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Identification of obstacles The identification of obstacles identifies those factors that can inhibit or slow down the process of building or updating the countrys specific Information Society policy. The most common obstacles are:

1. Historical and cultural (resistance to change) 2. The countries diverse development levels 3. Managerial 4. Political (power struggles or issues) 5. Institutional 6. Infrastructural 7. Geographical 8. Inssuficient adequate human resources Identification of The obstacles identified for each one of the proposed goals accelerating factors to can be removed by the impulse of accelerating or remove the obstacles facilitating factors. Accelerating factors are measures or actions taken at institutional and political level; they imply coordinated operations between the diverse involved actors. Accelerating factors require financial investments, specialized human resources, communicational strategies and training strategies.

Institutional changes The implementation of a relevant public policy, such as an NISP, should be acompanied by the necessary institucional transformations: changes in the legislation, regulation norms, standards, or even new governmental institutions, such as an Information Society Agency.

In some cases, these changes may generate conflicts of interest among the diverse participating actors. The coordinating group should be alert and provide a space for debate for each conflicting issue.

It may be necessary to analyze the NISP best practices in national and International experiences, as well as to examine the institucional and political sustainability capacity, and the necessary agrements between the government and the diverse actors involved in the NISP.

Activity 10 features the diverse scopes of an NISP, intersected by columns which allow ithe dientification of alternatives for each category (strategic lines, obstacles, and acceleratig factors). This input is necessary for subsequent integration into a general strategy. Examples are provided as indicative title. (again, is this necessary or is the table self-explanatory) Activity 10. Balance of obstacles and accelerating factors Balance of obstacles and accelerating factors Basic Scope of the NISP Strategic lines Obstacles Accelerating factors Policies and strategies To formulate and Lack of Sensitization Legislation implement a interest from and information Theres no larger National Policy for the higher among heading in blue here. Information governmental governmental Society. instances. representatives.

Industrial, Economy Policy To formulate and Lack of Stimulate Employment implement a instruments to international ICT Industries national strategy both foster cooperation to strenghten ICT investment tools and offer industries and to and stimulate incentives to make them the R&D&I R&D&I competitive in the human professional global scenario. resources. careers.

Telecommunication Policy To formulate and Lack of Strengthen Connectivity implement instruments to national Infrastructures national strategies regulate regulation to improve private authority or telecommunication activities in create an infrastructures and the ICT. autonomous to build inclusive regulating and balanced entity.

connectivity.

Technology Policy To formulate and Lack of Promote special E-security implement a R&D&I tax benefits and Research and national strategies initiative to funding regions Development to improve e- create a local to R&D&I security. technology initiatives.

To strenghten pole.

research and Low economic Increase development in resources economic the public and granted to resources private sectors. R&D granted to R&D activities. activities.

Promote publicprivate partnerships for R&D activities.

Social Issues and Policies To formulate and Lack of Foster local E-Government implement research and research and Education national strategies development public E-Health for e-inclusion. initiatives on campaigns on Access to Information social issues social inclusion, and Knowledge related to enviromental E-Inclusion and social preservation Diversity inclusion, and diversity Environmental environmental issues.

preservation preservation, and diversity.

Tip 2. Factors to consider during the beginning of the NISP planning When the previous actions are completed, the persons and groups in charge of the NISP may write a preliminary document, a real starting point for the final document.

This document is an important tool for the planning stage.

The NISP formulation implies:

a) To consider that the NISP is an exercise with a long term projection, which will comprise many years and that will probably have to overcome a succession of governments with diverse political tendencies.

b) To consider that its implementation requires the permanent search for consensus among the diverse stakeholders, as well as carrying out participative processes.

c) To accurately define the institutional and managerial framework required for the implementation of the NISP.

d) To define the role of the diverse stakeholders.

e) To choose indicators and guidelines for future NISP monitoring and assessment.

f) To establish procedures to communicate the NISP to the population.

Illustration 12 shows the interrelation between the phases of planning a multisectoial and multistakeholder strategy for the NISP, producing one or several diagnostics featured in a diagnostic report, and finishing with the analysis and its report.

Illustration 11. Analysis report.

Governmental body or Diagnostic civil servants in charge of Diagnostic Report the NISP Experts Processes Team Analysis Analysis Report Intersectorial and multistakeholder strategy Identification and call for actors e. Planning the Implementation Phase A project in public policies is a collaborative enterprise, frequently involving research that is carefully planned to achieve a particular aim. The implementation of a project such as an NISP is related to goals and strategies, but also to dreams, desires, and experiences.

Planning and implementing an NISP means unbinding a process in order to achieve a change. It involves the investment of human, financial, and technological resources in order to achieve a series of goals, withinin a given time, through a list of activities coordinated by a management unit.

The diagnosis and analysis of the obstacles and accelerating factors, within their diverse stages, have allowed for the establishment of general strategies and priorities. This information can be used to structure the different NISP elements.

The objective of the planning process is to define the steps that will have to be executed to put into practice what was until that point just a set of ideas and uncoordinated experiences. The document that results from this process will be the main implementation instrument. It encompases budget allocation, execution, human resources, follow-up, and the evaluation of the project. This document is a relevant internal and external communication tool for the decision making.

Setting goals for future developments A goal or objective is a projected state of affairs that a person or a system plans or intends to achieve: an organizational desired end-point in some sort of assumed development.

Many organizations endeavor to reach goals within a specific time by setting deadlines.

When formulating or updating an NISP, goal-setting involves establishing specific, measurable and time-targeted objectives. It should be ensured that participants have a clear awareness of what they should do to achieve or help achieve an objective.

Establishing goals for future developments depends on the needs identified in the diagnostics, on the demands established by the diverse stakeholders, and on the study of international best practices, which will show goals to attain and that go further than actually satisfying present needs.

In order to establish goals, it is useful to imagine the country or region in Information Society in the short, medium and long run.

Setting policy guidelines, specific objectives, responsible staff for the NISP implementation, budget, and timetables Establishing guidelines A guideline is a statement or other indication of policy or procedure by which to determine a course of action. For each of the NISPs goal, one or more guidelines will determine their direction towards realization. Policies and guidelines describe standards that have stakeholders consensus; achieving this consensus is itself a core policy.

Once the officers in charge of the NISP, together with the experts group, have established the goals to be attained by the NISP, it is time to identify the policy guidelines that will direct the actions for its concretion. In turn, these policy guidelines will be determined by the chosen priority areas of action.

Ulrich, Chacko and Sayo (2004) suggest ten priority areas for ICT policies and estrategies:

1. ICTs within Poverty-Reduction Strategy Programmes and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 2. The Role of Gender in ICT 3. Supportive Government Policies and e-Government 4. Infrastructure, Access and Telecom Development 5. Building Human Capacity and Generating Jobs in a Knowledge-Based Economy 6. Developing Local Content and Managing Knowledge 7. Public-Private Partnerships (PPPs): Mobilizing and Allocating Resources 8. Regulatory Frameworks and Privatization 9. Intellectual Property, Legal Issues and Security 10. Economic Development and Competitiveness in a Globalized Economy These priority areas are merely indicative. Each country, each regional or local government, will choose the areas relevant to them.

Example 19. Pakistan e-strategy Pakistan e-strategy One example of the right way to develop an e-strategy comes from Pakistan, which in 2000 demonstrated the appropriate actions for crafting and then acting upon an estrategy. Pakistan began a nationwide ICT development programme by first reviewing best practices from around the world, adapting what it learned to the local context, introducing supportive policies, and then revising its budget allocation sharply upward to cover the cost of reaching its targets.

Source: Ulrich, Chacko and Sayo, Priority areas and strategic guidelines may evolve from the original NISP when it is updated.

Example 20. Albania ICT strategy Albania ICT strategy Albania published its first strategy document in 2003. It was formally approved but no concrete steps were undertaken by the government. In 2007 the country formulated a new document, and the government worked to implement ICT in critical sectors (Kacani et. Al., 2008). The following government projects with important ICT components were funded with about 64 million EUR mainly from international donors (data based on the draft strategy of 2007):

- Legislation for electronic services in public procurement, electronic certificates, electronic payments, and electronic surveillance.

- Creation of National Agency for Information Society and National Center for Registration of Businesses - Deployment of the site for electronic public procurement - Launch of online services to help tax payment from businesses - Adoption of Automated System for Customs Data (ASYCUDA) in customs.

- New electronic civil status registry - Preparation for smart identity cards and deployment of electronic certificates - Planning of reorganization of address system in urban centers - Remote access to the database of the Ministry of Justice arranged for other high level institutions.

Source: Kacani Jorgaq & Gudar Beqiraj & Neki Frasheri, The priority areas will have to be disaggregated into partial specific objectives. For example, in the second half of 2008 Hungary a comprehensive strategy of informatics (Bodi, 2008) that consisted of four parts::

1. e-Public Administration Strategy 2. Digital Literacy Action Plan 3. e-Economy Action Plan 4. Broadband Action Plan Within the area of the e-Public Administration Strategy, the objective is to set up a general vision for all the participants in the field of e-public administration, a framework to be followed by all projects, and to define the key strategic factors for the implementation of the goals.

Example 21. Hungarys strategic planning in e-Public Administration Hungarys strategic planning Hungary developed four strategic fields for its e-Public Administration strategy :

Modernisation of the public services for the citizens, enterprises and the public administration Introduction of integrated services for governmental institutions, back offices in order to promote a transparent and effective public administration Contribution to the spread of professional e-government knowledge at leadership level and implementation Development of e-government adaptability especially of those enterprises and citizens disadvantaged in the area of IT Source: Bodi, The strategy identifies the main programmes that should be followed by the institutions:

Horizontal programmes: set up guidelines and a framework for the institutional service developments, including the content, process development and technological implementation of those services.

Vertical programmes: EU 20 (EU funding program) services development by sectors.

Integrated, shared services: contribute to eliminate parallel processes, and to further cost-efficient developments and functions.

Linking and integrating the NISP with the Budget When assigning budgets to the goals and activities to be accomplished in the NISP, it is necessary to first have accurate information about how does the government link macro level development policies and priorities to budgetary processes in order to translate into results on the ground for citizens. In developing countries, there is very often a huge disconnect between macro priorities and policies and the actual use of limited resources for implementation and delivery of planned results.

The civil servants in charge of the NISP must also discuss the ways in which the budgeting system can link the use of resources with producing optimal development results though the NISP. It would be useful to connect the NISPs budget allocation to the national budgeting system to improve results.

The persons in charge of the NISP will need to have a diagnostic about the cost of the strategies and activities they will propose. If necessary, these activities may be broken down in different phases.

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