Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heir C Capacity-building Capacity-building should be understood as a whole range of ideas, approaches and development interventions rather than a single concept. It goes from purely technical input (e.g. training) via organisational development (focusing on an organisation’s systems and physical assets, but also on its people, its culture and its ability to plan for the future) and institutional development (the strengthening of links and development of the environments within which organisations exist) to a broader process involving individuals and communities in poor countries, strengthening and building their understanding and knowledge of their own needs, entitlements and rights, and enabling them to organise themselves to respond to this understanding.
Source: "Capacity building: A buzz word or an aid to understanding" by Ben Green and Mike Battcock, in Developments Magazine, 2001. Available at http://www.developments.org.uk/ Civil Society Civil society commonly embraces a diversity of spaces, actors and institutional forms, varying in their degree of formality, autonomy and power. Civil societies are often populated by organisations such as registered charities, development nongovernmental organisations, community groups, women's organisations, faith-based organisations, professional associations, trades unions, self-help groups, social movements, business associations, coalitions and advocacy groups.
Source: "What is civil society", initial working definition adopted by the Centre for Civil Society at the London School of Economics, http://www.lse.ac.uk/collections/CCS/what_is_civil_society.htm Cultural and Linguistic Diversity The WSIS Plan of Action states that cultural and linguistic diversity, while stimulating respect for cultural identity, traditions and religions, is essential to the development of an information society based on the dialogue among cultures and regional and international cooperation and an important factor for sustainable development.
Websites, online tools and software are dominated by the use of Latin script. This effects the development of local content in non-Latin languages and impedes the possibility of intercultural content exchange.
Source: Action line C8 of the WSIS Plan of Action http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.phpURL_ID=15927&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html; and APC Internet Rights Charter, http://www.apc.org/ Creative Commons Creative Commons is a nonprofit corporation dedicated to making it easier for people to share and build upon the work of others, consistent with the rules of copyright. It provides free licenses and other legal tools to mark creative work with the freedom the creator wants it to carry, so others can share, remix, use commercially, or any combination thereof.
Source: Creative Commons website, http://creativecommons.org/ Community There are a number of ways of defining communities and together they make up the interconnected systems of society. Some approaches include: geographic communities (such as suburbs or towns that are often referred to as "the local communities");
communities of interest, identity, or circumstance (such as the business and its various industry sectors and the research communities); the non-profit and voluntary sectors, which are also known as the community sector; ethnic and cultural communities;
communities of interest such as those for hobbies, sports or politics; imagine communities (a concept coined by Benedict Anderson which states that a nation is a community socially constructed, which is to say imagined by the people who perceive themselves as part of that group); and communities of circumstance, such as youth, parenthood, senior citizens or the disabled; among other perceptions.
Connectivity The ability to use an electronic network in order to send and receive information between any locations, devices or business services.
Convergence Term applied to the way in which computing, telecommunications and television are moving towards a common technological basis characterized by the use of digital systems.
D Development The concept of development is used in a broad range of disciplines, such as biology, natural sciences, philosophy, economics, telecommunications, and social sciences. In this guide, the concept “development” is more related to human development than to economic growth. If economic growth does not always translate into human development, it is essential to conceive public policies that foster a kind of development that take into account the improvement of the people’s standard of living and not only the economic growth of the country.
Diagnostic The Diagnostic, also called Assessment Phase, refers to a diagnostic analysis process based on situational theory. The Hersey-Blanchard situational theory is a situational leadership theory developed by Paul Hersey, and Ken Blanchard. They created a model of situational leadership in the late 1960s that allows for analysis of the needs of the situation, then the adoption of the most appropriate leadership style. It has been proven popular with managers over the years because it is simple to understand, and it works in most environments for most people. This analysis means to identify: the country’s main historical antecedents; the national political definitions the adopted development models; the progresses in the construction of an Information Society; and the obstacles and limitations found in this process.
Source: Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopaedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HerseyBlanchard_situational_theory Digital Divide The term "digital divide" was coined in the 1990s to describe the perceived growing gap between those who have access to and the skills to use ICT and those who, for socio-economic and/or geographical reasons, have limited or no access. There was a particular concern that ICT would exacerbate existing inequalities. A number of areas of specific concern were identified both here and abroad, namely that people could be disadvantaged by their geographic location, age, gender, culture and/or economic status.
Digital Literacy Refers to the ability to use digital technology, communication tools or networks to locate, evaluate, use and create information.
Disruptive Technology This term was coined by Clayton M. Christensen to describe a new, low-cost, often simpler technology that displaces an existing sustaining technology. Disruptive technologies are usually initially inferior to the technology that they displace, but their low cost creates a market that induces technological and economic network effects that provide the incentive to enhance them to match and surpass the previous technology.
They create new industries, but eventually change the world. Examples include the internal combustion engine, transistors and the Internet.
Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disruptive_technology E e-LAC eLAC is a regionally concerted strategy that conceives of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) as instruments for economic development and social inclusion. It is a strategy with a long-term vision (until 2015) in line with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and those of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), which is concentrated on short-term action plans with concrete qualitative and quantitative goals to be achieved:
eLAC2007 with 30 goals and 70 activities for the years 2005- eLAC2010 with 83 goals to be achieved during the 2008-2010 period.
The eLAC Action Plans aim to:
1) Act as a "metaplatform" for public-private action in order to coordinate the efforts of various sectors, with an end to generating synergies, avoiding the duplication of efforts, and strengthening regional projects, by means of cooperation and the exchange of best practices at a regional level.
2) Forge national strategies and initiatives in specific areas, establishing lines of action and defining indicators that illustrate the state of progress in the development of the information society.
3) Deepen knowledge on critical issues in order to support the definition, design, implementation and evaluation of policies.
4) Intermediate between the needs of the region's countries and the rhythm of global development, considering regional particularities within the context of the goals of the global community.
Source: eLAC page on ECLAC website http://www.eclac.org/socinfo/elac/default.aspidioma=IN Enabling Environment It refers to the national policies, laws, physical infrastructure (roads, electricity, etc.), and other infrastructure (access to education, access to the Internet, access to banks, etc.) that need to be in place for people to be able to use ICTs to their advantage.
Source: ICT for Rural Livelihoods, http://www.ict4rl.info/Topics/EnablingEnvironment e-Crime Electronic crime covers offences where a computer or other ICT is used as a tool to commit an offence, is the target of an offence or is used as a storage device in an offence. Source: New Zealand Police: Services: E-Crime Unit, http://www.police.govt.nz/service/ecrime/ e-GIF - E-government Interoperability Framework The e-GIF is a significant tool to enable agencies to work together electronically in a spirit of collaboration. It allows agencies to focus on the business of integrating their services for people without having to decide on competing technology standards. In the e-government context, interoperability relates specifically to the electronic systems that support business processes between agencies and between government and people and business. It does not mean that a central agency will dictate common systems and processes. Interoperability can be achieved by the application of a framework of policies, standards and guidelines that leave decisions about specific hardware and software solutions open for individual agencies or clusters of agencies to resolve.
Source: E-government Unit, New Zealand, http://www.e-government.govt.nz/docs/e-gif-v2/chapter4.html e-Government Definitions of “e-government” range from “the use of information technology to free movement of information to overcome the physical bounds of traditional paper and physical based systems” to “the use of technology to enhance the access to and delivery of government services to benefit citizens, business partners and employees.” The common theme behind these definitions is that e-government involves the automation or computerization of existing paper-based procedures that will prompt new styles of leadership, new ways of debating and deciding strategies, new ways of transacting business, new ways of listening to citizens and communities, and new ways of organizing and delivering information. Ultimately, e-government aims to enhance access to and delivery of government services to benefit citizens. More importantly, it aims to help strengthen government’s drive toward effective governance and increased transparency to better manage a country’s social and economic resources for development.
Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/E-government/Definition e-Health Involves the electronic enablement of the health and disability support services in order to: empower individuals and their families to manage their own health and participation better; improve the co-ordination and integration of care delivery to individuals; and allow population health initiatives such as a disease mapping to occur in a timely fashion.
e-Inclusion Refers to specific policies to encompass activities related to the achievement of an inclusive information society.
e-Learning Learning that is facilitated by the use of digital tools and content. Typically, it involves some form of interactivity, which may include online interaction between the learner and their teacher or peers. It can also be defined as the delivery of a learning, training or education program by electronic means. E-learning involves the use of a computer or electronic device (e.g. a mobile phone) in some way to provide training, educational or learning material.
Source: Derek Stockley (2003), http://derekstockley.com.au/elearning-definition.html E-learning can also involve a greater variety of equipment than online training or education, for as the name implies, "online" involves using the Internet or an Intranet.
CD-ROM and DVD can be used to provide learning materials.
e-Readiness The “state of play” of a country’s information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure and the ability of its consumers, businesses and governments to use ICT to their benefit. E-readiness is not simply a matter of the number of computers, broadband connections and mobile phones in the country (although these naturally form a core component of the rankings); it also depends on such things as citizens’ ability to utilise technology skillfully, the transparency of the business and legal systems, and the extent to which governments encourage the use of technologies.
Source: “2006 e-readiness rankings” by Economist Intelligence Unit, http://a330.g.akamai.net/7/330/2540/20060424215053/graphics.eiu.com/files/ad_pdfs/2006Erea diness_Ranking_WP.pdf e-Europe Initiative On December 8, 1999, the European Commission launched an initiative entitled "eEurope: An Information Society for All", which proposes ambitious targets to bring the benefits of the Information Society within reach of all Europeans. The initiative focuses on ten priority areas, from education to transport and from healthcare to the disabled.
Official website: http://ec.europa.eu/eeurope/ Experts An expert is someone widely recognized as a reliable source of technique or skill whose faculty for judging or deciding rightly, justly, or wisely is accorded authority and status by their peers or the public in a specific well distinguished domain. An expert, more generally, is a person with extensive knowledge or ability in a particular area of study. Experts are called in for advice on their respective subject, but they do not always agree on the particulars of a field of study. An expert can be, by virtue of training, education, profession, publication or experience, believed to have special knowledge of a subject beyond that of the average person, sufficient that others may officially (and legally) rely upon the individual's opinion.
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