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In the first 3 months of 2003, the amount of outstanding creditor indebtedness declined by 6.3 per cent (Rub. 90.5 billion). In the respective period of 2002, the outstanding creditor indebtedness decreased by 2.per cent, while the total decline in outstanding creditor indebtedness in 2002 made 8.2 per cent. Taking into account small amounts of debts written off to financial results (see Table 1), the decline in payment arrears is related to the restructuring and direct repayment of debts.

Table 1.

Amounts of outstanding indebtedness of economic agents written off to financial results.

Кредиторская задолженность, списанная на Дебиторская задолженность, списанная на прибыль убыток в % к в % к Пе г опро в о м г о д о в о му диростуу прирост ри в % к в % к у просроченн просроченн од всег о, просроченн всего, млн. просроченной ой ой к редит орск дебит орс к й руб. дебит орс к руб. кредиторской ой зой з а д о л же н н о с адолженнос ой з адолженнос задолженности т и(вк люча т и(вк люча т и я я списанну списанну ю) ю) 1997 874 0,1% 0,4% 1 921 0,4% 1,5% 1998 2 777 0,2% 0,7% 7 990 1,0% 3,2% 1999 5 597 0,4% 4,3% 12 420 1,5% 19,1% 2000 6 598 0,4% 3,0% 21 955 2,4% 17,8% 2001 10 185 0,7% -774,5% 25 783 2,6% 22,1% 2002 12 861 0,9% -11,2% 24 000 2,6% -33,1% 2/2003* 1 120 0,1% -1,2% 2 210 0,3% -3,0% * - according to the results of the first two months of Source: RF Goskomstat, calculations of the authors.

Задолженность, млрд. руб.

Просроченная задолженность, млрд. руб.

сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.мар.мар.мар.мар.мар.мар.мар.мар.мар.мар.Figure 3. Dynamics of the share of outstanding creditor indebtedness in the total creditor indebtedness.

Доля просроченной кредиторской задолженности (4 отрасли) Доля просроченной кредиторской задолженности (все отрасли) 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Share of outstanding creditor indebtedness (for four sectors) Share of outstanding creditor indebtedness (all sectors) Sep. 93 Mar. 94 Sep. 94 Mar. 95 Sep. 95 Mar. 96 Sep. 96 Mar. 97 Sep. 97 Mar. 98 Sep. 98 Mar. 99 Sep. 99 Mar. 00 Sep. 00 Mar. Sep. 01 Mar. 02 Sep. 02 Mar. Source: RF Goskomstat, calculations of the authors.

The transition to cash types of payments presupposes an increase in transactional demand for cash balances. It seems that this circumstance is a factor behind a stable growth in money supply over the last few years. Since 2001, the amount of money supply has reached its highs registered over the period starting in 1993 (see Figure 4). Another factor behind this development was expansion of bank crediting of the real sector, what contributed in substitution of the commercial crediting and contraction of payment arrears.

Figure 4. Dynamics of increment in outstanding indebtedness and money supply (M2).

Приросты просроченной кредиторской задолженности 4-х отраслей (дефлированные) Денежная масса М2 (в реальном выражении) 200 --100 Increments in outstanding creditor indebtedness for 4 sectors (deflated) Money supply M2 (in real terms) Indebtedness, Rub. billion (in prices as of January 1, 2000) M2, Rub. billion (in prices as of January 1, 2000) Source: RF Goskomstat, CB of RF, calculations of the authors.

сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.янв.янв.янв.янв.янв.янв.янв.янв.янв.янв.май.май.май.май.май.май.май.май.май.января 2000 г.) (в ценах 1 января 2000 г.) Денежная масса М2, млрд. руб.

Задолженность, млрд. руб. (в ценах сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.мар.мар.мар.мар.мар.мар.мар.мар.мар.мар.As concerns the sectoral structure, debts of industry stable make the major share of the total and outstanding indebtedness. At the same time, while the share of the industrial sector makes about 42.5 per cent in the total amount of creditor indebtedness, it makes 48.7 per cent in the total outstanding indebtedness (the figures as in February of 2003). It shall be noted that the share of industry has somewhat increased in comparison with the figures registered in October of 2002. Similarly, housing and public utilities, agriculture, and transport (since January of 2002) have accounted for a larger share in the outstanding creditor indebtedness than in the total amount of indebtedness. This ratio indicates that repayment of commercial credits in these sectors is more often delayed as compared with other sectors. For instance, outstanding debts make 65 per cent in creditor indebtedness of agriculture and 55 per cent of indebtedness of housing and public utilities. On the average, this indicator makes 28 per cent in Russia.

Figure 5. Structure of creditor indebtedness across base sectors of the economy by the end of February, 2003.

Прочие виды деятельности 100% Жилищнокоммунальное хозяйство Торговля и общ.

80% Питание Связь 60% Транспорт 40% Сельское хозяйство 20% Строительство 0% Промышленность Кредиторская в т.ч. просроченная задолженность, ВСЕГО Creditor indebtedness, total Including outstanding creditor indebtedness Other types of activities Housing and public utilities Trade and public catering Communications Transport Agriculture Construction Industry Source: RF Goskomstat, calculations of the authors.

Among industries, the leaders in terms of their share of outstanding indebtedness in the aggregate creditor indebtedness are coal industry (68 per cent, see Table 2), power engineering (46 per cent), light industry (per cent), and microbiological industry (69 per cent). However, while the amounts of indebtedness of two latter industries are relatively small, debts of power engineering and branches of fuel industry total to about one third of the total indebtedness in the economy on the whole. The largest consumer of commercial credits in absolute terms are branches of mechanical engineering and metal working, as well as fuel industry. It shall be noted that an increase in the amount of outstanding debts of natural gas industry was observed in November of 2000 through February of 2003.

Table 2.

Structure of creditor indebtedness across industries as in end of February of 2003.

Share of outstanding Share of Share of Creditor indebtedness indebtedness in the total creditor outstanding indebtedness, % indebtedness creditor of the industry indebtedness of Includin in the Industries the industry in Memora g aggregate the aggregate Total, Februar n-dum, outstanding indebtedness indebtedness of Rub. billion y of 2003 January of debts, Rub. of the industry the industry on billion on the whole, the whole, % % Industry, total 2015,40 653,30 32,42% 32,80% 100,00% 100,00% Including, power engineering 243,80 113,90 46,72% 45,20% 12,10% 17,43% Fuel industry 514,10 124,90 24,29% 26.1% 25,51% 19,12% Including Oil extracting industry 186,30 11,10 5,96% 6.8% 9,24% 1,70% Oil processing industry 80,60 9,80 12,16% 19.6% 4,00% 1,50% Natural gas (extraction and processing or natural and casing head gas) 159,40 43,70 27,42% 25.2% 7,91% 6,69% Coal industry 86,20 59,20 68,68% 71.6% 4,28% 9,06% Ferrous metallurgy 114,60 35,90 31,33% 32.2% 5,69% 5,50% Non-ferrous metallurgy 127,90 41,50 32,45% 33.9% 6,35% 6,35% Chemistry and petrochemistry (without chemical pharmaceutical industry) 107,90 41,60 38,55% 40.2% 5,35% 6,37% Mechanical engineering and metal working 551,40 176,00 31,92% 32.5% 27,36% 26,94% Forestry, woodworking, and pulp and paper industry 54,50 22,60 41,47% 41.9% 2,70% 3,46% Industry of construction materials 53,90 24,30 45,08% 46.7% 2,67% 3,72% Glass, porcelain, and faience industry 6,70 2,30 34,33% 36.4% 0,33% 0,35% Light industry 33,00 15,90 48,18% 50.0% 1,64% 2,43% Food industry 154,10 28,30 18,36% 17.9% 7,65% 4,33% Including fish industry 25,50 7,00 27,45% 26.1% 1,27% 1,07% Microbiological industry 3,90 2,70 69,23% 66.7% 0,19% 0,41% Flour, grits, and combined fodder industries 11,90 3,50 29,41% 30.8% 0,59% 0,54% Medical industry 8,90 2,10 23,60% 25.9% 0,44% 0,32% Printing industry 5,00 0,20 4,00% 4.1% 0,25% 0,03% Source: RF Goskomstat, calculations of the authors.

Energy monopolies played a significant role in the decrease in payment arrears as they significantly diminished the use of all types of non-cash payments for shipped and purchased products. Even a greater decrease in barter operations in favor of offsets may be singled out among major changes in the structure of payments for shipped products of monopolistic enterprises5. The share of cash payments made by these enterprises has stabilized at about the level of 85 per cent (see Figure 6).

According to RF Government Resolution No. 10 of January 6, 1998, the RF Goskomstat conducts statistical monitoring of payments of largest Russia’s taxpayers: “UES of Russia,” “Gazprom,” “Aeroflot – Russian international airlines,” organizations of the federal railroad transport, and industrial monopolistic organizations.

Figure 6. Monopolistic enterprises: the structure of payments for shipped products.

100% денежными 90% средствами 80% векселями 70% 60% 50% по прямому товарообмену 40% (бартером) 30% взаимным зачетом требований 20% 10% прочими видами 0% расчетов Cash payments Promissory notes Direct exchange of goods (barter) Offsets Other types of payments Source: RF Goskomstat, calculations of the authors.

At the same time, certain new trends are alarming. First of all, these concerns are related to the factors of growth in outstanding indebtedness6. For instance, since 2002 there has been observed a stable increase in the share of loss making enterprises in the economy (see Fig. 7). The share of loss making enterprises in the economy in February of 2003 increased by 4 per cent to 4.5 per cent across the sectors of economy in comparison with the figures registered in the preceding year. In February of 2003, the share of loss making enterprises in industry made 40.4 per cent (as compared with 36.3 per cent registered in February of 2002), while in construction this indicator made 42.1 per cent (37.9 per cent in February of 2002), and in transport – 57.3 per cent (52.8 % in February of 2002).

According to calculations7, ineffectiveness, financial insolvency of enterprises was a key factor behind the generation of payment arrears in the economy, which indicated the existence of a “channel of financing of bad firms.” This relationship was most characteristic for the period prior to 1998. After the crisis, the share of ineffective enterprises constantly decreased, and the statistical significance of this factor diminished.

Although no increase in payment arrears has been registered, this danger still exists.

According to the results of econometric studies, the growth in payment arrears is, in particular, related to ineffectiveness of domestic producers, shrinking of bank crediting, etc. See, for instance, R. Entov, A. Radygin, V.

Mau, S. Sinelnikov-Murylev et al. “Razvitiye rossiyskogo finansovogo rynka i novye instrumenty privlecheniya investitsiy (Development of the Russian financial market and new instruments attracting investment),” IET, 1998, pp.

96 – 149; O. Lugovoi, D. Semenov “Neplatezhi v Rossiyskoi Federatsii (Payment arrears in the Russian Federation),” IET – USAID, 2000; R.Entov, L.Lederman, O.Lugovoi, A.Zolotareva ‘Payment arrears in the Russian Economy and Regions’, CEPRA, 2001.

Ibidem.

сен.сен.сен.ноя.ноя.ноя.янв.янв.янв.янв.мар.мар.мар.мар.май.май.май.июл.июл.июл.Figure 7. Changes in the share of loss making enterprises across industries (seasonal differences to respective periods of the preceding year).

Промышленность Транспорт Строительство ---Industry Transport Construction Outstanding wage and salary indebtedness has remained stable since 2000 at about Rub. 30 billion to Rub.

40 billion (in current prices, see Figure 8). The annual growth in this indicator in terms of current prices (figures registered in April of 2003 to figures registered in April of 2002) made 0 per cent.

Figure 8. Dynamics of outstanding indebtedness of organizations relating to wages and salariesRub. billion Source: RF Goskomstat, calculations of the authors.

Outstanding indebtedness of enterprises and organizations pertaining to industry, construction, agriculture, transport, education, health care, culture and arts, science and science servicing, housing and public utilities, and, since August of 1998, organizations of social security system, state power of the RF subjects, local governments, and public safety militia. The data are presented as registered at the end of respective months.

сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.янв.янв.янв.янв.янв.янв.янв.янв.янв.май.май.май.май.май.май.май.май.млрд. руб.

дек.дек.дек.дек.дек.дек.дек.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.сен.мар.мар.мар.мар.мар.мар.мар.июн.июн.июн.июн.июн.июн.It seems that the factors, which prevented a surge in payment arrears in spite of a growth in the number of loss making enterprises and real Ruble appreciation9, include, first, normalization of state finances, expansion of bank crediting, positive shifts in the area of contract law, in particular, bankruptcy laws, and the reverse effect of the multiplier10 in the course of the payment arrears settlement.

O. Lugovoi The Real Sector: Factors and Trends In the first three months of 2003, the output of base sectors of the economy increased by 7.2 per cent. The growth in production resulted from the stimulating influence of external and domestic demand. The high level of business activity was observed across practically all sectors of the economy: the amount of industrial output grew by 6.7 per cent, the retail trade turnover increased by 8.9 per cent, investment in fixed assets grew by 11.8 per cent.

The growth in real household incomes and the changes in the structure of their utilization are additional characteristics of economic recovery. In January through May of 2003, the real disposable cash household incomes increased by 14.3 per cent, real wages and salaries – by 9.4 per cent as compared with the figures registered in the respective period of the preceding year. The lower rates of growth in retail trade turnover as compared with the rates of increase in real household incomes are determined by the intensifying trend towards higher rates of savings.

As concerns the final demand sectors, the changes in proportions is accompanied by the growing share of investment sectors. However, in spite of a more rapid rates of increase in investment, the gap between the gross savings and accumulation makes about 10 per cent of GDP.

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