While carrying out research and development at the expense of budget funds, the parties do not always conclude agreements on implementation of concrete work, as the current procedures of financing in entities of the Russian Academy of Science, MIS, the Ministry of Education do not provide a mandatory use of contractual relations and consequently a strict identification of a federal agency acting as the customer. That is why the problem of having an exclusive right for the respective outputs cannot always find the legal solution. However, even in the event the state customer’s right for the output have been stipulated in a contract, the federal Patent Law does not provide a possibility for federal executive bodies to act as patent holders. Consequently, the government has no system of financial control at the book-keeping level and no base for a commercial turnover of intellectual property objects, while the efficacy of public investment in their development practically cannot be measured.
In the event intellectual property rights belong to their developers, there also arise a number of problems related to their introduction to economic turnover. This concerns primarily such aspects as putting intellectual property objects on balance sheet as non-material assets, an adequate valuation of their value, and regulation of depreciation strategies. Besides, despite rather a broad exposure to foreign experiences in this area, so far R&D projects have not provided an introduction of research outputs created in the state R&D organizations and universities to the industrial sector. At this point, it appears expedient to borrow experiences from the US and other developed nations. In 1980, the US Congress passed the Bayh-Dole Act, which allowed universities to assign to the industrial sector their research outputs created at the government expense. That resulted shortly in a boost in the level of commercialization of high-tech developments. Later, the same mechanism was promoted by the most of the developed nations. This gap in the Russian law is planned to be liquidated as early as in 2002.
Yet another key problem which came in the focus of attention is the conjunction between various benefits with implementation of priorities in the area of research and technology. In other words, it is envisaged to make both direct and indirect support of innovation activity strictly selective, so that it would encourage structural transformations both in the research and innovation areas of the industrial sector. Specifically, loans from special public funds - the Fund for support of small businesses in the research and technical area and RFTD,- as well as from extrabudgetary funds for research and experimental development, should be granted in conjunction with implementation of crucial innovation projects of national scale. At the same time, since early 2002, upon enforcement of the new Tax Code, the former system of establishment of intersectoral funds was abolished. In compliance with new provisions, such funds cud be formed only from net profit which substantially mitigated incentives to their creation. That could seriously affect the research an innovation area, as the share of extrabudgetary funds in the overall expenditures on science accounts for 13%, while the financing out of extrabudgetary funds roughly makes up one-third of all off-budget resources allocated for this particular area. In addition, the absence of the former system of inter-sectoral funds would make every enterprise to deal with its technological problems by itself, while many of such problems require intersectoral approaches. That is why a proposal on having the part of profit assigned to inter-sectoral funds for research and experimental developments exempted from taxation. Eventually the respective provision was amended and the discrepancy between the research and technological policy and economic one was eliminated. In compliance with the federal law (# 57-FZ) enacted on May 29, 2002, “On introducing amendments to Section II of the Tax Code of RF and single statutes of RF”, a taxpayer’s expenditure on research and (or) experimental and designing developments exercised in the form of deductions into sectoral and inter-sectoral funds for research and experimental and designing developments now are considered for the purpose of taxation to be within the limits of 0.5% of the taxpayer’s revenues (gross gain) (p.3 Art. 262 of the Tax Code). The amount of deductions in the noted funds over the said limits are expenses not accounted for the taxation purposes (p.45 Art. 270 of the Tax Code).
As a first step, in May the government announced holding of a new tender on implementation of innovation projects on the high priority problems. Each winner (it is envisaged there will be around of them) will be awarded with USD 20 mln. for the 2-year term. It is research, scientific and production centers, and small and medium-size businesses that should form the group pretending for such a support. Such an amount of funding should appear fairly significant for the research and innovation area. For reference: the average amount of the support extended by the noted Fund for support of small businesses accounts for USD 25-30 per entity annually, while the annual value of a project sponsored by RFTD averaged some USD 135,0008.
It is envisaged that USD 200 bln. out of the government funds would ensure USD 1 bln. worth return in 2-3 years. Thus, both domestic and foreign investors will see the efficiency of investing into the Russian science-intensive segment of the economy. So, should the tender be recognized open and successful, this would create an important positive precedent.
I. Dezhina The IET industrial business survey: July The dynamics of main indicators of the Russian industrial sector in July gives some grounds for optimism. A visible rise in effective demand allowed enterprises to reduce volumes of non-monetary deals, increase output and slow down the fall in their profits. However, insufficient volumes of sales still affect the output, contribute to the increase in the stock of finished goods and deterioration of the enterprises’ financial and economic situation.
In July, for he first time since early 2002 enterprises have reported a notable rise in effective demand, while over the past 7 months they mostly reported the decline in their cash-based sales, and such a situation was noted in all the sectors but the industry of construction materials. In the meantime, it is the food industry and electricity that still report such a decline.
A long-lasting decline in effective demand forced enterprises to use transactions involving promissory notes and off-sets. In June, for the first time ever since the start of monitoring of this specific indicator in February 2000, our surveys have registered an absolute rise in the actual sales of products for promissory notes and off-sets, and it was in June when the intensity of these specific kinds of sales exceeded all other kinds of demand, including the normal cash one. notably, the dynamics of barter did not experience any serious changes: since April, the intensity of its decline has stabilized at one of the most lowest values since mid-1999. So, to compensate for the fall in cashbased sales, in early summer enterprises had to opt for a rise in promissory note and off-set deals and the most moderate reduction in barter. The growth in sales in July allowed to stop the increase in promissory note and off-set deals along with the maintenance of the former intensity of reduction in barter.
However, the estimates of volumes of non-monetary sales using the scale “above-below norm” still reflect enterprise’ readiness to employ such schemes. The insufficiency (rather a high one!) of barter volumes is noted in the national industrial sector for the second quarter running, with just the sector for chemicals and petrochemicals that reckon that barter is excessive. The same situation is noted with regard to promissory notes and off-sets, with enterprises being not satisfied with their volumes, either.
In July the proportion of such estimates reached 14% - ore than ever. Again, it is only the sector for chemicals and petrochemicals that reports the excess of such deals.
As a result, similar to the period between 1997-98, effective demand proved to form an obstacle to rise in output. During the past 3 quarters the frequency of references to this specific obstacle rose by 24 points and became the highest ever (see Fig.). Recently the impeding impact of such factors as nonpayments and competition on the part of imports has been growing too (by 9 points over the past and 5 points over the past 2 quarters, respectively).
Calculated on the data on 2001. Sources: the Fund for support of small businesses in the research and technical area. Otchet of deyatelnosti za 2001 god. M., 2002, pp. 27-29, 49; Rossiysky Fond Technologicheskogo Razvitia. Otchet za 2001 god. M., 2002, p.2.
Nonetheless, enterprises begin to boost their output. In July, Th. intensity of the rise in output grew by another 10 balance points and peaked the maximum value over the past 8 months. It is only the sector for electricity (due to seasonality), the non-ferrous metallurgy, forestry and wood-working sectors that report production decline; plus, though may be even early, they are joined by the industry of construction materials.
The law demand and the beginning of rise in output have had n immediate impact on the stock of finished goods. An absolute (though small) rise in the respective volumes has been registered across the industrial sector as a whole for the second quarter running. This can be attributed primarily to the machine-engineering, light and food sectors. As a result, the respective balance of estimates grew by 15 points, and it was quite a time ago when there were so many enterprises with excessive stocks of finished goods. It is the sectors for chemicals, petrochemicals, ferrous metallurgy and light industry that are leaders in this respect.
The rise in cash-based sales allowed enterprises to slow down the rates of decline in actual profit. In July, the respective balance grew by another 4 points and made up -25. The negative value of the balance shows the ongoing fall in profits, however in July the respective decline rates proved to be the lowest ones over 2002. The first positive changes have not yet told on enterprises financial and economic state: the share of responses “bad” grew up to 36%, which is the worst rate over the past quarters.
Forecasts of changes in effective demand improved once again and peaked the maximum value for the past 11 months. A rise in cash-based sales over the upcoming 3 months is envisaged by all the sectors, except the industry of construction materials (due to seasonality), with the light industry and the ferrous metallurgy being most optimistic in this regard. However, enterprises do not risk to count on effective demand only - to maintain their output without further increase in their stock, they have to rely on (to plan) non-monetary deals, too. The prevalence of the plans to increase barter in absolute terms is noted in all the sectors, except chemicals, petrochemicals, and machine engineering. At the same time it is the sectors for electricity, forestry and construction that hope for a decline in promissory note and off-set deals.
The use of all the options for selling products creates grounds for a rise in optimism with respect to plans of output. In July, the balance of forecasts grew by 14 points at once and reached the maximum value noted over the past 1.5 years. The rise in output (and quite an intense one) in autumn is planned by all the sectors, but the construction industry. However, as such, these plans would not require new employment - moreover, the number of employees is most likely to decline over the forthcoming months. It was the last quarter when such plans were noted for the first time over the post-default period. Meanwhile, the rise in employment is envisaged only by the forestry and food sector.
Consequently, enterprise look forward to a visible improvement of their financial and economic state, with the respective balance of estimates rising over 5 points and reaching its absolute maximum over the last quarter. There has been no optimistic forecast registered since 1995. Such an improvement may become possible in all the sector, except the construction industry, chemicals and petrochemicals.
S. Tsoukhlo The state and prospects for providing Russian military with housingThe problem of providing the national military with housing has remained steadily urgent. In the meantime, it has remained unresolved for over 100,000 military. However, the RF government’s intents to tackle the problem currently emerge into the respective plans and actions, and the national construction sector should pay a serious attention to them.
The problem of providing the national military with housing finds itself among the most complex in terms of its organizational characteristics and intense (in terms of bot financial and material and technical resources) aspects of the overall military reform. Furthermore, it requires capital investment in a range of sectors of the economy.
This direction of economic activity so far has been left beyond the framework of normal financial and economic mechanism of the modern Russia. The provision of military and persons equaled to This publication is co-sponsored by the Russian Humanitarian Research Foundation (project # 02-02-00062) them with housing still remains mostly a distribution procedure that has survived over the Soviet time and does not encourage development of construction and housing businesses and services.
Theoretically, the problems should be solved as follows: as long as a person is on service, he (she) is eligible for using an apartment provided by the army. Once retired from the army, he is eligible to choose his residence and receive an apartment to live there constantly.
However, the practice is too far from the legal theory: the average term for receiving an apartment during the military service accounts for 6.5 years. According to the data of the monitoring of social and economic state of the military corps, on service and retired alike, as well as their families, currently he situation is as follows:
• 95,000 military have no apartment;
• 27,000 - needs to have their housing conditions improved;
• 160,000 retired military are lining up to receive an apartment.
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