector and government contributions needed to achieve this potential.
Source: “ICT Taskforce, Breaking through the Barriers” (2003), http://www.nzte.govt.nz/section/13680.aspx Information This term has many meanings depending on the context. For example, it is often related to such concepts as meaning, knowledge, communication, truth, representation, and mental stimulus. See also Information Society and ICT.
Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information Information literacy Refers to the life-long ability to locate, evaluate, use and create information.
Information Society A term for a society in which the creation, distribution and manipulation of information has become the most significant economic and cultural activity. An Information Society may be contrasted with societies in which the economic underpinning is primarily industrial or agrarian. The machine tools of the Information Society are computers and telecommunications, rather than lathes or ploughs.
Source: A Whatis Definition, http://whatis.techtarget.com/definition/0,,sid9_gci213588,00.html Manuel Castells (2000), a well known Spanish sociologist that has deeply analyzed this knowledge area, prefers the term “informational society” to “information society” (establishing the comparison with the difference between industry and industrial). He states that while knowledge and information are decisive elements in all modes of development, “the term informational indicates the attribute of a specific form of social organization in which information generation, processing, and transmission are transformed into the fundamental sources of productivity and power, due to the new technological conditions that arise during this historic period.” ICT - Information and Communications Technology (or technologies) An umbrella term that includes all technologies for the manipulation and communication of information.
Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Information_and_Communication_Technologies Information, Communication Technology (ICT) goods ICT goods are those that are either intended to fulfil the function of information processing and communication by electronic means, including transmission and display, OR which use electronic processing to detect, measure and/or record physical phenomena, or to control a physical process. ICT goods are defined by the OECD in terms of the United Nations Harmonised System.
Source: OECD Glossary for Statistical Terms, http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.aspID=Innovation The term means a new way of doing something. It may refer to incremental, radical, and revolutionary changes in thinking, products, processes, or organizations.
Colloquially, the word "innovation" is often synonymous with the output of the process.
However, economists tend to focus on the process itself, from the origination of an idea to its transformation into something useful, to its implementation; and on the system within which the process of innovation unfolds. Since innovation is also considered a major driver of the economy, especially when it leads to increasing productivity, the factors that lead to innovation are also considered to be critical to policy makers.
Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Innovation Innovating firm, technological product and process A technological product and process innovating firm is one that has implemented technologically new or significantly technologically improved products or processes during the period under review.
Source: OECD, http://stats.oecd.org/glossary/search.asp IDB - Inter-American Development Bank The IDB (although sometimes found abbreviated as IADB), is an international organization established and headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, in 1959 to support Latin American and Caribbean economic and social development and regional integration by lending mainly to governments and government agencies, including state corporations. Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/InterAmerican_Development_Bank Intellectual property Very broadly, it means the legal rights that result from intellectual activity in the industrial, scientific, literary and artistic fields. Countries have laws to protect intellectual property, for two main reasons: to give statutory expression to the moral and economic rights of creators in their creations and the rights of the public to access those creations; and to promote, as a deliberate act of government policy, creativity and the dissemination and application of its results, and encourage the fair trading that contributes to economic and social development. Intellectual property is traditionally divided into two branches: industrial property and copyright. Industrial property includes inventions (patents), trademarks, industrial designs and geographic indications of source and copyright includes literary and artistic works.
Source: “WIPO Intellectual Property Handbook: Policy, Law and Use” by WIPO, http://www.wipo.int/about-ip/en/iprm/ Inter-modal competition Competition between dissimilar technologies, such as ADSL and wireless technologies.
Intra-modal competition refers to competition between similar technologies.
Interoperability The ability of two or more systems or components to exchange information and to use the information that has been exchanged.
Source: Software Engineering Institute, Carnegie Mellon University, http://www.sei.cmu.edu/str/index.html IP - Internet Protocol The IP is a network-layer protocol that contains addressing information and some control information that enables packets of data to be routed between hosts on the Internet.
Source: Cisco Systems Inc., http://www.cisco.com/univercd/cc/td/doc/cisintwk/ito_doc/ip.htm Internet Governance The definition of Internet Governance has been contested by differing groups across political and ideological lines. One of the key debates centers on the authority and participation of certain actors, such as national governments and corporate entities to play a role in the Internet's governance. A working group established after a United Nations-initiated World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) proposed the following definition of Internet Governance as part of its June 2005 report: Internet governance is the development and application by governments, the private sector and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decisionmaking procedures, and programmes that shape the evolution and use of the Internet.
Source, Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet_governance IANA - The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority The IANA is the entity that oversees global IP address allocation, root zone management for the Domain Name System (DNS), media types, and other Internet protocol assignments. It is operated by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, better known as ICANN. Prior to the establishment of ICANN for this purpose, IANA was administered primarily by Jon Postel at the Information Sciences Institute at the University of Southern California, under a contract USC/ISI had with the United States Department of Defense, until ICANN was made to assume the responsibility under a United States Department of Commerce contract.
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