Activity 4. Map of actors according the NISP development area Actors Basic NISP Scope (See Government Private Sector Civil Society Universities, S&T NISP Scope in Module 1) sector Policies and strategies i.g.: (i.g or i.E.) i.g.: Private lawyers’ i.g.: NGOs specialized i.g.: Researchers Legislation Representatives of offices in Information Society specialized in the Ministry of ICT enterprises’ Legal policies, strategies, Information Society Justice Departments and legislation policies, strategies, and legislation Industrial, Economy i.g.: Representatives i.g.: Representatives of i.g.: NGOs specialized i.g.: Researchers Policy of the Ministry of ICT Chambers and in Information Society specialized in Employment Economy, Industry, industries economy and market Information Society ICT Industries other public economy and institutions relating to market Public Management, Labour, etc.
Telecommunications i.g.: i.g.: Representatives of i.g.: NGOs specialized i.g.: Researchers Policy Representatives of ICT chambers and in telecommunications’ specialized in Connectivity Communication industries, mainly impacts in society telecommunications Infrastructures Ministry, Secretary telecommunications and other public institutions, such as regulating entities, etc.
Technology Policy i.g.: i.g.: Representatives of i.g.: NGOs specialized i.g.: Researchers E-security Representatives of S&T&I Chambers and in S&T&I specialized in S&T&I Research and the Ministry of main companies Development Economy, Industry, (private initiatives an IT Science and clusters and S&T Technology and parks) other public institutions relating to R&D&I.
Social Issues and i.g.: i.g.: Representatives of i.g.: NGOs specialized i.g.: Researchers policies Representatives of public and private in social inclusion, specialized in social E-Government the Education and schools, research health, enviromental inclusion, health, Education Health Ministries, institutes, hospitals, preservation and enviromental E-Health Environment and health centers. diversity, women, preservation, Access to Information Ministry, Secretariats children, ageing gender, and and Knowledge and other public people, etc. diversity E-Inclusion and Diversity institutions related to Environmental social inclusion, preservation enviromental preservation and diversity.
c. Diagnostic In this phase, it is necessary to collect the data that will be analyzed and processed into useful information for the decision making. Illustration 9 shows the processes leading to the formulation of a diagnostic.
Illustration 8. Diagnosis Process.
Antecedents Contextual and a) Related public policies sectoral Diagnostic b) Country’s development information model c) Historical trends related to Information Society a) Selecting national, regional, international information sources b) Selecting indicators c) Statistics and qualitative and quantitative analysis d) Definiing possible scenarios The analysis attempts to identify the country’s main historical trends and progress regarding the construction of Information Society. This data is useful to the governmental officers in charge in order to identify the countrys needs, demands, capacities, actors, resources, among others issues.
It becomes relevant to establish which kind of data on Information Society, national ereadiness, sectoral progresses (e-education, e-health, e-government, IT industries, etc.) should be used, which are the relevant international, regional, and national information sources, the information processing sources and methods, as well as which are the sets of indicators to be utilized in the diagnostic. In order to use this data to draft an inclusive and equitable model of Information Society, the information should be carefully analyzed. To formulate this diagnostic, it is vital to identify and interrelate public policies and strategies associated totally or partially to Information Society.
Each involved actor may generate its own information sources (specific studies, research, etc.), and provide qualitative and quantitative efforts in this phase of the NISP. The construction of a common information repository, as well as the common definition of indicators and indexed to be used during the whole process of the elaboration of the NISP will be extremely useful.
Tools for the Diagnostic In order to collect data on the country’s e-readiness and on the trends regarding building the Information Society, the following strategies may be used (Activity 5):
Activity 5. Tools for the diagnostic Progress in e-readiness (computers park, Possible sources and tools:
penetration of the Internet, broadband, National censuses WiFi, etc. Public access Internet Reports and studies of the Chambers of equipments (cybercafes, community IT industries technological centres, among others) Expertsresearch and studies For collecting the historical trends data, it is possible to use the following strategies (Activity 6):
Activity 6. Historical Trends Survey In order to plan telecommunications Possible sources and tools:
infrastructure and telecommunications Interviews with key informants policies, it is necessary to collect data on Documental survey the historical trends of the Information Legal and legislative documents (laws, Society at national and local level.
decrees, etc.) Reports and studies of the Chambers of IT industries Expertsresearch and studies For collecting data about the social and economic situation, it is possible to use the following strategies (Activity 7):
Activity 7. Social and economic situation survey In order to plan telecommunications Possible sources and tools:
infrastructure and telecommunications Official and private statistical and policies and legislation, it is necessary to information institutions understand the countrys social and Reports by research centres, economic situation (territory, population, universities, etc.
living conditions, employment, education and Census science, public health, public security, Interviews with key informants financial system, ethnic composition, gender Text review relations, social hierarchies based on caste, religion, ethnic belonging, language, among ithers For collecting data related to geography and environment, it is possible to use the following strategies (Activity 8):
Activity 8. Geographic survey It is necessary to know the physical and Possible tools:
geographic context of the country and the Official and private statistical and regions in which the NISP strategies will information institutions have impact: topography, population density Research centres, universities, etc.
and distribution, built environment, Census infrastructures, productive areas, markets, etc.
Activity 9 shows how to use the SWOT Analysis as an alternative to process the collected information. SWOT Analysis is a simple but effective. It is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favourable or unfavourable to achieving that objective.
Activity 9. SWOT Method The SWOT method is a good instrument to work with in small groups. It tends to overvalue the perceptions of the participants, which is why it should be be complemented with other analyses and sources. It is commonly used in workshops, since the collective form is ideal for obtaining better results.
SWOT presents the following steps:
1. To determine the subjects to be analyzed. Take the time for a brainstorming on the themes that you need to analyze. The result will be an agenda of discussion subjects, and it can be organized according to the following sections:
2. To identify the strengths, opportunities, weaknesses, and threats working in groups.
The workshop moderator can explain the SWOT method insisting on the separation of the internal dimensions (weaknesses and strengths) and external (threats and opportunities).
Later, the participants are divided into small groups to facilitate the participation. Each group identifies the strengths, opportunities, weaknesses, and threats for each identified subject; they write down each category in color cards that have previously been distributed: red for the threats, blue for the opportunities, green for the strengths and yellow for the weaknesses. Depending on the time and the number of subjects, each group can approach the whole agenda or merely a part of it.
3. To present the results and discuss them. The moderator of each group sets out the results, placing the cards on a char located on the wall that has the different axes of the analysis already outlined. Once all groups have presented their findings topics presented on the first step will be discussed.
4. To systematize the discussion results. The content of cards and the discussion contributions and corrections should be transcribed in a document.
The result of the diagnotic process is a document or a series of documents that will provide the input for the analysis process, as well as serve as the conceptual support to justify the transformations needed to buld a public policy for Information Society. Illustration shows the dynamic process leading to the diagnostic report.
Illustration 9. Diagnostic processes & Diagnostic report Governmental body or Diagnostic civil servants in charge of Diagnostic Report the NISP Experts Processes Team Intersectorial and multistakeholder strategy Identification and call for actors Example 19. Information Society planification in Poland Information Society planification in Poland The Strategy for the Development of the Information Society in Poland until 2013, prepared by the Government of Poland, is consistent with the Information Society documents that delineate the strategic development directions for Poland:
o National Development Strategy 2007-2015 (http://bip.mrr.gov.pl);
o National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013 (http://bip.mrr.gov.pl);
o Strategic Governance Plan (http://www.premier.gov.pl).
The Strategy takes into account the priorities of the European information society policy that result from the assumptions of the Lisbon Strategy and the initiatives: “eEurope – Information Society for all” and its continuation “i2010 – A European Information Society for growth and employment” (http://www.ukie.gov.pl).
This Strategy is sectoral and, as such, defines the vision and mission for the development of the Information Society in Poland until 2013. Within each of its three areas – human, economy and state – it maps out strategic directions and determines the objectives that should be accomplished in order to achieve the desired development status for the information society in Poland in 2013.
The pace of development of Poland’s Information Society depends on various factors that result from current conditions and ongoing changes in Poland and in other EU member states. In order to achieve a diagnostic, these factors are discussed below, using the SWOT analysis structure.
Source: MRR, d. Analysis of obstacles and accelerating factors Illustration 10. Analytical balance Governmental body or Diagnostic civil servants in charge of Diagnostic Report the NISP Experts Processes Team Analysis Intersectorial and multistakeholder strategy Identification and call for actors The process of analisis of obstacles and accelerator processes (accelerator proceses are proceedings and actions that remove the identified obstacles) is an intermediate step between the diagnosis and the implementation phase. In this phase, the civil servants or bodies in charge of the NISP, together with the expert team, will have to answer the most relevant questions regarding the ideal Information Society model they wish to achieve.
The outcome of this phase is a first draft or description of the Information Society model, which also includes a declaration of interest, and list of expectation, of the involved actors,.
Based on the diagnostics, and on the exchange of opinions and information with sectoral national and international actors, the persons and groups in charge of the NISP may advance to:
Anlysis of alternatives and strategies.
Priorities to consider, relating them to the nacional political, social, technologic and economic strategies.
The general and sectoral goals of the NISP construction process.
The possible obstacles to be faced.
The accelerating factors that may remove these obstacles.
The necessary institucional transformations needed to implement the NISP (legislation, standards, the possible creation of a National Agency for Information Society, among others).
Table 7: Summarizes the tasks needed to complete the diagnostic phase.
Table 7. Elements for Analysis Tasks Description Analysis of alternatives The information collected in the Diagnostic phase (eand definition of the readiness, Information Society trends, et.) can be overall processstrategies confronted to the NISPs expected goals. It is probable that the diagnostic will show that not all the desired goals can be achieved. It is an opportunity to weigh the diverse options to formulate a NISP or to update it.
Sometimes it becomes necessary to take strategic decisions on which goals will be privileged.
Therefore, the analysis of alternatives and the choice of the action strategies is the first part of the bridge between diagnostic and planning.
Definition of priorities, The analysis of priorities defines which goals are included general and sectoral goals in the NISP and which are left aside, at least for the moment. The criteria for defining priorities are variable, depending on the development of the country, and on its own political, social and economic context.
General and sectoral goals have to be defined. It is useful to debate the feasibility of these goals.
It is fundamental to analyse the financial needs to achieve the NISPs implementation, the possible budget allocation, and the human resources that will be needed, both at the beginning of the NISPs implementation and thoughout its development. This can develop into in a strategy to train adequate human resources to carry out the NISP.
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