D Development The concept of development is used in a broad range of disciplines, such as biology, natural sciences, philosophy, economics, telecommunications, and social sciences. In this guide, the concept “development” is more related to human development than to economic growth. If economic growth does not always translate into human development, it is essential to conceive public policies that foster a kind of development that take into account the improvement of the people’s standard of living and not only the economic growth of the country.
Diagnostic The Diagnostic, also called Assessment Phase, refers to a diagnostic analysis process based on situational theory. The Hersey-Blanchard situational theory is a situational leadership theory developed by Paul Hersey, and Ken Blanchard. They created a model of situational leadership in the late 1960s that allows for analysis of the needs of the situation, then the adoption of the most appropriate leadership style. It has been proven popular with managers over the years because it is simple to understand, and it works in most environments for most people. This analysis means to identify: the country’s main historical antecedents; the national political definitions the adopted development models;
the progresses in the construction of an Information Society; and the obstacles and limitations found in this process.
Source: Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopaedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/HerseyBlanchard_situational_theory Digital Divide The term "digital divide" was coined in the 1990s to describe the perceived growing gap between those who have access to and the skills to use ICT and those who, for socioeconomic and/or geographical reasons, have limited or no access. There was a particular concern that ICT would exacerbate existing inequalities. A number of areas of specific concern were identified both here and abroad, namely that people could be disadvantaged by their geographic location, age, gender, culture and/or economic status.
Digital Literacy Refers to the ability to use digital technology, communication tools or networks to locate, evaluate, use and create information.
Disruptive Technology This term was coined by Clayton M. Christensen to describe a new, low-cost, often simpler technology that displaces an existing sustaining technology. Disruptive technologies are usually initially inferior to the technology that they displace, but their low cost creates a market that induces technological and economic network effects that provide the incentive to enhance them to match and surpass the previous technology. They create new industries, but eventually change the world. Examples include the internal combustion engine, transistors and the Internet.
Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disruptive_technology E e-LAC eLAC is a regionally concerted strategy that conceives of Information and Communications Technologies (ICTs) as instruments for economic development and social inclusion. It is a strategy with a long-term vision (until 2015) in line with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and those of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS), which is concentrated on short-term action plans with concrete qualitative and quantitative goals to be achieved:
eLAC2007 with 30 goals and 70 activities for the years 2005- eLAC2010 with 83 goals to be achieved during the 2008-2010 period.
The eLAC Action Plans aim to:
1) Act as a "metaplatform" for public-private action in order to coordinate the efforts of various sectors, with an end to generating synergies, avoiding the duplication of efforts, and strengthening regional projects, by means of cooperation and the exchange of best practices at a regional level.
2) Forge national strategies and initiatives in specific areas, establishing lines of action and defining indicators that illustrate the state of progress in the development of the information society.
3) Deepen knowledge on critical issues in order to support the definition, design, implementation and evaluation of policies.
4) Intermediate between the needs of the region's countries and the rhythm of global development, considering regional particularities within the context of the goals of the global community.
Source: eLAC page on ECLAC website http://www.eclac.org/socinfo/elac/default.aspidioma=IN Enabling Environment It refers to the national policies, laws, physical infrastructure (roads, electricity, etc.), and other infrastructure (access to education, access to the Internet, access to banks, etc.) that need to be in place for people to be able to use ICTs to their advantage.
Source: ICT for Rural Livelihoods, http://www.ict4rl.info/Topics/EnablingEnvironment e-Crime Electronic crime covers offences where a computer or other ICT is used as a tool to commit an offence, is the target of an offence or is used as a storage device in an offence.
Source: New Zealand Police: Services: E-Crime Unit, http://www.police.govt.nz/service/ecrime/ e-GIF - E-government Interoperability Framework The e-GIF is a significant tool to enable agencies to work together electronically in a spirit of collaboration. It allows agencies to focus on the business of integrating their services for people without having to decide on competing technology standards. In the e-government context, interoperability relates specifically to the electronic systems that support business processes between agencies and between government and people and business. It does not mean that a central agency will dictate common systems and processes.
Interoperability can be achieved by the application of a framework of policies, standards and guidelines that leave decisions about specific hardware and software solutions open for individual agencies or clusters of agencies to resolve.
Source: E-government Unit, New Zealand, http://www.e-government.govt.nz/docs/e-gif-v2/chapter4.html e-Government Definitions of “e-government” range from “the use of information technology to free movement of information to overcome the physical bounds of traditional paper and physical based systems” to “the use of technology to enhance the access to and delivery of government services to benefit citizens, business partners and employees.” The common theme behind these definitions is that e-government involves the automation or computerization of existing paper-based procedures that will prompt new styles of leadership, new ways of debating and deciding strategies, new ways of transacting business, new ways of listening to citizens and communities, and new ways of organizing and delivering information. Ultimately, e-government aims to enhance access to and delivery of government services to benefit citizens. More importantly, it aims to help strengthen government’s drive toward effective governance and increased transparency to better manage a country’s social and economic resources for development.
Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/E-government/Definition e-Health Involves the electronic enablement of the health and disability support services in order to:
empower individuals and their families to manage their own health and participation better;
improve the co-ordination and integration of care delivery to individuals; and allow population health initiatives such as a disease mapping to occur in a timely fashion.
e-Inclusion Refers to specific policies to encompass activities related to the achievement of an inclusive information society.
e-Learning Learning that is facilitated by the use of digital tools and content. Typically, it involves some form of interactivity, which may include online interaction between the learner and their teacher or peers. It can also be defined as the delivery of a learning, training or education program by electronic means. E-learning involves the use of a computer or electronic device (e.g. a mobile phone) in some way to provide training, educational or learning material.
Source: Derek Stockley (2003), http://derekstockley.com.au/elearning-definition.html E-learning can also involve a greater variety of equipment than online training or education, for as the name implies, "online" involves using the Internet or an Intranet. CDROM and DVD can be used to provide learning materials.
e-Readiness The “state of play” of a country’s information and communications technology (ICT) infrastructure and the ability of its consumers, businesses and governments to use ICT to their benefit. E-readiness is not simply a matter of the number of computers, broadband connections and mobile phones in the country (although these naturally form a core component of the rankings); it also depends on such things as citizens’ ability to utilise technology skillfully, the transparency of the business and legal systems, and the extent to which governments encourage the use of technologies.
Source: “2006 e-readiness rankings” by Economist Intelligence Unit, http://a330.g.akamai.net/7/330/2540/20060424215053/graphics.eiu.com/files/ad_pdfs/2006Ereadin ess_Ranking_WP.pdf e-Europe Initiative On December 8, 1999, the European Commission launched an initiative entitled "eEurope: An Information Society for All", which proposes ambitious targets to bring the benefits of the Information Society within reach of all Europeans. The initiative focuses on ten priority areas, from education to transport and from healthcare to the disabled.
Official website: http://ec.europa.eu/eeurope/ Experts An expert is someone widely recognized as a reliable source of technique or skill whose faculty for judging or deciding rightly, justly, or wisely is accorded authority and status by their peers or the public in a specific well distinguished domain. An expert, more generally, is a person with extensive knowledge or ability in a particular area of study. Experts are called in for advice on their respective subject, but they do not always agree on the particulars of a field of study. An expert can be, by virtue of training, education, profession, publication or experience, believed to have special knowledge of a subject beyond that of the average person, sufficient that others may officially (and legally) rely upon the individual's opinion.
Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Expert EUREKA Launched in 1985, EUREKA has already changed the face of pan-European cooperative research and development. It is a framework through which industry and research institutes from 26 European countries and the European Union develop and exploit the technologies crucial to global competitiveness and a better quality of life.
Official website: http://www3.eureka.be/Home/ Evaluation Encompasses a process of judging value on what an NISP has achieved particularly in relation to activities planned and overall objectives. It involves value judgment and therefore it is different from monitoring (which is observation and reporting of observations). It is important to identify the constraints or bottlenecks that hold back the NISP implementation in achieving its goals. Solutions to the constraints can then be identified and implemented.
F Future Internet Future Internet is a summarizing term for world-wide research activities dedicated to the further development of the original Internet. While the technical development of the Internet has been an extensive research topic from the beginning, an increased public awareness of several critical shortcomings in terms of performance, reliability, scalability, security and many other categories including societal, economical and business aspects, has led to Future Internet research efforts. Given the diversity of technologies related to the Internet, extended by lower and higher layers and applications, the related research topics are wide spread. The time horizon of Future Internet studies is typically considered to be long term, taking several years before significant results can be expected or corresponding deployments take place in the real world.
Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Future_Internet Framework A basic conceptual structure used to solve or address complex issues. This very broad definition has allowed the term to be used as a buzzword, especially in a software context and social sciences.
Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Framework FOSS - Free and Open Source Software Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) includes programmes whose licenses give users the freedom to run, copy, distribute, study, change and improve the software as well as share copies of either the original or the modified software, under the same license agreement. Free, in this context, refers to free use and not necessarily “free of charge”.
Source: Free Software Foundation, http://www.fsf.org/licensing/essays/free-sw.html G GDP Gross Domestic Product is a measure of the size of the economy of a particular territory. It is defined as the total value of all goods and services produced within that territory during a specified period (most commonly, per year).
Source: Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gross_domestic_product Gender and ICTs In many societies, women are the most impoverished and with the least access to resources and with little control over decisions that affect their lives. For this reason, women are on the wrong side of the digital divide, with limited access to and control over ICTs. When considering the factors that contribute to these inequalities it is important to understand the ways in which ICTs are allocated between women and men (the gendered allocation of ICTs), the different opportunities that exist for men and women with respect to education, training and skills development, employment and working conditions, content development and access to power structures and decision-making processes. Beyond questions of access to technology and software, other major concerns may need to be addressed such as the need to break down gender and cultural barriers to women’s access to careers in technology, or absence of women in decision-making structures.
Source: GenderIT.org, http://www.genderit.org/en/beginners/whygender.htm, and APC Glossary, http://www.apc.org/en/glossary/term/Governance Governance refers to all the rules, procedures and practices affecting how powers are exercised, whether at the international or national level or within an organisation or network.
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